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ICOMOS-SA Newsletter No 1, January 2013 Page 1
ICOMOS-South Africa, as an affiliate of ICOMOS International, is concerned with
furthering the conservation, protection and rehabilitation of heritage resources in South
Africa as well as liaison and co-operation between individuals and organizations working
in the field both nationally and internationally.
In this first edition of the ICOMOS-SA Newsletter, we introduce the ICOMOS-SA Board elected in 2012. At its inauguration and handover meeting from the previous Board (in Cape Town), the following were announced as newly elected Board members:
Pascall Taruvinga (President)
Cecilene Muller (Vice President)
Dr Helene Vollgraaff
Sonja Warnich-Stemmet. In order to provide better services to members across the country, two additional Board members were co-opted in November 2012, namely
Dr Ndukuyakhe Ndlovu
Prof Sabine Marschall. In this issue, Laura Robinson and Sabine Marschall report on the ICOMOS General Assembly held in China (November 2012), while Pascall Taruvinga gives his feedback on the seven month programme hosted by the Government of the Republic of South Africa in partnership with the African World Heritage Fund (AWHF) to commemorate the 40th Anniversary of the World Heritage Convention on the African continent. This culminated in a very successful International Conference on “Living with World Heritage in Africa” that took place in South Africa (26-29 September 2012). For this year, two issues are planned that will hopefully grow to four issues per year in
future. Both members and non-members are invited to submit short articles, opinion pieces, book reviews and professional personalia of not more than 600 words. The deadline for the next issue is 15 May 2013. Those of you who would like to become involved in the editorial team are welcome to contact Helene Vollgraaff in this regard. Helene Vollgraaff
ICOMOS Contact Details: Office: c/o Cape Town Heritage Trust PO Box 16092, Vlaeberg, 8018, South Africa Tel: + 27 21 421-0287 Fax: +27 21 421-0285 Email: [email protected] President: Pascall Taruvinga [email protected] Cell: 079 219 8952 Newsletter Editorial Committee: Helene Vollgraaff [email protected] Cell: 072 243 5228 ICOMOS-SA website: http://icomos-sa.org
mailto:[email protected]:[email protected]:[email protected]
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President’s Column Pascall Taruvinga
On behalf of the ICOMOS-SA Board it is my pleasure to extend my compliments for 2013 and to introduce the first edition of the ICOMOS–SA Electronic Newsletter to all of you. The newsletter is a vehicle for informing both current and potential ICOMOS-SA members on national activities, ICOMOS international activities and news, new trends, workshops and training opportunities. With this newsletter the ICOMOS-SA Board hopes to promote communication and support amongst heritage specialists in the country. We also aim to inform and stimulate debate about heritage practice while at the same time develop a support network amongst ICOMOS members within and outside South Africa. While ICOMOS-SA has been in operation for years, it is still imperative that a strong membership recruitment drive is needed especially targeting young and upcoming professionals in South Africa. The Board would also like to create opportunities for all members to become involved in the activities of ICOMOS-SA through participating in sub-committees and task teams, as well as ICOMOS International activities.
