ELPIDIO QUIRINO

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ELPIDIO QUIRINO

Quirino, Elpidio (1890-1956), president of the Philippines (1948-1953). He was born in Vignan on Luzon, studied law,After obtaining a law degree from the University of the Philippines, near Manila, in 1915, Quirino practiced law until he was elected a member of the Philippine House of Representatives in 1919-25 and a senator in 1925-31. In 1934 he was a member of the Philippine independence mission to Washington, D.C., headed by Manuel Quezon, which secured the passage in Congress of the Tydings-McDuffie Act, setting the date for Philippine independence as July 4, 1946. He was also elected to the convention that drafted a constitution for the new Philippine Commonwealth. Subsequently he served as secretary of finance and secretary of the interior in the Commonwealth government. After World War II, Quirino served as secretary of state and vice president under the first president of the independent Philippines, Manuel Roxas. When Roxas died on April 15, 1948, Quirino succeeded to the presidency. The following year, he was elected president for a fouryear term on the Liberal Party ticket, defeating the Nacionalista candidate. President Quirino's administration faced a serious threat in the form of the Communist-led Hukbalahap (Huk) movement. Though the Huks originally had been an anti-Japanese guerrilla army in Luzon, the Communists steadily gained control over the leadership, and, when Quirino's negotiations with Huk commander Luis Taruc broke down in 1948, Taruc openly declared himself a Communist and called for the overthrow of the government. By 1950 the Huks had gained control over a considerable portion of Luzon, and Quirino appointed the able Ramon Magsaysay as secretary of national defense to suppress the insurrection. (see also Index: Hukbalahap Rebellion) Quirino's six years as president were marked by notable postwar reconstruction, general economic gains, and increased economic aid from the United States. Basic social problems, however, particularly in the rural areas, remained unsolved; Quirino's administration was tainted

by widespread graft and corruption. The 1949 elections, which he had won, were among the most dishonest in the country's history. Magsaysay, who had been largely successful in eliminating the threat of the Huk insurgents, broke with Quirino on the issue of corruption, campaigning for clean elections and defeating Quirino as the Nacionalista candidate in the presidential election of 1953. Subsequently, Quirino retired to private life.

Elpidio Rivera Quirino (November 16, 1890 February 29, 1956) was a Filipino politician, and the sixth President of the Philippines. A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became a representative of Ilocos Sur from 1919 to 1925. He was then elected as senator from 1925-1931. In 1934, he became a member of the Philippine independence commission that was sent to Washington, D.C., which secured the passage of Tydings-McDuffie Act to American Congress. In 1935, he was also elected to become member of the convention that will write the draft of then 1935 constitution for the newly-established Commonwealth. At the new government, he served as secretary of the interior and finance under Quezon's cabinet. After the war, Quirino was elected vice-president in 1946 election, consequently the second and last for the Commonwealth and first for the third republic. After the death of the incumbent president Manuel Roxas in 1948, he succeeded the presidency. In what was claimed to be a dishonest and fraudulent[1] 1949 presidential election, he won the president's office under Liberal Party ticket, defeating Nacionalista vie and former president Jos P. Laurel as well as fellow Liberalista and former senate president Jos Avelino. The Quirino administration was generally challenged by the Hukbalahaps, who ransacked towns and barrios.[1] Quirino ran for president again in the 1953 presidential election, but was defeated by Nacionalista Ramon Magsaysay. After his term, he retired to his new country home in Novaliches, Quezon City, where he died of a heart attack on February 29, 1956.

Contents[hide]

1 Early life and career 2 Congressional career o 2.1 House of Representatives o 2.2 Senate 3 Vice-Presidency 4 Presidency o 4.1 Administration and Cabinet o 4.2 First Term (1948-1949) 4.2.1 Accession 4.2.2 New Capital City 4.2.3 HUKBALAHAP Re-incidence 4.2.4 Fireside Chats 4.2.5 Impeachment Attempt 4.2.6 Romulo becomes UN President 4.2.7 1949 Presidential election o 4.3 Second Term (1949-1953) 4.3.1 Baguio Conference 4.3.2 HUKBALAHAP continued re-insurgence 4.3.3 Peace Campaign 4.3.4 1951 Midterm Election 4.3.5 1953 Presidential Election o 4.4 Domestic Policies 4.4.1 Economy 4.4.2 Social Program 4.4.3 Agrarian Reform 4.4.4 Integrity Board o 4.5 Foreign Policies 4.5.1 Korean War 4.5.2 Quirino-Foster Agreement 5 Post-presidency 6 Personal life o 6.1 Family o 6.2 Descendants 7 External links 8 Notes 9 References

