Earthquakes Earthquakes & & Volcanoes Volcanoes

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Earthquakes & Volcanoes. The Layers of the Earth. Three Layers: Crust Mantle Core. The Earth ’ s Core. Two layers: Inner Core Outer Core Lithosphere Asthenosphere. Continental Drift. WHO: Alfred Wegner WHEN: 1912 WHAT: Pangea HOW: - Fossils - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Earthquakes Earthquakes & &


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The Layers of the EarthThe Layers of the Earth

Three Layers:Three Layers: CrustCrust



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The EarthThe Earth’’s Cores Core

Two layers:Two layers:Inner CoreInner Core

Outer CoreOuter Core


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Continental DriftContinental Drift

WHO: WHO: Alfred WegnerAlfred Wegner WHEN: WHEN: 19121912 WHAT: WHAT: PangeaPangea HOW: - HOW: - FossilsFossils

- - RocksRocks

- - GlaciersGlaciers

- - Polar Polar


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Explaining Continental DriftExplaining Continental Drift



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Questions that Arose…Questions that Arose… No MechanismNo Mechanism

EarthEarth’’s spins spin Strength of rocksStrength of rocks Wind and Ocean currentsWind and Ocean currents

Arthur HolmesArthur Holmes Convection CurrentsConvection Currents How plates moveHow plates move TrenchTrench RidgeRidge

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The Jig-Saw PuzzleThe Jig-Saw Puzzle

Two Types of PlatesTwo Types of Plates Ocean PlatesOcean Plates

ThinThin DenseDense

Land PlatesLand Plates ThickThick

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Sea Floor SpreadingSea Floor Spreading

Harry HessHarry Hess Ridge Ridge Trench Trench

Robert DietzRobert Dietz Lithosphere NOT CrustLithosphere NOT Crust

What are the differences between What are the differences between WegnerWegner’’s hypothesis and Hess and Diets hypothesis and Hess and Dietzz’’??

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Sea Floor Spreading and Sea Floor Spreading and Magnetics…Magnetics…

OceanOcean’’s floor and Earths floor and Earth’’s magnetic fields magnetic field Positive Magnetic AnomaliesPositive Magnetic Anomalies Negative Magnetic AnomaliesNegative Magnetic Anomalies

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Positive VS. Negative Positive VS. Negative Magnetic StripsMagnetic Strips

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Ocean plate goes under land plateOcean plate goes under land plate Pushed into AsthenospherePushed into Asthenosphere StratovolcanoesStratovolcanoes EarthquakesEarthquakes

Edge of plateEdge of plate AsthenosphereAsthenosphere

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Plate BoundariesPlate Boundaries

How are they found?How are they found?

Earthquake depthEarthquake depth ShallowShallow IntermediateIntermediate DeepDeep

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RING OF FIRERING OF FIRE How do the trenches relate to the Ring of How do the trenches relate to the Ring of


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Plate BoundariesPlate Boundaries

Plates Moving AwayPlates Moving Away Divergent Plate BoundaryDivergent Plate Boundary

Plates Moving TowardPlates Moving Toward Convergent Plate BoundaryConvergent Plate Boundary

Plates Sliding PastPlates Sliding Past Transform Plate BoundaryTransform Plate Boundary

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Divergent Plate BoundaryDivergent Plate Boundary


Mid-Atlantic RidgeMid-Atlantic Ridge

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Convergent Plate BoundaryConvergent Plate Boundary

““CompressionalCompressional”” Nazca Plate moving under portion of Nazca Plate moving under portion of

South American PlateSouth American Plate Why does the Nazca plate move under Why does the Nazca plate move under

the South American plate? the South American plate? *HINT* What types of plates *HINT* What types of plates

are they?are they?

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Transform Plate Transform Plate BoundaryBoundary

Cause EarthquakesCause Earthquakes San Andreas fault in CaliforniaSan Andreas fault in California

What two platesWhat two plates

cause this fault?cause this fault?

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When do Volcanoes When do Volcanoes Happen?Happen?