Focusing on growth in the future, Sabine Marschall is launching a youth programme in KZN schools to celebrate 2013 ICOMOS day (18th of April). This year’s theme Heritage of Education provides an excellent opportunity to promote the work of ICOMOS among the younger generation and instil an understanding of the importance of cultural heritage conservation from an early age. ICOMOS–SA will support such initiatives in order to build an informed generation going forward. At another level, ICOMOS-SA is expected to undertake fundraising programmes to ensure sustainability of the organisation, and support national and international activities for the benefit of its members. Fundraising will
require concerted effort by all members, including targeting the public and private sector in assisting the Republic of South Africa in managing and developing capacities required for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. Testimony to this need is the increasing number of Reactive Monitoring Missions to South African World Heritage Properties in the last few years by UNESCO and Advisory Bodies. But this is not to say that the responsible agencies in South Africa are not doing anything. ICOMOS-SA takes cognizance of the role South Africa is playing on the World Heritage Committee and the establishment of a fully-fledged World Heritage Unit within the Department of Environmental Affairsl Furthermore, the role the South African World Heritage Committee is playing in streamlining both the nominations and management of properties in South Africa and the hosting of the UNESCO Category II Centre, the African World Heritage Fund (AWHF), by the Department of Arts and Culture, is evidence of welcome support. The managing institutions of respective properties are also increasingly moving towards compliance with the requirements of World Heritage status. What is regrettable and lacking is the weak synergy between and among all these stakeholders with ICOMOS-SA. This is one area the current Board will strive to address to ensure cross-sharing of experiences and expertise for the benefit of the management and conservation of World Heritage properties in South Africa. In addition, ICOMOS-SA is looking at how World Heritage capacity building within South Africa can be prioritized in partnership with relevant stakeholders. But lobbying must be done with a clear understanding of the needs and how this capacity building will reverse the negativity noticed in the past years in the management of World Heritage properties in South Africa. Emphasis will be placed on supporting conservation and management training in order to redress some of the
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challenges being faced by site managers and as identified in the recently completed 2nd Cycle Periodic Reporting for Africa. In the area of nominations, streamlined processes are required to ensure submission of credible and quality nomination files alongside the efforts of the on-going African Nomination Training Programme hosted by the African World Heritage Fund and their partners. ICOMOS-SA is reliably informed that the Department of Environmental Affairs has begun such a process and members will be kept posted on this issue. In order to put all this into perspective, the ICOMOS-SA Board is developing an operational plan for 2013 consisting of activities, milestones, roles and responsibilities, time frames and a draft budget. This will be shared with the membership and comments will be welcome. However all this requires adequate resourcing and technical support.
The new ICOMOS-SA Board and the Membership at large have an onerous task to jointly ensure that ICOMOS–SA scales to another level, where we consolidate on past achievements but at the same time venture into new but potentially beneficial areas in the short and long term together with other stakeholders, both from the private and public sectors. For ICOMOS-SA, 2013 should be a year in which to grow membership, improve our relationship with the heritage and private sector of South Africa and lobby for capacity building at localized levels. ICOMOS-SA also envisages increased participation in international activities, especially by young and upcoming professionals as a way of bridging the current lopsided experience and exposure gaps. Once more, compliments for 2013 and we look forward to working with all of you towards the implementation of the World Heritage Convention in South Africa!
Pascall Taruvinga World Heritage Consultant
Pascall Taruvinga, holds a Masters in Heritage Studies and has extensive experience in the heritage sector of Africa (with special
emphasis on heritage management and World Heritage implementation), including museology. He has held the following positions in the past: Archaeologist/Head of Archaeology and Monuments Department, Zimbabwe Museum of Human Sciences (1994-2003, 2003-2004); Director: Research and Development, National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe (2004-2008); Programme Manager, International Council of
African Museums (AFRICOM) (2008-2010), and World Heritage Specialist, National Heritage Council of South Africa (2010 -2012). He has been involved in many capacity building programmes for African heritage practitioners, amongst others, the Southern African Rock Art Project (SARAP)/Getty Conservation Institute Project, Conservation and Management of Rock Art Sites in Africa (COMRASA), the Immovable Heritage Training Programme of Africa-2009, the on-going African Nomination Training Programme (African World Heritage Fund), and national capacity building programmes for States Parties. He is also a member of several International Committees, including ICOMOS, ICOM, C.A.R. International Rock Art Committee, ASAPA, and AFRICOM.
