Elementary Latin Grammar

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ELEMENTARY

LATIN GRAMMAK

ARCHIBALDONK OF THE CLASSICAL MASTERS

H.IN

BRYCE,THElllQH

LL.D.,

TRIN. COLL., BUBLTn;

SCHOOL OF EPIN'BURGII.

-r.

T.

LONDON: NELSON AND SONS, PATERNOSTER ROW;EDINBURGH: AND NEW YORK.

NELSON'S CLASSICAL SERIES.

FIRST LATIN READER. ByEdition.

Archibald H. Bryce, LL.D.2s.

Fourth

21G pages 12mo.

Price

SECOND LATIN READER.384 pages.Price3s. 6d.

By Archibald

H.

Brtce,

LL.D.

GRAMMAR OF THE LATIN LANGUAGE.Brtce, LL.D.12mo.268 pages.Price 2s. 6d.

By Archibald H.

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.LL.D.12mo.170 pages.PriceIs. 3d.

By Archibald H. Brtce,

FIRST GREEK READER.Edition.

By Archibald2s. 6d.

H. Brtce, LL.D.

Third

222 pages.

Price

HORACE.High3s. ed.

Edited hy Dr. Freund, author of " Latin Lexicon," &c,Classical Masters of the

and John Carmichael, M.A., one of theSchool, Edinburgh.

With

Life of Horace, Notes,

VocabularyPrice

of Proper Names, and Chronological

Table.

12mo,

cloth.

VIRGILII MARONIS CARMINA.Life, Notes,3s. Gd.

Edited by Dr. Freund.

WithPrice

and Vocabulary of Proper Names.

12mo,

cloth.

T.

NELSON AND SONS, LONDON, KDINBUROH, AND NEW YORK.

XtiRtIi,

This Work

is

an abridgment oftlie

tlie

Laxger Latin

Grammar

forming part of

same

Series.

It is designed for tlie use

of beginners, and of thosestudies only to

who

intend to prosecute classicalIt

a

limited

extent.

therefore contains

merely the

amount and kind of

information

consideredstudents.in smaller

necessary for the age and requirements of such

Sometypetion,

matter, however, has been inserted

usually

which may be omittedand whichwill

in the earlier stages of instruc-

with more profit be presented to the

pupil

when he

is

farther advanced.

The Syntax has been less abridged than the otherof the work, because the natural connection ofparts renderedis

portions

its severalit

curtailment more

difficult;

and because

right that all students, whatever their ultimate objectbe,

may

should have a systematic view of the principles

which regulate the construction of Latin sentences, and ofthe peculiar idioms of the language.

In compliance with the wish of many teachers in Scotland,the author has appended to PartII.

Ruddiman's Rules

of

iy

PREFACE.free

Syntax; which, though not

from serious

defects,

have

the great merit of brevity, and

of being easily

committed to

memory.

To

illustrate satisfactorily the

many changes which

appearof

in the declension of Nouns, an unusually large

number

Paradigms has been given ; and throughout the entire bookthe greatest care has been taken,

by

simplicity of statement

and clearness of arrangement, assisted by the resources oftypography,to

present the facts and principles of Latin

Grammar

to

the young in

a manner at

once interesting

and impressive.

anitnh.

PART l.-ACCIDENCE.CLaptrrI.

Letikrs and Syllables,Sect.I.

Tlie Letters,

...

II.

Syllables Quantity...

II.

Classification of Words,

III.

Inflexion:

Gender Number Case,1414

IV. Substantives,Sect.I.

General Uemarks,Declension,

II. First

16 17

III.

Second Declension,

IV. Third Declension,

20 31

V. Fourth Declension,VI. Fifth Declension,

3334

V. Adjectives,Sect.I.

Inflexion of Adjectives,

...

3442 4650

II.

Comparison of Adjectives,...

VI.

The Numerals,

VII. Pronouns,Sect.I.

Personal Pronouns,Reflexive Pronouns,

5051...

II.

III. Possessive

Pronouns,

51 52

IV. Demonstrative Pronouns,

V. The Relative Pronoun,

...

54

VI. The Interrogative Pronouns,VII.

The

Indefinite Pronouns,

VIChapter

CONTENTS.Thb Verb,Sect.I.

VIII.

Introductory,

...

II.

First Conjugation,

III.

Second Conjugfitlon,

IV. Third Conjugation ^C(7o and Cap,

V. Fourth Conjugation,

VI. The Four Conjugations at one viewIX.

Deponent Verbs,Sect.I.

First Conjugation,

II.