1)1) Divergent Plate BoundariesDivergent Plate Boundaries

2) Convergent Plate Boundary2) Convergent Plate Boundary

3) Hot Spots3) Hot Spots

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Hot SpotsHot Spots

Fixed spotsFixed spots

Magma = low pressure + shallow depthMagma = low pressure + shallow depth Plate movesPlate moves Geologist Tuzo WilsonGeologist Tuzo Wilson Emperor SeamountsEmperor Seamounts

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Why and Where???Why and Where???

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Speaking of HotSpots…Speaking of HotSpots…Trip to Yellow Stone anybody?Trip to Yellow Stone anybody?


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The Low-Down on LAVAThe Low-Down on LAVA

Three TypesThree Types::

1- 1- PillowPillow

-Mid-Ocean Ridges-Mid-Ocean Ridges

-Why does it form like-Why does it form like


2- 2- PahoehoePahoehoe

- Characteristics?- Characteristics?

- How does it form?- How does it form?

3- 3- AaAa

- Characteristics?- Characteristics?

Coast of Kilauea

Sub-Glacial Pillow Lava

Mauna Ula

Mauna Loa

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Pahoehoe Lava VS. Aa Lava Pahoehoe Lava VS. Aa Lava

* How do they form?* How do they form?

*Where do they go?*Where do they go?

*How does surrounding *How does surrounding rock help?rock help?

Lava Tube VS. Lava Channel

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Pillow LavaPillow Lava – – CoastalCoastal FlowsFlows

Large frontLarge front Lava tubesLava tubes LobesLobes Foreset bedsForeset beds

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Common VolcanoesCommon Volcanoes

Crater LakeCrater Lake Mount Saint Helen Mount Saint Helen Una UnaUna Una

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Volcanic RocksVolcanic Rocks

IntrusiveIntrusive GraniteGranite

ExtrusiveExtrusive BasaltBasalt

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Volcanic DebrisVolcanic Debris

BombsBombs BlocksBlocks LapilliLapilli CindersCinders AshAsh ScoriaScoria PumicePumice Thread lace scoriaThread lace scoria PelePele’’s Hairs Hair SpatterSpatter

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Components of a VolcanoComponents of a Volcano

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Volcanic LandformsVolcanic LandformsSHIELD VOLCANOESSHIELD VOLCANOES Low viscosityLow viscosity Thin basaltThin basalt Gentle slopesGentle slopes Mauna LoaMauna Loa

7.5 miles from vent7.5 miles from vent Powerline polesPowerline poles

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Volcanic LandformsVolcanic LandformsStratovolcanoesStratovolcanoes Andesite and Dacite High silica = viscous Gas buildup causes

Violent eruptions Lots of ash

Subduction zones Mount Saint Helens

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Volcanic LandformsVolcanic LandformsCinder ConesCinder ConesWhat are they made from?What are they made from?HeightHeightFire FountainsFire Fountains


Fire Fountain

Puu Lilinue , Hawaii

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Volcanic LandformsVolcanic LandformsLava DomesLava Domes Steep sidesSteep sides Highly viscousHighly viscous What type of volcanoes can these be What type of volcanoes can these be

commonly found in?commonly found in?

Mt. Saint Helens Mt. Uzen

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Volcanic LandformsVolcanic LandformsVolcanic SpineVolcanic Spine



What type of lava?What type of lava?

Mount Pelee, Martinique

Mt. Saint Helens

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Volcanic LandformsVolcanic LandformsFlood BasaltsFlood Basalts

““Lava PlainsLava Plains””

Flat sheetsFlat sheets

Fluid lavaFluid lava

How do these How do these

compare to shield compare to shield


Columbia River flood basalts

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Volcanic LandformsVolcanic LandformsComposite VolcanoesComposite Volcanoes


What part is steep?What part is steep?

How is the slope?How is the slope?


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Early Detection?...Early Detection?...TiltmeterTiltmeter

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What measures the tilt?What measures the tilt?

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Leveling Leveling E.D.M. E.D.M. SurveysSurveys

Laser lightLaser light Where can this be Where can this be

found?found? How can this be How can this be


Measures horizontal Measures horizontal and vertical and vertical distancesdistances


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Global Positioning Global Positioning SystemSystem

System of: - Orbiting satellitesSystem of: - Orbiting satellites

- Receivers on volcanoes- Receivers on volcanoes

- Computers- Computers Time information between satellite and Time information between satellite and

receiverreceiver How does this information How does this information

help scientists?help scientists?

