DR. GACHERI MUTUA Consultant Paediatrician ... DR. GACHERI MUTUA Consultant Paediatrician Neonatologist

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  • DR. GACHERI MUTUA

    Consultant Paediatrician Neonatologist

  • Background

  •  Acute respiratory failure is a common problem in preterm and term infants

     In preterm infants, the most common cause of acute respiratory failure is Respiratory Distress Syndrome

     Other secondary causes: ◦ Surfactant deficiency in late preterms ◦ Infants with Meconium Aspiration

    Syndrome ◦ Pneumonia ◦ Sepsis ◦ Pulmonary haemorrhage

  • ◦ Primary cause is deficiency of pulmonary surfactant in immature lung

    ◦ Affects about 1% of all newborn infants1

    ◦ Incidence decreases with advancing gestational age, from ~50% in babies born at 26-28 weeks, to about 25%at 30-31 weeks

    ◦ Syndrome is more frequent in males, Caucasians, infants of diabetic mothers, and the second born of premature twins

  • ◦ Pulmonary surfactant is composed of:

    Lipids (90%) primarily phospholipids

    Proteins (10%) SP-B, SP-C, SP-A, SP-D

    ◦ Surfactant is synthesized within alveolar type II cells

    ◦ Surfactant is expressed in the lung starting ~20weeks gestation

    ◦ Surfactant reduces alveolar surface tension, thereby facilitating alveolar expansion and reducing the likelihood of alveolar collapse atelectasis

  •  Most common cause of surfactant deficiency is preterm delivery

     In infants born at term, mutations in the genes encoding surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C, as well as Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A3 (ABCA3) may cause surfactant deficiency and/or dysfunction

     Clinical manifestations result primarily from abnormal pulmonary function and hypoxemia

     Presents within first minutes or hours after birth

  •  Score 10 = Severe Respiratory Distress

     Score > 7 = Impending Respiratory Failure

     Score 4-6 = Moderate Respiratory Distress

     Score 0-3 = Mild Respiratory Distress

  • Surfactant

  •  Several clinical trials have shown the benefit of exogenous surfactant administration in preterm infants born less than 30 weeks gestation who are at the greatest risk for RDS1

     In these trials, surfactant therapy compared with placebo was associated with a lower incidence and severity of RDS and mortality, and a decreased rate of associated complications including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pulmonary interstitial emphysema and other pulmonary leak complications2

  • When?

  •  Prophylactic, or preventive, surfactant strategy is defined as intubation and surfactant administration to infants at high risk of developing RDS for the primary purpose of preventing worsening RDS rather than treatment of established RDS

     Prophylactic doses are administered in the delivery room before initial resuscitation efforts or the onset of respiratory distress or, most commonly, after initial resuscitation but within 10 to 30 minutes after birth

  •  Rescue or treatment surfactant strategy, in which surfactant is given only to preterm infants with established RDS

     It is administered within first 12hours after birth, when specified threshold criteria of RDS are met

  •  Early rescue is defined as surfactant treatment within 1 to 2 hours of birth, and late rescue is defined as surfactant treatment within 2 or more hours after birth

     Repeat dose is within 4-12hrs if FiO2 >50%  A meta-analysis of early versus delayed

    surfactant treatment concluded that the risk of mortality, air leak, chronic lung disease were significantly decreased in infants given early surfactant treatment1 ◦ There were no differences in other complications of

    prematurity

  • Which?

  •  Treatment with animal derived surfactants has several advantages over first-generation, protein-free synthetic surfactants1

     These include lower mortality rates and fewer incidences of pneumothorax.

     Animal derived surfactants contain variable amounts of surfactant protein B (SP-B) ◦ SP-B enhances the rate of absorption of

    phospholipids at the air-water interface, is involved in the formation of tubular myelin, and has anti- inflammatory properties

  •  Natural surfactants are associated with greater early improvement in ventilation support, fewer air leaks and fewer deaths

     These should be given early in the course of RDS

     Several clinical trials have shown natural surfactants to be superior to synthetic preparations; and associated with lower inspired oxygen concentration and ventilator pressures, decreased mortality and lower rate of RDS complications in preterm infants1

  • ◦ Animal derived

     Calfactant (Infasurf): bovine calf lung lavage

     Beractant (Survanta): bovine lung extract

     Bles: bovine lipid extract

     Poractant alfa (Curosurf): porcine lung extract

    ◦ Synthetic

     Lucinactant (Surfaxin): synthetic

     Colfosceril palmitate(Exosurf): synthetic

  • How?