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Currently Pascall is working in the area of world heritage nominations and heritage management in the African region, including undertaking missions on behalf of UNESCO, Advisory Bodies and AWHF. Cecilene Muller Manager: Grading and Declarations South African Heritage Resource Agency
Cecilene Muller studied at the University of Cape Town obtaining a BSocSci in
Industrial Sociology and an Honours in
Archaeology (Ethnobotany). For the latter, she worked with Clanwilliam communities on the medicinal use of the plant Sutherlandia frutescens. She holds an Honours degree in social policy and management and a Masters in Archaeology (Archaeometry). For her Masters, she used stable isotopes to determine Later Stone Age diets for people from the Plettenberg Bay region. Cecilene worked as a researcher and education coordinator on the Clanwilliam Living Landscape Project where she transferred skills and empowered community members using the heritage, education and economic value of the Rock Art, Botany, Living Heritage and Palaeontology of the area. She joined SAHRA in 2004, first in the Archaeology, Palaeontology and Meteorites Unit where she assisted in establishing an Archaeology Register Database by gathering information from sources such as Archaeology Recording Centres and Cultural Resource Practitioners. In 2005 she became the Assistant Heritage Objects Officer responsible for issuing of permits, dealing with illicit trafficking and heritage awareness. At the end of 2006 she was appointed as Manager for Grading and Declarations of national heritage sites which include compiling
nomination dossiers, doing public participation, compiling conservation management plans and the establishments of management authorities. After a year in the position Project Manager: External Funding, she in once again manages the Grading and Declaration processes at SAHRA. Cecilene was also a participant and facilitator on the Africa 2009 programme for immovable heritage in Africa. Helene Vollgraaff Policy Research Specialist National Heritage Council Helene Vollgraaff holds a D.Phil in Political Studies from the University of Stellenbosch where she specialised in new social movements. She worked for many years at Iziko Museums and its predecessor the SA Cultural History Museum focusing on memory projects and contemporary culture. In 2008, she joined the National Heritage Council as Policy Research Specialist. She also serves on the Department of Arts and Culture appointed Panel of Experts to draft a national museum policy framework. She is a member of the National Forum for the Law Enforcement of Heritage Related Matters (NALEH) and is currently researching policy development and implementation related to heritage crime. In addition to being involved in ICOMOS, Helene has served for many years on the SA Museums Association Council (SAMA)(2000 – 2007) and is still involved in the SAMA Human Resources Development Task Team. She also served on the ICOM-SA Executive Board from 2006-2011.
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NdukuyakheNdlovu Senior Lecturer University of Pretoria
Ndukuyakhe Ndlovu, a PhD graduate from Newcastle University in the United Kingdom, is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Anthropology and Archaeology at the University of Pretoria. His research interest includes southern African rock art and the management of Africa’s rich cultural heritage and these have formed the main part of his publications to date. His current research project, analysing the distribution of rock art in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is funded through the Carnegie Large Research Grant. Besides an interest in heritage management and rock art, Ndukuyakhe is actively involved in different projects aimed at bringing about transformation in the archaeological discipline in South Africa, a process that will lead to the inclusion of more African archaeologists. He is an advocate of a truly transformed archaeological discipline that should be reflective of the demographic composition of the country. He has previously served as the inaugural Transformation Officer within the Association of southern African Professional Archaeologists (ASAPA). Ndukuyakhe has over nine years’ experience in heritage management in South Africa, having worked for both national and provincial heritage authorities in various capacities. In his most recent position, he worked as the Manager: Archaeological Collections for the University of the Witwatersrand. Ndukuyakhe is currently the Editor for Episteme, Assistant Editor for the South African Archaeological Bulletin and Junior
Representative for the East and southern Africa for the World Archaeological Congress. Sabine Marschall Associate Prof: Cultural and Heritage Tourism University of KwaZulu-Natal Sabine Marschall holds a PhD in art history from the University of Tuebingen (Germany) with a specialization in 19th century architecture, which became the foundation for her long-standing interest in cultural heritage conservation. In 1995 she relocated to South Africa and initially taught at the University of Durban-Westville. She is currently Associate Professor of Cultural and Heritage Tourism at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. For the past 12 years, her research focus has revolved around commemoration and heritage, as well as cultural and heritage tourism. Her latest book, Landscape of Memory, was published by Brill in 2010. Her current research focus is on intangible heritage and the role of new technologies in conservation. Sonja Warnich Stemmet Heritage Professional City of Cape Town Sonja Warnich-Stemmet holds a Magister Technologaie: Town & Regional Planning degree from the Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT). She was a part-time lecturer at the Town and Regional Planning Department, CPUT, from 2003 to 2006. From July 2006 to November 2006 she was employed at Grandslots as a Business License Officer.
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Sonja joined the South African Heritage Resources Agency (SAHRA) Western Cape provincial office in 2006 with heritage resources management as her primary function. She was later employed in the Built Environment division of SAHRA and become the acting manager of this division for a year. In 2008 she had the opportunity to attend the 6th Technical Course on Impact Assessment and Heritage, Africa 2009, which was hosted at Kareima, Sudan. Sonja recently joined the City of Cape Town in March 2012 as a Heritage Professional in the Environment and Heritage Branch in the Environmental Resource Management Department.
Sonja also serves on the South African Museums Association (SAMA) Western Cape executive committee in the administration portfolio.
REMINDER: 2013 Membership
Please note that membership fees are due. Once payment has been received by the office together with a completed membership form, your membership card will be requested and forwarded to you. If you need an invoice or more information, please contact Nicolette at the ICOMOS-SA Office.
