CHAPTER ONE1.0. INTRODUCTION Electronic voting system (EVS) also known as e-voting is a term encompassing several different types of voting embracing both electronic means of counting votes.
Electronic voting technology can include punched cards, optical scan voting systems and specialized voting kiosks (including self contained direct-recording electronic voting systems or DRE). It can also involve transmission of ballots and votes via telephones, private computer networks, or the internet.
Generally, the major approaches towards achieving an effective on line electronic.
VOTING SYSTEM (EVS)
Scope of E-voting system
Specifies the system requirements
Specifies the participating parties of the system and describes their roles,
Specifies the architecture of the E-voting system, the general description of the functionally, protocols and algorithms,
Analyses and describes possible security of hazards & examines the compliance of the system to security requirements.1.1BACKGROUND OF STUDYThe Federal Republic of Nigeria. Nigeria is a Federal constitutional republic comprise thirty-six states and its Federal capital Territory, Abuja. The country is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the West, Chad and Cameroon in the South lies on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. The three largest and most influential ethnic groups Nigeria are the Hausas, Igbo and Yoruba in terms of religion Nigeria is roughly split half and half between Muslims and Christians with a very small Minority who practice traditional religions.
Nigeria elects on Federal level, a head of state the President and a legislature (The National Assembly). The President is elected by the people. The national Assembly has two chambers. The House of Representative has 360 member elected for a four year term in single-seat constituencies. The senate has 109 member elected for a four years term each of the 36 states are divided into 3 senatorial districts, each of which is represented by one senator, the Federal capital Territory represented by only one senator. Nigeria made up of thirty-six (36) states with 774 local governments.
In the Local Governments they have the chairman and the Counselor, the state governed by the Governors and the Local Government by the chairman and counselors and there are all elected by the people of the state.
That is to say that there are about 2054 elective positions in Nigeria.
360House of Representatives
774Local Government Chairman
774Local Government Counselors1.2SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
1.An electronic voting system (EVS) will require being very precise or cost cutting to produce an effective election management system.
2.Therefore crucial points that this (EVS) emphasizes on are listed below.
3.Require les number of staff during the election.
4.This system is a lot easier to independently moderate the elections and subsequently reinforce its transparency and fairness.
5.Less capital, les effort, and less labour intensive, as the primary cost and effort will focus primarily on creating, managing, and running a secure online was looting portal.
6. Increased number of voters as individual will find it easier and more convenient to vote, especially in western societies where life is a lot more regimented and programmed.1.3OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective is to produce a computer-based tutor that will guide voting in Nigeria which can speed the counting of ballots and can provide improved accessibility for disable voters, it will also provide transparency; mitigate all challenge that may be experienced in setting up polling booths dealing with ballot boxes, and any counting deficiencies, and a host of others issues. Having proper fire-walls installed it is aimed at eliminating the abnormalities and error in the existing system. It also aims at reducing the crime and fraudulence activities encountered with the old voting existing system in Nigeria.1.4.SCOPE OF STUDY.
It is focused on studying the existing system of voting in Nigeria and to make sure that the peoples vote is counts, for fairness in the elective positions. This is also will produce.
Less effort and less labour intensive, as the primary cost and focus primary on creating, managing, and running a secure web voting portal. In creasing number of voters as individuals will find it easier and more convenient to vote, especially in western society were life is a lot more regimented and programmed.
1.5.LIMITATION OF STUDY
Time factor, which is the greatest barrier to the successful completion of this exercise, I had financial constraints to traveling. The school is also a barrier to permission for exit to get my materials for this project.
1.6.DEFINITION OF TERMEVS On line electronic voting system
E-voting - Electronic Voting
INEC - Independent National Electoral Commission
EVR - Electronic Voter Register
PU- Polling Unit
ICT- Information and communication TechnologyECIL- Federal Election Commission
ES & S - Election systems & softwareVVPAT- vote verifiable paper audit trails
PEB- Personal Electronic Ballot
PIN- Personal Identity Number
MBB- Mobile Ballot Box
JBC- judges Booth ControllerCHAPTER TWO2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
David Chaum addressed the concepts of untraceable electronic mail and digital pseudonyms, which can apply for electronic voting for anonymity. In order to reduce the cost of human and material, moreover, to enhance the convenience in the task of polling, E-voting has taken the place of traditional voting in a considerable number of countries over the past few years. In this section, I aim to review literature I consider relevant to E-voting. 2.1 EVALUATION OF VOTING EQUIPMENT In the recent years, voting equipments which were widely adopted may be divided into five types
(1) Paper-based voting: The voter gets a blank ballot and use a pen or a marker to indicate he want to vote for which candidate. Hand-counted ballots is a time and labor consuming process, but it is easy to manufacture paper ballots and the ballots can be retained for verifying, this type is still the most common way to vote.
(2) Lever voting machine: Lever machine is peculiar equipment, and each lever is assigned for a corresponding candidate. The voter pulls the lever to poll for his favorite candidate. This kind of voting machine can count up the ballots automatically. Because its interface is not user-friendly enough, giving some training to voters is necessary.
(3) Direct recording electronic voting machine: This type, which is abbreviated to DRE, integrates with keyboard, touch screen, or buttons for the voter press to poll. Some of them lay in voting records and counting the votes is very quickly. But the other DRE without keep voting records are doubted about its accuracy.
(4) Punch card: The voter uses metallic hole-punch to punch a hole on the blank ballot. It can count votes automatically, but if the voters perforation is incomplete, the result is probably determined wrongfully.
(5) Optical voting machine: After each voter fills a circle correspond to their favorite candidate on the blank ballot, this machine selects the darkest mark on each ballot for the vote then computes the total result. This kind of machine counts up ballots rapidly. However, if the voter fills over the circle, it will lead to the error result of optical-scan.
2.2 Effectiveness of E-voting Among Different Countries
Recent years, a considerable number of countries has adopted E-voting for their official elections. In this section, four empirical examples are enumerated as following.
(1) America: Government of the United States hold election collaterally in several ways, in other words, each state can choose the suitable way to hold elections independently. Because there are some debates about E-voting, such as some vote casts were not counted, or election system crashed during the Election Day. Secretary of State Kevin Shelley established an Ad Hoc Touch Screen Task Force to research the debates on DRE in February 2003. Shelly advanced that DRE should include voter verifiable paper audit trails (VVPAT) to solve electoral debates.
(2) Japan: Japan adopted E-voting for local election in 2002, such as mayor and councilor election of Niimi city in Okayama prefecture in June 23, 2002; mayor election of Hiroshima city in February 02, 2003; and mayor election of Kyoto city in February 08, 2004. Take mayor and councilor election of Niimi city for example, electoral center surveyed the voters reliability when the election finished. There are 83% of voters considered that E-voting system is trusted. 56% of them considered that the results of E-voting and paper-based voting are the same therefore E-voting is sufficient for reliable. The reasons why voters cant trust the E-voting system are voters worried about the abuses in E-voting system, and they can not make sure their ballot are recorded correctly.
(3) Belgium: Election for the Federal Parliament is held in May 18, 2003. In order to assist voters in being familiar with E-voting system, electoral center held short-term training. Counting efficiency in the election with E-voting system was faster then convention. Belgiums compulsory voting system and E-voting complement each other, voters satisfaction and attending willingness of join voting are improved obviously.
(4) Brazil: Brazil used E-voting in 1998. When the voter reaches the polling place, he shows his identity card for authenticating; if he is an eligible voter, h