efek tumpangsari thdp keragaman arthropod

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COMPARISON OF ARTHROPOD ABUNDANCE AND DlVERSlTY IN INTERCROPPING AGROFORESTRY AND CORN MONOCULTURE SYSTEMS IN SOUTHERN ONTARIO

Heather Dawn Howell

A thesis submitted in confomity with the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Forestry Graduate Faculty of Forestry University of Toronto

@Copyright by Heather Dawn Howell, 2001

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FACULTY OF FORESTRY University of Toronto

DEPARTMENTAL ORAL EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN FORESTRY

Examination of Ms. Heather HOWELL

Examination Chair's Signature:

% & J /

We approve this thesis and affim that it meets the departmental oral examination requirements set d o m for the degree of Master of Science in Foresby. Examination Cornmittee:

AbstractCornparison of arthropod abundance and diversity in intercropping agroforestry and corn monoculture systems in southem Ontario. Master of Science in Forestry. 2001. Heather Dawn Howell. Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto Arthropod communities were compared between a corn (Zea mays L.) monoculture and a corn intercropped agroforestry system in southern Ontario during 1998 and 1999. Pan trap data were used in June 1998 while malaise trap data were examined between June-September 1999. Arthropod abundan, representation by functional group, and hymenopteran family richness and diversity were al1 compared between the intercropped and the monoculture sites. Differens in arthropod abundance within the intercropped system were also cornPa& between: 1) tree rows with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) or btack walnut (Juglans nigra L.); and 2) tree rows and crop alleys. Taxa such as Opiliones. Dennaptera and Carabidae, which are associated with organic litter areas that provide shelter during the day, were significantly higher in the agroforestry system than in the monocuiture system. The abundance of Hymenoptera, and several of its families, was also significantly higher in the agroforestry site than in the monoculture site, atthough no differences were observed in temis of overall family richness and diversity. There were significantly higher numbers of parasitoids and detritivores in the intercropped agroforestry system than in the monoculture system, and the intercropped treatment also supported a significantly higher ratio of parasitoids to herbivores. My results suggest that intercropping trees with crops such as corn monoculture can improve pest management by providing habitat to augment natural enemies populations.

DedicationDuring the time when Iwas struggling through this thesis. my little sister Catherine Middleton and my father-in-law Glen Howell undement their own momentous challenges after being diagnosed with cancer. I would like to dedicate my thesis to both of them for having the strength and the courage to overcome their difficult batUe and to thank them for the love and encouragement that they gave me during the course of this work.

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AcknowledgementI wish to thank the many people who have helped me through this adventure.

f irst and foremost, Iwould like to extend my sincere thanks and appreciation to rnysupervisor, Dr. Sandy Smith (University of Toronto, Forestry) for providing me with the opportunity to do this study, in addition to her assistance and understanding throughout the development of this thesis. I would also like to extend my gratitude to my cornmittee members for their insightFulguidance and advice: Dr. Andy Kenney (University of Toronto, Forestry) for expanding my knowledge of agroforestry systems and for his guidance in statistics; Dr. Chris Darling (Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto) for sharing his knowledge and enthusiasm for the Hymenoptera; and Dr. Andy Gordon (University of Guelph) for originally inspiring me to do this study many years ago during my undergraduate days. Thanks also to Dr. Isabel Bellocq (University of Toronto, Forestry) for participating in the defence phase and for providing helpful advi during the course of the writing.Iwould like to acknowledge the Faculty of Forestry for their financial support

through the Graduate Fellowship in Forestry award.Iam also greatly indebted to many people who have contributed a significant

amount of their time to help me in the field, the laboratory, with the statistical approach and in other numerous ways. 1 would like to start by giving my deepest thanks to my brother, Doug Middleton, who volunteered a large number of hours helping me out in the field and in the laboratory. Large appreciation also goes out to Ping Zhang, Chantal Lalonde, Robin Thornton, Tanya Campolin and the Kentner family for helping me with aspects of field work. Special thanks to Naresh Thevathasan. Rick Gray (Agoroforestry Research Group) and Peter Milton (University of Guelph Agricultural Research Stations)

for their technical support with the research fields. Thank you to Alexi Baev for al1 of his hard work in the laboratory with arthropod sorting and identification. I would also like to give a note of appreciation to Deborah Yurman, Bill McMartin and Christine Vance who gave me advice on my statistical analysis. My sincere gratitude goes to Dr. Fuhua Liu (Faculty of Forestry), who spent many hours with me, analysing my data together while patiently helping me to improve my knowledge of statistics. Thank you also to Robert Moloney (Agriculture Co-op, Barrie), for his expert knowledge on aspects of agronomy. I would also like to express my gratitude to Wendy Lake, Alison Howell, Rita Howell and Glen Howell for their careful editing assistance. Additionally, 1 would like to thank my friends and colleagues in my laboratory and within the Faculty of Forestry for their warm friendship, advice and support over the years I have been a student at the university. Most importantly I would like to thank my family and friends, especially my mom and my grandfather, for their love and encouragement throughout my thesis work.1 have reserved my last note of heartfelt love and gratitude for my husband,

Morley Howell, who has given me the tremendous technical, financial and ernotional support that made it possible to achieve my dream of completing a masters thesis.

Table of Contents.. ................................................................................................................................II ... Dedication......................................................................................................................... III Acknowledgement.............................................................................................................. iv Table of Contents.............................................................................................................. vi ... List of Tables ................................................................................................................... VIII List of Figures ..................................................................................................................... x Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 1Abstract RATIONALE .......................................................................................................................... Literature Review ....................................................................................................ARTHROPODS AGROECOSYSTEMS IN .......................................................................... Ecological Funetions of Arthropods in the Agroecosystem .................................. Importance of Hymenoptera in Agroecosystems ................................................. 1

VEGETATIONAL DIVERSITY AGROECOSYSTEM AND STABILITY................ . Habitats with Adjacent Vegetation ................................. ................ lntercropping Systems.................................................. ................. AGROFQRESTRY, ~NTERCROPP~NG AGROFORESTRY ART ROPODS .. AND 'H Agroforestry in North America .................................... ................. Intercropping Agroforestry in North America ........................................................... 7 8 Arthropods in Agroforestry Systems ........................................................................ 20 Materials and Methods 27

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SITE SELECTION SAMPLING FOR ......................................................................................... -28

DATA ANALY .................................................................................................................. SIS 34 Environmental Data ................................................................................................. 34 Arthropod Abundance .................