Reflections on China 2012 by Laura Robinson & Sabine Marschall
Laura Robinson [email protected] The annual meeting of the Advisory Committee of ICOMOS was held in Beijing, China from 26 October to 1 November 2012. ICOMOS members from South Africa who attended the meeting were: Laura Robinson (Treasurer-General), Heinz Ruther (representing CIPA) and Sabine Marschall. The only other attendees from sub-Saharan Africa were two colleagues from Tanzania, Donatius Kamamba, being one of them: once again, a sad reflection of the lack of resources that we have in our region. (Tanzania is in the process of re-establishing a national committee. Donatius has been co-opted onto the Executive Committee of ICOMOS to strengthen representivity from our region). The Advisory Committee of ICOMOS is composed of the Presidents of all national committees and the Presidents of all of the International Scientific Committees, all
ICOMOS members are welcome to attend the Advisory Committee meetings, and, as is customary, a Scientific Symposium is held during the course of the meeting, which usually runs for a few days.The function of the ADCOM is to advise the Executive Committee and to make suggestions and recommendations on the priorities and directions of the program, including the national and international scientific committees. During the course of the time spent in Beijing a number of other meetings were held, these being the Bureau and the Executive Committee of ICOMOS, as well as the Scientific Council (the co-ordinating body for the Scientific Symposium). Issues under discussion that were of particular interest to members included:
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1. International themes for 18th April World Heritage Day
(The theme for 2012 was World Heritage and sustainable development) The theme for 2013 will be that of the “Heritage of Education” which will involve institutions such as schools, universities, libraries and academies amongst others. It was also decided that the theme for 2014 would be “Heritage of Commemoration”, which would look at the theme in its broadest sense including not only buildings, but places and associated practices that require commemoration.
2. ADCOM office bearers elected for new three year term
Elections are held every triennium for office bearers of the Advisory Committee. John Hurd (UK) was re-elected as Chairperson, Gisle Jakhelln (Norway) and Virginia Flores Sasso (Dominican Republic) serve as the two Vice Presidents.
3. Introduction of the new Director-General of ICOMOS, Philippe Allard.
The new D-G of ICOMOS, Philippe Allard, now heads up the offices of the Secretariat in Paris and will act as the liaison between the EXCOM and the staff of the Secretariat. Philippe will also engage with the World Heritage Centre, particularly in terms of the financial implications of the work done by ICOMOS in preparing recommendations on the properties nominated on cultural and mixed criteria for the World Heritage Committee.
4. Finances Finances remain a matter of key concern for ICOMOS as the present model of income generation based on membership subscriptions and World Heritage Advisory work is unsustainable. A working group headed up by Treasurer-General Laura Robinson will be looking at alternative income generation models used by organisations such as IUCN and ICCROM, as well as external fund-raising opportunities.
5. General Assembly, Florence, Italy 2016
The next General Assembly of ICOMOS in 2016 will be held in Florence, Italy. Work has begun on the scientific symposium that will form a key component of this triennial event and members will be kept up to date on this as the theme and sub-themes are developed.
6. International Scientific Council and Committees
A day was devoted to a meeting of the Scientific Council (comprised of the Presidents of the ISCs) and this was accompanied by a short symposium on the topic of heritage at risk.
7. Florence Declaration of (Cultural) Landscape 2012
The ADCOM and Executive Committees endorsed the recent Florence Declaration on (Cultural) Landscape as developed at the UNESCO international meeting on “The International Properties of Landscapes”. This important declaration highlights the role that landscapes play as an integral part of sustainable development processes and ‘requests the creation of an International Forum for the safeguarding of landscapes as a tool for sustainable development with the aim of advancing proposals for the reflection on the post-2015 International Development Agenda and to start a relevant international mechanism.’ For the full text please refer to http://whc.unesco/uploads/news/documents/news-943-2pdf In concluding this report thanks must, once again, be extended to our hosts ICOMOS China, whose courtesy, helpfulness and general organisation made the entire meeting a great pleasure to attend. A number of excursions were also arranged, these included visits to the Forbidden Palace, the Great Wall and a number of areas in the vast city of Beijing.