Second Conjugation,Third Conjugation,

III.

IV. Fourth Conjugation, X. Irregular Verbs,Sect.I.

The Verb Sum,

II.

III.

The Verb Possum, The Verb Prosum, The VeibThe Verb The Verb The VerbEo,

IV.

V. The Verb Fero, VI.Volo,

VII. The Verb Nolo,VIII.ifalo,

IX.

Fio,

X. The Verb Edo,XI. Defective Verbs,XII. Impersonal Verbs,XT. Adverbs,

XII. Prepositions,XIII. CONJDNCTIONS,

XIV. Ikterjections,

PART ll.-SYNTAX.I.

Sentences,

II.

III.

Agreement of Subject and Predicate, Agreement of Adjectivb and Substantive,

IV. Apposition,

V. The Nominative ant) Vocative Cases,VI.VII.

The Accusative, The Dative,

...

CONTENTS.Chapter

Vllp.g,

VIII.

The Genitive, ... IX. The Ablative, ... X. The Infinitive, ... XI. The Supines,

127 129 132133133

XII. Participles,XIII.

The Gerund, XIV. The Imperative Mood, ... XV. Compound Sentences Principal Clauses,XVI. Subordinate Clauses,

134

135136137

XVII. Final Clauses,

...

138 139

XVIII. Conditional Clauses,

XIX. Concessive Clauses,

140

XX. Temporal Clauses,XXI. Causal Clauses,XXII. rtELATivE Clauses,XXIII. Interrogative Clauses,...

HO141

141

143143

XXIV. Sequence of Tenses,

XXV. Kuddiman's

Rules,

146

APPENDIX.Gender of Nouns,Irregular Verbs,157161

Greek Nouns, The Calendar, Roman JIonet and Measures, Roman Names,Abbreviations,

169

170172174

175

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.

PART

I.

ACCIDENCE.CHAPTEE I. LETTERS AND SYLLABLES.SECTION l.-THE LETTERS.Letters are signs for sounds. 2. The Latin letters are the same wanting. Thus :1.

as the English, except that

W

is

Capitals.--A, B, C, D, E, F, G, II,

I,

J,

K, L, M,

N, 0, P, Q, R,Small.-a,h, c, d, e,

S, T,f,

U, V, X, Y, Z.i,

g, h,

j,

k,z.

1,

m,

n, o, p, q,

r, s, t,

u, V, X, y,

Obs.i

1. The Eomaiis had originally only one form, i, for the vowel and the consonant j; and one form, v, for the vowel u and the

consonantObs. 2.

Thus is not properly a letter, but only a breathing. the twenty-five letters of the Alphabet may be reduced to twentytwo.letters are divided into

11

v.

3.

The

two

classes

Voivels

and Consoe,

nants.4.

The Vowels

{Vocales,

i.e.,

"sound-producing") are six, ff,

105Tlie

be

ELEMENTARY LATIN GRAMMAR.Consonants[Con-sonnntes),whicli cannot

sounded

witliout the help of a vowel, arc either,(1.)

(2.)

Semi -vowels*^, m, n, r, and the sihihmt 5; Mutes/), b,f, v; c, k, qu, g, h, {J); t, d.admit of a doubleclassificationviz.,:

or,

G.

Tlie jNIutes

(1.)

According to;

the organ by whicli they are pronounced,Palatals, or throat-letters;

Labials, or lip-letters

Lingual Dentals, those uttered by apply-

ing the tongue to the teeth.

And:

(2.)

According to the degree ofviz., light

breathing employed in their utterance,diate,

and rough

or

flat.

Thus

or sharp, interme-

LAnrALS./'

PALATALS.c,5')I',

LINGUAL DENTALS.t

orqii

light or sharp.

b f)7.^'j

(i'^)

^h

Wffs,

(i)

d('^^O

intermediate.

rough or

flat.

X and

z are

double consonants, being equal,cs,

(1.) d?

to

or

and sometimes

to hs or qus.

(2.) 2 to

sd or

ds.

8.

The Alphabet,Six Vowels,

then,

may be arranged

as follows

:e,i,

(1.)

a,?,

0,

u, y.s.

[ Five Semi-vowels,(2.)

m,

n. r,

Nineteen

|

^

Four Labials,Six Palatals,Consonants,

p,h,f,v.c,k, qu; g, h, (j).d.z.

Consonants,divided into

-l

Mutes

(

j

(TwoTwo Double

Lingual Dentals,.. em!n-ts,

vinjin-is,

Cardo, cardXn-is, m., a hinge. Grando, grandXn-is, {., hail.