[edit] Early life and careerElpidio Quirino was a native of Caoayan, Ilocos Sur although born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur to Don Mariano Quirino of Caoayan, Ilocos Sur and Doa Gregoria Mendoza Rivera of Agoo, La Union. Quirino spent his early years in Aringay, La Union. He studied and graduated his

elementary education to his native Caoayan, where he became a barrio teacher. He received secondary education at Vigan High School, then went to Manila where he worked as junior computer in the Bureau of Lands and as property clerk in the Manila police department. He graduated from Manila High School in 1911 and also passed the civil service examination, firstgrade. Quirino attended the University of the Philippines. In 1915, he earned his law degree from the university's College of Law, and was admitted to the bar later that year. He was engaged in the private practice of law.

[edit] Congressional career[edit] House of Representatives

He was engaged in the private practice of law until he was elected as member of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1919 to 1925 succeeding Alberto Reyes. In 1925 he was succeed as Congressman by Vicente Singson Pablo.[edit] Senate

He was later elected as Senator from 1925 to 1931 representing the First Senatorial District. He then served as Secretary of Finance and Secretary of the Interior in the Commonwealth government. In 1934, Quirino was a member of the Philippine Independence mission to Washington D.C., headed by Manuel L. Quezon that secured the passage in the United States Congress of the Tydings-McDuffie Act. This legislation set the date for Philippine independence by 1945. Official declaration came on July 4, 1946. Before the Second World War, Quirino was re-elected to the Senate but was not able to serve until 1945. During the Battle of Manila in World War II, his wife, Alicia Syquia, and three of his five children were killed as they were fleeing their home. After the war, the Philippine Commonwealth Government was restored. The Congress was likewise re-organized and in the Senate Quirino was installed was Senate President pro tempore.

[edit] Vice-PresidencySoon after the reconstitution of the Commonwealth Government in 1945 Senators Manuel Roxas, Elpidio Quirino and their allies called for the holding on an early national election to choose the president and vice president of the Philippines and members of the Congress. In December, 1945 the House Insular Affairs of the United States Congress approved the joint resolution setting the election date at not later than April 30, 1946.

Prompted by this congressional action, President Sergio Osmea called the Philippine Congress to a three-day special session. Congress enacted Commonwealth Act No. 725, setting the election on April 23, 1946, and was approved by President Osmea on January 5, 1946. Senate President pro tempore Elpidio Quirino was nominated as the running mate by newly formed Liberal Party of presidential candidate and then-Senate President Manuel Roxas. The tandem won the election. Vice-President Quirino was later appointed as Secretary of Foreign Affairs.

[edit] PresidencyElpidio Quirino's six years as president were marked by notable postwar reconstruction, general economic gains, and increased economic aid from the United States. Basic social problems, however, particularly in the rural areas, remained unsolved, and his administration was tainted by widespread graft and corruption.[edit] Administration and Cabinet OFFICE President Vice-President Secretary of Foreign Affairs NAME Elpidio Quirino Fernando Lpez TERM 19481953 19491953

Elpidio Quirino (acting) 1948 Joaquin Miguel Elizalde 19481950 Carlos P. Romulo 19501952

Joaquin Miguel Elizalde 19501953 Secretary of the Interior Secretary of Finance Secretary of Justice Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce Sotero Baluyut Po Pedrosa Sabino Padilla Plcido Mapa Fernando Lpez 19481949 19491953

Secretary of Public Works and Communications Ricardo Nepumoceno Secretary of Education Secretary of Labor Secretary of National Defense Prudencio Langcauon Primitivo Lovina Ruperto Kangleon Ramon Magsaysay Secretary of Health and Public Welfare Executive Secretary Budget Commissioner Secretary of Social Welfare Antonio Villarama Teodoro Evangelista Po Joven Asuncin A. Prez 19481953 19481953 19501953

[edit] First Term (1948-1949) [edit] Accession

Vice-President Elpidio Quirino was inaugurated as the 6th President of the Philippines on April 17, 1948 at the Council of State Room, Executive Building, Malacaan Palace.

Quirino assumed the presidency on April 17, 1948, taking his oath of office two days after the death of Manuel Roxas. His first official act as the President was the proclamation of a state mourning throughout the country for Roxas' death. Since Quirino was a widower, his surviving

daughter Vicky would serve as the