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Sabine Marschall [email protected]
Having only been an ‘ordinary’ member of ICOMOS until recently, I would not normally have attended the 2012 ICOMOS conference in Beijing. But I had submitted a proposal for the poster session of the scientific symposium and was most delighted when I was notified about its acceptance. Closer to the time, I realized that many sessions of the conference and special events are not open to ‘ordinary’ members (although in retrospect I noticed that many members were in fact allowed in). What a great surprise and wonderful fortune when I learnt – literally two weeks before my departure – that I had been co-opted onto the board of ICOMOS South Africa! I was hence able to attend all sessions and events, although I did not feel entitled to participate in voting, as I was too new to this level of engagement and I had no formal mandate from my colleagues in South Africa who I have not met yet (even up to now). This was my first trip to Beijing and to China in general and it was an impressive experience all round! The conference was extremely well organized and interesting and has left me with a much better understanding of how ICOMOS works. I became aware of the huge differences in the size, level of activity and participation between the national committees of different countries and regions. Clearly, it is a matter of leadership and I believe as a member of the board, I too now bear a responsibility for ICOMOS South Africa to become more active and visible. But it was also emphasized at the conference, in
many formal and informal ways that individual members at any level can and should become active in the ICOMOS scientific committees, irrespective of their status as an elected member of the national structure. We should all think of approaching our professional connections within the cultural heritage field and encourage them not only to become members of ICOMOS, but to share their expertise through the scientific committees. Based on my initial interest in the Beijing conference, the one day set aside for the scientific symposium was of particular importance to me. It consisted of formal paper presentations and a workshop with break-away sessions. Rather disappointing was the fact that the posters were not well displayed and no specific time had been set aside for any engagement with the poster presenters. Given the amount of work that goes into the preparation, this was a rather unsatisfactory experience. But the huge variety of other experiences, including dinners and excursions, the opportunity to reconnect with colleagues from other parts of the world and meet new people, including colleagues from ICOMOS South Africa, made up for the disappointment. Coming from an academic background, rather than conservation practice, I felt very humbled in the presence of some extremely accomplished experts and eminent international leaders in the field of cultural heritage conservation. I now feel very inspired and motivated to work with my colleagues in ICOMOS South Africa and promote cultural heritage conservation in this country.
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Africa celebrates the 40th Anniversary of the 1972 World Heritage Convention
Pascall Taruvinga [email protected]
Africa joined the rest of the World in 2012 to celebrate the 40th Anniversary of the 1972 World Heritage Convention, of which the final and official ceremony was held in Japan. Preceding this world-wide celebration, the Government of the Republic of South Africa (RSA), in collaboration with UNESCO World Heritage Centre and the African World Heritage Fund (AWHF), initiated a seven month programme for the Africa region to mark the 40th Anniversary of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention under the theme “World Heritage and Sustainable Development: the role of local communities”. The seven month programme consisted of the following activities:
i. Situational Analysis reporting (March-April 2012) on the relations between World Heritage and extractive industries in the Africa region.
ii. Experts Meeting (23rd -25th May 2012, Maropeng, South Africa) for 75 experts and representatives from African Governments, extractive industries and heritage institutions focusing on World Heritage and Extractive Industries under the theme “Managing the impacts of development activities and resource extraction in and around World Heritage sites in the Africa region.
iii. The International Conference on “Living with World Heritage in Africa” (26-29 September 2012) brought together about 300 high level decision makers from African Governments, heritage institutions, local communities and the development sectors. The conference sub-themes identifying means and strategies for management of World Heritage properties in Africa in the face of increasing pressure from development with an emphasis on (a) World Heritage, Sustainable
Development and poverty alleviation, and (b) World Heritage and Local Communities and (c) an academic seminar for Experts on cross cutting issues on World Heritage and Sustainable Development. The proceedings also included a colloquium for 16 African Ministers of Culture, Tourism, Environment and Mining which discussed cross cutting issues on World Heritage and Sustainable Development. The Advisory Bodies, ICOMOS and IUCN, were all represented during the International Conference, with the former represented by the ICOMOS Treasurer-General, Laura Robinson, also a long standing founder and past Executive member of ICOMOS South Africa. Also, ICOMOS–SA- President, Pascall Taruvinga was invited to participate in the selection of presenters based on submitted abstracts and was part of the Organizing Secretariat.
The seven month programme produced the following results;
1. A Situational Analysis report on World Heritage and extractive industries in the Africa region highlighting sites under threat in the region and the suggested way forward.
2. Experts Workshop Report on managing the impacts of development activities and resource extraction in and around World Heritage properties in the Africa region with recommendations for State Parties, UNESCO-World Heritage Centre, Extractive Industries and Communities.