  • 1. Endotracheal intubation

    ◦ Bolus administration

     One dose

     Multiple doses (in aliquots)

    ◦ Continuous infusion

  • 2. Less invasive:

    ◦ Aerosolized surfactant preparations

    ◦ Laryngeal mask airway-aided delivery of surfactant

    ◦ Pharyngeal instillation

    ◦ Use of intratracheal catheters

  • 3. MIST (Minimally Invasive Surfactant Therapy)

    ◦ Minimizes airway injury

    ◦ Avoids placing positive pressure ventilation (PPV) on immature lungs

    ◦ The breathing preterm baby with RDS receives surfactant via gastric tube placed in the trachea

  •  Animal derived ◦ 4mls/kg (4 aliquots)

     Synthetic ◦ 2.5-3mls/kg (2 aliquots)

  • 1. Extreme preterms ◦ Intubate immediately after birth and

    surfactant is given prophylactically

    2. Infants initially treated with non- invasive ventilation (nCPAP)

    3. FiO2 >40% to maintain SPO2 >88% or PaO2 >45mmHg

    4. PaO2 >55mmHg to 60mmHg with pH

  • 5. Repeated apneas, requiring bag and mask ventilation

    6. Significant work of breathing, retractions, grunting, increased anteroposterior diameter (ref. to Silvermann-Anderson score chart)

  •  Indications as per 2014 American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP) and the European Consensus Guidelines (ECG) recommendations, is to initially provide nCPAP to all patients with RDS, and intubate and administer surfactant to those with persistent severe respiratory distress (defined as requiring a fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2] of 0.40 or higher to maintain oxygen saturation above 90%) or who are apneic

  • ◦ Additional doses of surfactant therapy are administered if the patient has a persistent requirement of an FiO2 >0.30

    ◦ Rescue surfactant may be considered for infants with hypoxic respiratory failure (due to pulmonary haemorrhage, MAS, sepsis, pneumonia)

     Intubated infants with MAS requiring >50% oxygen should receive exogenous surfactant therapy

  • Limited data in preterm infants with severe RDS requiring mechanical ventilation suggest that combination of surfactant and budenoside (corticosteroid) reduced the incidence of BPD and the composite outcome of death and BPD1. However there was no difference in mortality.

  •  Intubate

     Surfactant

     Extubate

     INSURE is preferred for non-intubated infants with: ◦ Clinical RDS

    ◦ Abnormal CXR

    ◦ Worsening FiO2 requirement

  •  Infants should have good respiratory effort

     Infants should be < 6 hours old

     Infants NOT good for INSURE: ◦ Those intubated at birth for apneas and

    poor respiratory effort ◦ Neonates who have received extensive

    resuscitation ◦ Any associated medical issues e.g anemia,

    hydrops, asphyxia, etc

  •  Administer surfactant procedurally then extubate to nCPAP

     Before extubation ensure: ◦ HR and SPO2 are stable ◦ FiO2 less than the pre-surfactant level

    (

  •  Increasingly non-invasive respiratory support through nCPAP is associated with a decreased risk of developing chronic lung disease compared with conventional mechanical ventilation

     Meta-analysis of nCPAP with/without INSURE tend to favour early INSURE over nCPAP alone for reducing BPD, air leak, death

     Some infants (30%-50%) still require mechanical ventilation

  • ◦ Transient hypoxia ◦ Transient bradycardia ◦ ETT blockage ◦ Air leaks ◦ Oxygen desaturations ◦ Pneumothorax (sudden changes in pulmonary compliance) ◦ pulmonary haemorrhage (low incidence)

  • 1. Pulmonary haemorrhage1

    2. Meconium aspiration syndrome

    3. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia2

    4. Critically ill infants with RSV bronchiolitis3

    NB: Incidences of other medical morbidities (BPD, IVH, NEC, ROP, PDA, Infections) have not chan

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