What is Emergent Literacy? Child already has some knowledge of language, reading and writing Communication skills (influences the other) Begins early (at birth) ongoing Sociolinguistic Social context for learning Embedded Instruction based on needs Books early! Child centered and based on problem solving (Morrow, 2009, Ch. 1)
Reading Readiness (1900s-1950s) Waiting until there is interest or readiness Natural maturation Formal instruction school Pre K and K in the past had avoided reading instruction (passive) Behaviorist Teacher driven Decoding primary skills (Morrow, 2009), (Mason & Sinha, 2003) What are some pros and cons that you see in this Reading Readiness theory?
Before all this The Historical Perspective 1700s and 1800s Philosophers of Education Rousseau natural, development and readiness, curiosity Pestalozzi learning through manipulatives Froebel play in learning, kindergarten What was reading like? An oral tradition ABCs taught through gingerbread Books with pilgrims in new schools, religious books Instruction: memorizing (Morrow, 2009, p. 16-22) (Ward, 2011)
Before all this The Historical Perspective Twentieth Century Philosophers of Education Dewey progressive education, interest based Skinner Behaviorism, systematic, direct, structure Montessori mastering one skill, then another Piaget cognitive development Vygotsky schema and scaffolding What was reading like? Basal Readers: 1930s-1980s IRI done by Betts: 1949 Look-Say Reading ex. Dick and Jane Reading Wars: Whole Language vs. Skills Instruction Controlled vocabulary? Whole language trade books Balanced Literacy (Morrow, 2009, p. 16-22) (Ward, 2011)
Theories Constructivist : Construct meaning as you get you info. Holistic and exploratory dirty learning *Dewey, Bruner, Piaget, Vygotsky* Constructivist : Construct meaning as you get you info. Holistic and exploratory dirty learning *Dewey, Bruner, Piaget, Vygotsky* Behaviorist : Training, memorization, rote learning Positive/Negative Reinforcement Systematic, teacher directed, lecture clean learning *Skinner* Behaviorist : Training, memorization, rote learning Positive/Negative Reinforcement Systematic, teacher directed, lecture clean learning *Skinner* Schema Theory : How much prior knowledge you hold Prior info. + New info. = schemata Schema must be built; helpful to have in school *Vygotsky* Schema Theory : How much prior knowledge you hold Prior info. + New info. = schemata Schema must be built; helpful to have in school *Vygotsky* Transactional Theory : (schema related) Prior knowledge aids comprehension transaction between reader and text Set different purposes for reading *Rosenblatt* Transactional Theory : (schema related) Prior knowledge aids comprehension transaction between reader and text Set different purposes for reading *Rosenblatt* (Morrow, 2009), (Ward, 2011)
Theories Zone of Proximal Development: Where they need to go useful for instruction; the staircase Scaffolding and modeling *Vygotsky* Zone of Proximal Development: Where they need to go useful for instruction; the staircase Scaffolding and modeling *Vygotsky* Sociolinguistic: Society shapes language use Models surroundings, influences Norms, expectations, context Code switching : different talk Psycholinguistic: Cognitive processes govern language use Biological/Neurological Ex. Phonology, Morphology, Orthography, Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics Sounds, structure, letters, patterns, meaning, content (Ward, 2011)
The Five Principles 1. Phonological Awareness -Sound awareness (units of sound) and putting sounds together -Emergent: -WORD, SYLLABLE and SOUND AWARENESS 1. Rhyme (bat, hat, mat, rat) and alliteration (Bill bakes brownies) 2. Words and syllable (clapping) Activities: Isolating: /m/ maySegmenting: /d/ /o/ /g/ Categorizing: picture sorts Deleting: meat without /m/ Blending: /pup/ /Odd Man Out Manipulating: change /c/ in cat to /m/ Phonemic Awareness -Spoken words and syllables can be a sequence of phonemes (the smallest units of sound) (Ward, 2011)
The Five Principles 2. Alphabetic Principle -Sounds correlated to letters -These are graphemes (letters) that correspond to sounds the phonemes Concepts about Print (CAP) and Books! -Title, Author and Illustrator -The print corresponds to the written story -You read a book from left to right Activities: Shared Reading, Dialogic Reading, Interactive Writing, Environmental Print, Books on Tape Phonics -Speech sounds all correlated with letters, words, etc. Ways to Teach Phonics SYNTHETIC Small parts whole Bottom up SYNTHETIC Small parts whole Bottom up EMBEDDED Not explicit, authentic Discuss as it occurs EMBEDDED Not explicit, authentic Discuss as it occurs ANALOGY Whole to part Taught explicitly Comparing cake = bake, rake, make ANALOGY Whole to part Taught explicitly Comparing cake = bake, rake, make ANALYTIC Decoding, chunking Whole word - parts Top down ANALYTIC Decoding, chunking Whole word - parts Top down (Ward, 2011)