3. Second African Position Paper on the implementation of the World Heritage Convention in Africa
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highlighting the achievements, challenges and recommendations going forward to ensure increased levels of implementation and ownership of the Convention on the African continent.
4. Report on the International Conference on “Living with World Heritage in Africa” highlighting cross cutting positions and recommendations from State Parties, Ministers, Communities, and Experts from the Continent. The papers presented during the conference will be published in due course.
All the results of the seven month programme, dealing with the issues of World Heritage and Sustainable Development, were presented during the official ceremony to commemorate the World Heritage Convention held in Japan (December 2012),
and then to the Council of African Ministers of Culture at the African Union meeting held in DRC (November 2012). Furthermore, these results have also been widely circulated in both the Anglo/Francophone countries. All these documents can be accessed at websites hosted by AWHF, Department of Arts and Culture (South Africa), Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) and UNSECO.
The implementation of the recommendations emanating from the seven month programme remains important and the sole responsibility of the Africa region in collaboration with the African World Heritage Fund (AWHF), a UNESCO Category II Centre. The African region extends its thanks to the Government of the Republic of South Africa in supporting the seven month programme, including the post programme activities on behalf of all the State Parties.
Debating climate change within the context of heritage resources
management in South Africa
Cecilene Muller, SAHRA
This article focuses on the challenges regarding the lack of policy pertaining to the weaknesses, threats and opportunities relating to climate change within the context of heritage resources management. The disaster (preparedness) management plan should form an integral part of an integrated conservation management plan as a tool for the implementation of preventative and mitigation measures for heritage resources. Taking into account the existence of the World Bank’s report, “Turn the heat down”, the World Heritage Report no. 22, and the finalization of South Africa’s White Paper, National Climate Change Response in 2012,it is essential that heritage practitioners in South Africa start talking about climate change. Report no. 22 can be used as a point of departure, for the emphasis is on
predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage and Strategy to assist States Parties for the implementation of appropriate management responses. The legislative framework in South Africa allows for adequate responses regarding climate change. Together with the South African White paper on Climate Change, intergovernmental legislation allows for the synergy between heritage legislation, like the National Heritage Resources Act no. 25 of 1999, the National Archives and Records Services Act 43 and other legislation like the Disaster Management Act 57 of 2002. Tools like integrated management plans, which should include risk management plans can be used to guide responses. Both the
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municipalities of Cape Town and eThekwini have such plans, which include heritage resources under threat by increased temperatures (a 2°C increase is projected) and rising sea levels. The World and National Heritage site of Robben Island with its saline environment and which is buffeted by strong winds, comes to mind as an example (Josias 1995). According to the Matthews et al. article of2009 Ngulube reported in 2005 that not many archives have given serious thought to the development of disaster preparedness plans for their institutions. In-house training as part of an intervention strategy is crucial for effective disaster management responses, while monitoring will help with skills development. In situ assessments should be done to address existing problems relating to the preservation of the collections by multi-disciplinary teams, while ongoing monitoring, evaluation and projection tools of future challenges should be undertaken. This includes high resolution climate change evolution scenarios connected to simulation models identifying urgent risks. Monitoring should be conducted through the use of climate data and building simulations to set up new damage functions (Killian et al. 2009:3). Identifying and investigating moisture surfaces and sinks, as well as solar energy inputs through the walls will assist in building simulation models. According to Killian et al. (2009:4), historic buildings (buildings older than 60 years according to the NHRA) show elevated indoor humidity levels and high variation of climatic conditions. Methods for improving microclimates within buildings, rooms, exhibition spaces and archives should be part of guidelines for
climatic control, for instance by leaving doors or windows open which allows for ventilation. Hydrothermal interactions between indoor air, furnishings, usage and the building envelope are important when objects are not stored in protective casings. Thus training is required to address mistakes made while managing collections and historic buildings. Capacity constraints, especially funding of the management of heritage resources, remain a challenge regarding training and intervention strategies. Matthews et al. 2009 identified funding to support organizations that are responsible for training as problematic. An added challenge is to raise awareness with decision makers regarding the costs to take actions. To ensure that heritage resources are conserved, relevant policies and integrated management plans need to exist allowing for effective control of responses to threats regarding climate change. Implementation can only be assured when resources are available. Economic costs related to the impacts of climate change on heritage resources should be projected and budgeted. It is however small collections and heritage sites that are more vulnerable to climate change due to capacity constraints. References Josias, A.1995. Robben Island Museum collection management policy. Unpublished Internal Robben Island Museum policy.