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Seismicity Gas Seismicity Gas GeochemistryGeochemistry

What does it What does it measure?measure?

How does this help?How does this help? Harmonic TremorHarmonic Tremor

FumarolesFumaroles What is measured?What is measured? How does this help?How does this help?

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Volcanoe Video…Volcanoe Video…


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Vibration and ShakingVibration and Shaking


Shock WavesShock Waves

Elastic Strain Elastic Strain

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Points to know…Points to know…



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Earthquake HistoryEarthquake History

Northridge 1994Northridge 1994

San Andreas 1906San Andreas 1906 Loma Prieta 1989Loma Prieta 1989

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Measuring EarthquakesMeasuring Earthquakes

Seismograph:Seismograph:PenPenRotating Paper DrumRotating Paper Drum

Mercalli ScaleMercalli Scale

Richter ScaleRichter Scale

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Fun Facts!Fun Facts!

Ringing Church BellsRinging Church Bells

Heat in IcelandHeat in Iceland

Nutrients for the Earths SoilsNutrients for the Earths Soils

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DifferentDifferentEarthquakeEarthquake Waves Waves Primary WavePrimary Wave

Secondary WaveSecondary Wave

Rayleigh WaveRayleigh Wave

Love WaveLove Wave

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Different FaultsDifferent Faults Strike-Slip FaultsStrike-Slip Faults Thrust/ Reverse FaultThrust/ Reverse Fault Normal FaultsNormal Faults

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Earthquake VideoEarthquake Video


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Why are earthquakes in Why are earthquakes in New York so dangerous?New York so dangerous?

Population and building structurePopulation and building structure

Transmission of shakingTransmission of shaking

Water Pressure Water Pressure

-More fires-More fires

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East Coast vs. West CoastEast Coast vs. West Coast

Drill holes in Manhattan and Los AngelesDrill holes in Manhattan and Los Angeles Temperatures differenceTemperatures difference Two plates rubbing cause volcanic Two plates rubbing cause volcanic

activityactivity Hotter temp. makes damps out Hotter temp. makes damps out

propagation of seismic propagation of seismic waveswaves What does this mean?What does this mean?

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Works CitedWorks Cited "A Teacher's Guide to the Geology of Hawaii "A Teacher's Guide to the Geology of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park." Volcanoes National Park." VolcanoVolcano. 14 Feb 2007. . 14 Feb 2007. Hawaii Natural History Assossication. 21 Feb 2007 Hawaii Natural History Assossication. 21 Feb 2007


Dalgleish, Sharon. Dalgleish, Sharon. VolcanoesVolcanoes. Bothell, WA: Wright . Bothell, WA: Wright Group/McGraw-Hill, 1999.Group/McGraw-Hill, 1999.

Daryl, "Earthquake Waves." Daryl, "Earthquake Waves." Daryl's EarthSci Demo PageDaryl's EarthSci Demo Page. 2 Feb . 2 Feb 2007. Daryl's Science. 5 Mar 2007 2007. Daryl's Science. 5 Mar 2007 <http://www.darylscience.com/Demos/PSWaves.html>.<http://www.darylscience.com/Demos/PSWaves.html>.

"Fault Types." "Fault Types." Basic EarthquakesBasic Earthquakes. 15 Sep 2006. . 15 Sep 2006. US.GS.. 12 Mar US.GS.. 12 Mar 2007 2007 <http://www.abag.ca.gov/bayarea/eqmaps/fixit/ch2/sld006.htm>.<http://www.abag.ca.gov/bayarea/eqmaps/fixit/ch2/sld006.htm>.

Wood, Jenny. Wood, Jenny. Volcanoes: Facts, Stories, ProjectsVolcanoes: Facts, Stories, Projects. First Ed. Great . First Ed. Great Britian: Two-Can Pulishing, Ltd., 1990.Britian: Two-Can Pulishing, Ltd., 1990.