Environmental Science and Engineering
Second Edit ion
Elements ofEnvironmental Science
P. MEENAKSHIFormerly Assistant Professor
Department of Civil EngineeringCoimbatore Institute of Technology
ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, Second EditionP. Meenakshi
2012 by PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi. All rights reserved. No part of this book may bereproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from thepublisher.
The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher.
Seventh Printing (Second Edition) March, 2012
Published by Asoke K. Ghosh, PHI Learning Private Limited, M-97, Connaught Circus,New Delhi-110001 and Printed by Mudrak, 30-A, Patparganj, Delhi-110091.
Chapter 1 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION: Present Scenario 171.1 Introduction 11.2 Environmental Degradation 11.3 Environmental Management 41.4 Environmental Awareness 41.5 Environmental Education 6Review Questions 7
Chapter 2 SCIENCE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 8252.1 Introduction 82.2 Lithosphere 92.3 Hydrosphere 172.4 Atmosphere 192.5 Biosphere 232.6 Unsustainable Development 242.7 Sustainable Development 24Review Questions 25
Chapter 3 NATURAL RESOURCES 26573.1 Introduction 263.2 Forest Resources 263.3 Water Sources 303.4 Mineral Resources 363.5 Food Resources 393.6 Energy Resources 463.7 Land Resources 483.8 Conservation 563.9 Equitable Use 56Review Questions 57
Chapter 4 DISASTER MANAGEMENT 58714.1 Introduction 584.2 Droughts 584.3 Landslides 594.4 Floods 604.5 Cyclones 634.6 Earthquakes 66Review Questions 71
Chapter 5 ENGINEERING INTERVENTIONS 72835.1 Introduction 725.2 Environmental Pollution Control 72Review Questions 83
Chapter 6 ECOSYSTEMS 841036.1 Introduction 846.2 Definition 846.3 Concept 846.4 Characteristics 856.5 Components 876.6 Food Chain 896.7 Food Web 896.8 Ecological Pyramids 906.9 Forest Ecosystem 916.10 Aquatic Ecosystem 956.11 Freshwater Ecosystem 966.12 Estuarine Ecosystem 976.13 Marine Ecosystem 976.14 Development and Evolution 996.15 Biotic Potential and Environmental Resistance 1006.16 Adaptation by Natural Selection 1016.17 Ecology 102Review Questions 103
Chapter 7 BIODIVERSITY 1041217.1 Introduction 1047.2 Levels of Biodiversity 1047.3 The Biogeographic Classification of India 1057.4 The Importance of Biodiversity 1097.5 The Value of Diversity 1097.6 Conservation of Biodiversity 1107.7 Endemic Species 1137.8 Endangered Species 1147.9 Global Biological Hot Spots 1147.10 Threats to Biodiversity 117Review Questions 121
Chapter 8 WATER POLLUTION 1221338.1 Introduction 1228.2 Sources of Water Pollution 1228.3 Classification of Water Pollutants 1238.4 Effects of Water Pollution 1288.5 Disposal by Dilution 1298.6 Self Purification of Natural Streams 1298.7 Oxygen Sag Analysis 1318.8 Control Measures of Water Pollution 132Review Questions 133
Chapter 9 AIR POLLUTION 1341559.1 Introduction 1349.2 Sources of Air Pollution 1349.3 Air Pollutants 1359.4 Effects of Air Pollution 1389.5 Air Pollution Control Methods 141Review Questions 155
Chapter 10 SOIL POLLUTION 15616210.1 Introduction 15610.2 Sources of Soil Pollution 15610.3 Effects of Soil Pollutants 16210.4 Control Measures 162Review Questions 162
Chapter 11 NOISE POLLUTION 16317111.1 Introduction 16311.2 Measurement of Sound 16311.3 Sources of Noise Pollution 16411.4 Effects of Noise 16711.5 Control of Noise Pollution 169Review Questions 171
Chapter 12 THERMAL POLLUTION 17218012.1 Introduction 17212.2 Sources of Thermal Pollution 17212.3 Process of Mixing Heated Effluents with Receiving Waters 17412.4 Harmful Effects of Thermal Pollutants 17412.5 Control of Thermal Pollution 17812.6 Cooling Ponds 17812.7 Spray Ponds 17912.8 Cooling Towers 179Review Questions 180
Chapter 13 MARINE POLLUTION 181188
13.1 Introduction 18113.2 Sources of Marine Pollution 18113.3 Diffusion of Sewage in Seawater 18313.4 Marine Pollution in India 18313.5 Effects of Marine Pollution 18413.6 Control of Marine Pollution 185Review Questions 188
Chapter 14 SOLID WASTES 189204
14.1 Introduction 18914.2 Classification 18914.3 Composition 18914.4 Solid Waste Management 19114.5 Waste Minimisation 20114.6 Typical MRF Operation 203Review Questions 204
Chapter 15 HAZARDOUS WASTES 205226
15.1 Introduction 20515.2 Hazardous Characteristics 20515.3 Classification of Hazardous Wastes 20515.4 Control of Radioactive Pollution 21815.5 Handling Hazardous Waste 225Review Questions 226
Chapter 16 ENERGY 227247
16.1 Introduction 22716.2 Non-renewable Energy Resources 22816.3 Renewable Energy Resources 23216.4 Energy Conservation 245Review Questions 247
Chapter 17 ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH 248272