The Five Principles 3. Fluency -Transition from decoding to reading -Greater exertion on decoding less attention to meaning -Comprehension is the main goal -Using prosody shows understanding of meaning IMPORTANT: -Accuracy in decoding -Automatic word recognition -Appropriate prosodic elements (stress, pitch, phrasing) Activities: -Repeated Readings -Choral and Echo readings -Readers Theatre -Buddy and Paired Readings (Barone and Morrow, 2003)
The Five Principles 4. Vocabulary -Word recognition: not just sight words! -Academic English GOAL: enhance understanding, encourage expression -Tiered words Tier 1 ex. nice while a Tier 3 would be content words Activities: -Only teach 2-4 purposeful words at a time -They should be contextualized in conversation and books -Techniques: Semantic webs or semantic gradients List, group, label now write a paragraph Four Square Every person response thumbs up! Word Walls (Ward, 2011)
The Five Principles 5. Comprehension -Main goal of reading -Readers make meaning of what they read or hear -Has to do with: Prior knowledge and experience Social interaction Reading or listening ability 8 strategies: Predicting, Summarizing, Using Prior Knowledge, Imagery, Using Graphic Organizers, Recognizing Text Structure, Generating and Asking Questions and Monitoring Meaning/Metacognition Many Activities: Directed Listening and Thinking Activities, Shared Book Experiences, Repeated Readings, Small Group and One-on-One Readings, Answer Questions (by students and teachers!), Graphic Organizers and Reading Response Groups (Ward, 2011)
*Brainstorm Activity!* Directions: 1.With a person or two you are sitting with, choose one of the 5 Principles 2.On each Sticky Note, please brainstorm some activities that you have done in your classroom or plan to do in your classroom 3.Post them up front! Lets see if we can give each other new ideas or talk about ones that we all see working!
Guiding Practices Concept of Word Reading the white spaces Tracking Oral vs. print Can they identify words? Writing Letter-sound awareness Phonemic Awareness putting sounds together Phonics using patterns they know Where are they? Shows what they know! (Encoding) C.O.W. LADDER 1. Scribbles 2. Some symbols- letter like 3. Random letters and numbers 4. Beginning/salient sounds 5. Beginning and some endings 6. Spelling by letter name (Ward, 2011) (Morrow, 2009)
Guiding Practices: Helping Students Become Actively Involved in Literacy Metacognition Actively involved in the construction of their own literacy Motivation Initiating and sustaining a particular activity For reading they read on a regular basis for a variety of reasons Intrinsic for me vs. Extrinsic (a positive reinforcement reward) Four ideas help motivate students Choice, Challenge, Social Collaboration, Success Classroom activities that motivate students Literacy Centers, Classroom Library, Read alouds, Storytelling, Independent reading and writing, Technology (Morrow, 2009, p. 285)
Helping English Language Learners What is first language acquisition? -Learning the first language or the native language What is second language acquisition? -Learning a second language -Easier to teach a second language to children -Instruction needed *These are the students that we teach* (Morrow, 2009)
Helping ELL Students Make students feel comfortable in the classroom Give student a buddy / peer assisted learning Tasks should be active (can be nonverbal) Activities maximize the use for language Modeling and direct instruction Practice! (with guidance and then independently) (Morrow, 2009, p. 79)
Helping ELL Students Encourage students language and literacy development Classroom library: English and also primary language of all students (also examples) Provide daily extensive vocabulary lesson visuals! Teach basic greetings and expressions Have students make their own word books Use high interest picture books (Morrow, 2009, p. 80) Can you think of any ideas that might help the ELL students in your class?
Helping ELL Students more ideas! Encourage students language and literacy development Buddy reading and writing Repeated Readings of a story All manipulatives! Games, puppets, visual figures, etc. Cloze activities fill in the blank Cut up sentence strips to sequence Turn to someone next to you! Which of these suggestions are you going to put into place in your classroom tomorrow? (Morrow, 2009, p. 80)
References Barone, D. M. & Morrow, L. M. (2003). Literacy and young children: Research based practices. (pp. 210-225). The Guilford Press. New York, NY. Mason, J. M., & Sinha, S. (1993). Emerging literacy in the early childhood years: Applying a Vygotskian model of learning and development. In B. Spodek (Eds.), Handbook of research on the education of young children (pp. 137-150). New York, NY: Macmillan. Morrow, L. M. (2009). Literacy development in the early years: Helping children read and write. 6 th edition. (pp. 186-231). Pearson Education, Inc. Boston, MA. Ward, A., (6/9/11, 6/14/11, 6/16/11, 6/21/11, 6/28/11, 7/7/11, 7/12/11). [PowerPoint slides]. George Mason University. EDRD 630.