Killian, R., Leissner, J., Antretter, F., Holl, K. and Holm, A. 2009. Modelling climate change chmpact on cultural heritage-The European project Climate for Culture.
Matthews, G. Smith, Y. and Knowles, G. 2009. Disaster
Management in Archives, Libraries and Museums.
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The Istanbul Statement, 2012.
Statement by Yildiz Technical University and ICOMOS-ICORP from the International Symposium on Cultural Heritage Protection in Times of Risk:
Challenges and Opportunities, 15 - 17 November, 2012 at Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.
This Statement is made on the 40th Anniversary of the adoption of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention on 16 November, 1972. Understanding that past civilizations have formed the foundations of today’s societies and that our cultural heritage will continue to shape and inform communities into the future, and Recognizing that cultural heritage is constantly at risk from natural and human-induced disasters, including armed conflict, some of which are not always predictable, The Istanbul Statement recommends that all risk preparedness, disaster response and recovery strategies should address cultural heritage in parallel with practical humanitarian needs, as disaster recovery is also a wider and longer-term social process. Specifically the Istanbul Statement recommends that: While recognizing the sovereignty of nations, disaster response should be impartial and not be politicized and should respect human rights. All protective and legal measures introduced by international conventions should be used to protect cultural heritage better in times of armed conflict. The importance of cultural identity in post-disaster recovery is emphasized to lessen the loss of cultural knowledge and memory due to the displacement of communities by disasters. The importance of a community’s understanding of its heritage and its ability to form a critical component of disaster
response and recovery should be embraced, and should form a critical part of collaboration, decision-making, training and local capacity and resilience building, which will strengthen the overall effort resulting in longer-term benefits. Cultural heritage should be embedded into all the wider disaster preparation and response protocols and procedures through wider collaboration and co-operation between the heritage, emergency response and communications sectors; all levels of government, IGOs and NGOs and the military. Each sector should educate the other and should establish networks and forums to develop a mutual understanding of the importance of cultural heritage buildings, structures, sites, objects, collections, customs and traditional techniques which are at risk. They should develop joint priorities, protocols, approaches and methodologies to add value to the long-term economic and social benefit of communities. Disaster risk management education, including international training courses supported by academic and specialist organizations, should be available to all actors, ranging from communities to decision-makers from the heritage, disaster management and humanitarian sectors. Post-disaster response should require immediate safeguarding of cultural heritage, promptly followed by documentation of damage so as to facilitate later recovery in accord with accepted conservation practice. This should include also salvage and storage procedures and facilities; and should recognize the value of traditional systems and materials, including both tangible and intangible aspects, and should record them.
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Recognizing the inevitability of loss, together with the increasing ability of science and technology to enable conservation and rehabilitation of cultural heritage; laws requiring mandatory demolition of damaged buildings, structures and the clearing of sites are inappropriate without a full assessment of structural adequacy and cultural significance having been undertaken. For sustainable management of slow risks to cultural heritage, continuous maintenance, monitoring and assessment are essential. Finally, this Statement further recognizes the important roles which heritage IGOs and NGOs are able to play in times of disasters, in particular UNESCO and national committees of the Blue Shield. In this regard, ICOMOS, in particular ICORP, is encouraged to be pro-active in assisting in the establishment and formal recognition of national Blue Shield committees in disaster response protocols. This symposium also expresses concern at development proposals which may pose risks
to ecological and historical environments of Istanbul. This symposium also encourages ongoing efforts and co-operation with international heritage bodies, such as ICOMOS, in developing principles for the protection and conservation of heritage in Turkey. The participants of this symposium wish to extend our grateful thanks to Yildiz Technical University, ICOMOS-ICORP, the Republic of Turkey, Istanbul Governorship Special Provincial Administration Istanbul Project Co-ordination Unit - IPCU, ICOMOS Turkey and Ritsumeikan University - DMUCH, for sponsoring and supporting this symposium. ICOMOS – International Council on Monuments and Sites ICORP – International Committee on Risk Preparedness
ICOMOS-SA Editorial Committee:
Dr Helene Vollgraaff & Dr Janette Deacon
Deadline for next edition: 15 May 2013