Text of Educational Psychology Bruce Lewis, Ed.D. Fall 1999
Educational Psychology Bruce Lewis, Ed.D. Fall 1999
Textbook: Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice (5th ed.) by Robert E. Slavin, 1997
Educational Psychology: A Foundation for Teaching Chapter One:
Ellen Mathis and Leah Washington: using a lot of motivational strategies I (Leah) learned in EdPsy. My educational psychology professor was always talking about adapting to students needs. I first learned about cooperative learning in EdPsy,
solve a lot of my (classroom) management problems we learned about evaluation in EdPsy. we learned about child development what was particularly important to her (Ellen Mathis) was the idea that educational psychology could really be useful in her day-to- day teaching. concepts that had seemed theoretical and abstract in EdPsy class actually helped her think about problems of teaching. Ellen Mathis and Leah Washington (cont.):
What is Educational Psychology? zEdPsy is the study of learners, learning, and teaching. zEdPsy is the accumulated knowledge, wisdom, and seat-of-the-pants theory that every teacher should possess to intelligently solve the daily problems of teaching.
What is Educational Psychology? (cont.) Ed psychologists carry out research on: ythe nature of students, yprinciples of learning, and ymethods of teaching
What Makes A Good Teacher? zWarmth, enthusiasm, and caring. zKnowledge of the subject matter they expect to teach! zKnowledge of how to transmit information and skills!! zAbility to communicate that knowledge to students!
Mastering the Teaching Skills. Pedagogy = the study of teaching and learning with applications to the instructional process.
Mastering the Teaching Skills (cont.) Effective instructional strategies/tasks: ymotivating students, ymanaging the classroom, yassessing prior knowledge, ycommunicating ideas effectively, taking into account the characteristics of the learners, yassessing learning outcomes, and yreviewing information.
Can Good Teaching Be Taught? zGood teachers are born that way = myth. zGood teachers have a charisma beyond that of mere mortals = myth. zTRUTH = Good teachers know the principles of effective teaching and how to apply them.
Teaching as Critical Thinking zCritical thinking is evaluating conclusions by logically and systematically examining the problem, the evidence, and the solution. zEffective teaching requires seeing situations clearly, identifying problems, and exploring possible solutions.
What is the Role of Research in EdPsy? zStudents learn better from a teachers instruction than by working alone. - vs. - zStudents often need instruction tailored to their individual needs. - vs. - Individualization. Direct Instruction
Goals of Research in EdPsy: to carefully examine obvious as well as less obvious questions using objective methods to test ideas about the factors that contribute to learning.
The products of EdPsy research are: zprinciples -- explain relationships between factors, such as the effects of alternative grading systems on student motivation; zlaws -- principles that have been thoroughly tested and found to apply in a wide variety of situations; and ztheories -- sets of related principles and laws that explain broad aspects of learning, behavior, or other areas of interest.
Teaching as Decision-Making: zMr. Harris -vs.- Tom zexamine: -Action- -Theory- -Research- (pages 14-15)
What research methods are used in EdPsy? What research methods are used in EdPsy? Experiment/Treatment: special programs wherein one group receives the treatment and the other group does not receive anything special or extraordinary (control group). No difference in the two groups!
Developing Critical Thinking Skills through an Interdisciplinary Approach with Social Studies Simulations and the Internet in Upper Elementary School Classes. a Doctoral Dissertation by Bruce Lewis, June 4, 1998;Doctoral Dissertation 6 fourth-grade classes served as the treatment group and 6 other fourth-grade classes served as the control group (almost 300 students, total); the treatment group alone received the work on critical thinking skills with The Yukon Trail (a software simulation) and the Internet.
zVariable = anything that can have more than one value and can therefore be manipulated and/or studied. Research Methods (cont.) Research Methods (cont.)
Social Skills Differences Between Low- Achieving and High-Achieving, Rural and Suburban, Middle School Adolescents. zan Educational Specialist Thesis by Bruce Lewis, July 1996 (Ed.S. in School Counseling); zvariables: ylow-achieving & high-achieving; yrural & suburban; and y5th grade & 8th grade.
Random Assignment Random Assignment = selection by chance (drawing names from a hat, flipping a coin, etc.) into different groups to try to ensure equality of the groups. zgenerally not available for educational testing in school settings; zuse of intact groups, such as an entire 4th grade class for the treatment group and a different 4th grade class for the control group.
Internal Validity Validity = the degree to which an experiments results can be attributed to the treatment in question, not to other factors. Generally due to the researcher having a very high degree of control over all the factors involved in the study. Research Methods (cont.)
Internal Validity (cont.) Usually stated as the results were statistically significant at the.05 level, meaning that there was less than 5 chances out of 100 that the results were due to luck. Most studies function at this level of significance. Studies can also be done at.01 or.001 level (professors Ed.D. research results were less than.001.).
Internal Validity (cont.) Studies can also be done at.01 or.001 level. The Professors Ed.D. research results were less than.001 (less than 1 chance in 1,000 that his results were due to luck)!
Internal Validity (cont.) TYPE I ERRORS: aIn Type I errors, the researcher incorrectly concludes that there is no difference, when in actuality there really is a significant difference between the means -- too different to be the result of chance error. aType I errors involve setting the level of significance in data analysis so low as to find benefits that are not really present.
Internal Validity (cont.) TYPE II ERRORS: aIn Type II errors, the researcher incorrectly concludes that there is a difference, when in actuality there really is not a significant difference between the means. aType II errors involve setting the level of significance in data analysis so high that benefits that are really present are overlooked.
Internal Validity (cont.) Conclusions: aStep One: Insure adequate group sizes. aStep Two: Set the level of statistical significance at 0.05.
Internal Validity Internal Validity = the degree to which an experiments results can be attributed to the treatment in question, not to other factors. Generally due to the researcher having a very high degree of control over all the factors involved in the study. Further reading available from the instructors SITE99 presentation on Type I Errors.Type I Errors. Research Methods (cont.) REVIEW:
External Validity Validity = the degree to which results of an experiment can be applied to real-life situations. zLaboratory experiments are primarily important in building and testing theories. zRandomized field experiments are the real test for evaluating practical programs or improvements in instruction.
Correlational Studies research into the relationships between variables as they naturally occur
Correlational Studies (cont.) zcorrelation does NOT equal causation zpositive correlation = relationship in which high scores on one variable correspond to high scores on another (good readers also do well in social studies). znegative correlation = relationship in which high scores on one variable correspond to low scores on another (days absent increase while grades go down).
Observation or survey or interview that seeks to identify and gather detailed information and, therefore, describe something of interest. Jean Piaget Jean Piaget carefully observed his own children and others. He developed a theory that describes the cognitive development of children from infancy through adolescence. (p 32) cognitive developmentadolescence Descriptive Research
Additional information on Chapter One can be obtained at: Slavin Student CenterCenter. A full copy of this PowerPoint presentation is available at: PSY 306 - Educational PsychologyPsychology.