17.1 Introduction 24817.2 Waterborne Diseases 24817.3 Foodborne Diseases 25017.4 Vector-borne Diseases 25117.5 Insect Vector and Rodent Control 25617.6 Fly Control 26317.7 Rodent Control and Rat Fleas 26617.8 Principles of Food Sanitation 267Review Questions 272
Chapter 18 ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS 273290
18.1 Introduction 27318.2 Acid Rain 27318.3 Greenhouse Effect 27518.4 Global Warming 27718.5 Ozone Layer Depletion 27918.6 Photochemical Smog 28218.7 Eutrophication 28518.8 Biomagnification 287Review Questions 290
Chapter 19 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT 291298
19.1 Introduction 29119.2 Need for EIA 29119.3 Goals of EIA 29219.4 Methodology of Environmental Impact Assessment 29219.5 Limitation of the Environmental Impact Assessment 29619.6 Environmental Impact of Industrialisation 29719.7 Environmental Impact of Urbanisation 298Review Questions 298
Chapter 20 SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT 299317
20.1 Introduction 29920.2 Population Growth 29920.3 Variation among Nations 29920.4 Urban Problems Related to Energy 30020.5 Water Conservation 30020.6 Watershed Management 30120.7 Rainwater Harvesting 30220.8 Resettlement and Rehabilitation of People 30320.9 Environmental Ethics 30420.10 Value Education 30520.11 Human Rights and the Environment 30620.12 Public Participation 30820.13 Consumerism and Waste Products 30920.14 HIV/AIDS 31020.15 Women and Child Welfare 31120.16 Family Welfare Programme 31420.17 Role of Information Technology 316Review Questions 316
Chapter 21 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 318332
21.1 Introduction 31821.2 Conventions or Treaties 318
21.3 Environmental Conventions 32021.4 Pollution Control Boards 32221.5 The Precautionary Principle 32321.6 Polluter Pays Principle 32321.7 Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) 32421.8 Legal Aspects 32521.9 Regulatory Standards 33021.10 Impact of Legal Framework 33121.11 Problems in Enforcement of Legislation 33121.12 Concentration-based Standards 33121.13 Command and Control Policies 331Review Questions 332
Environmental Science and Engineering is an emerging discipline. Today, it isprescribed by the UGC as a compulsory course for undergraduate students of alluniversities. It applies the knowledge of Physics, Chemistry and Biology to reducethe pollution load through a multidisciplinary approach. The aim of this book is toprovide substantial knowledge to the reader who has only a limited knowledge of themultidisciplinary principles.
Organized into 21 chapters, this book tries to give a comprehensive coverage ofthe various aspects relating to environmental science, environmental management,environmental impact assessment, social issues, and so on. Chapter 1 describes thepresent scenario of environmental awareness. Chapter 2 includes the principles ofPhysics, Chemistry and Biology of water, land, air, and their interrelationships.
Chapter 3 describes the uses and effects of overexploitation of natural resourcessuch as forest, water, mineral, food, energy and land. It provides an overview ofdifferent ecosystems, their functions and characteristics, and biotic and abioticcomponents. This chapter also outlines the nutrient and energy flow, food chain, foodweb and ecological pyramids.
Chapter 4 deals with the various types of disasters and their management,taking into account the technical and social aspects. Chapter 5 elucidates theengineering interventions needed for the protection of environment.
Chapter 6 explains the concept, components, structure and types of ecosystemand branches of ecology. Chapter 7 describes the importance and value of bio-diversity, biogeographical classification of India, epidemic and endemic species ofIndia, hot spots, threats, and conservation of biodiversity. Chapters 813 discuss indetail the sources, effects and control measures of water, air, soil, noise, thermal andmarine pollution, respectively. Chapter 14 describes the generation of solid wastesand the functional elements in solid waste management. Chapter 15 categorises thehazardous wastes as biomedical, radioactive and chemical wastes, and presents aclear picture of their management.
Chapter 16 provides an outline of the energy resources and the importance oftheir conservation.
Chapter 17 discusses environment and human health.Chapter 18 describes the sources, effects and control of global environmental
threats such as acid rain, greenhouse effect, global warming and biomagnification.
Elements Of Environmental Science AndEngineering
Publisher : PHI Learning ISBN : 9788120345232 Author : MEENAKSHI, P.
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Elements Of Environmental Science And Engineering