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    SO 015 680

    Parker, Walter; Jarolimek, JohnCitizenship and the Critical Role of the SocialStudies. NCSS Bulletin No. 72.ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social ScienceEducation, Boulder, Colo.; National Council for theSocial Studies, Washington, D.C.; Social ScienceEducation Consortium, Inc., Boulder, Colo.National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.ISBN=0=89994=287=384400-83-001261p.SSEC Publications, 855 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80302 orNational Council for the Social - Studies{ -3501 NewarkStreet, N.W., Washington, DC 20016 ($5.95 pluspostage).Viewpoints (120) -- GuideS - Classroom Use - Guides(For Teachers) (052) Information Analyses ERICInformation Analysis Products (071)

    MFOI /PCO3 Plus Postage.*Advocacy; Basic Skills; Citizen Participation;*Citizenship Education; Democratic Values;Educational Responsibility; Educational Theories;Elementary Secondary Education; ExperientialLearning; General Education; Politics of Education;School Community Relationship; Social Responsibility;*Social Studies; *Teacher Role

    Designed as a tool to help social studies educatorspromote their discipline) -this volume outlines the critical role ofsocial studies in the K-12 curriculum and the part social studieseducators must take in assuring that this role is understood andaccepted by parents, school boards, and legislators. Material isdivided into four chapters. Chapter 1 outlines the essential rolethat the social studies play in the general school curriculum bycultivating "democratic" citizens. Chapter 2 defines the specialnature of a democratic citizen as one who participates in social,political, and economic processes. It is suggested that thedevelopment of such citizens through active, participatory learningexperiences is one of the most potent contributions of acomprehensive social studies program. Examples of community-based andschool-based social studies programs are provided. Chapter 3 reviewsthe research on political socialization that supports the claim thata strong social studies curriculum is needed in each of the 13 yearsof formal schooling. The final chapter outlines the role of thesocial studies teacher in advocating the social studies. Specifictechniques for promoting social studies education by working withlocal media, promoting instruction of the Constitution, recognizingstudent achievement, building social studies networks, and promotingsocial studies to parents are discussed. (LP)

  • NCSS Bulletin 72



    This document has been dreproduce.asreceived Irom the person or organivnion

    9iginating it.inor changes have boon made to improve

    reproduction quality.. . . .

    Points 01 crow or opinions stated in this dace,moot do not necessarily represent official MEposition or policy.




    Walter ParkerUniversity of Texas, Arlington

    John JarolimekUniversity of Washington

    Published jointly by: - -ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education, Boulder,

    cdharadoNational Council for the Social Studies; Washington, DCSocial Science Education Consortium, Boulder, Colorado

    ,mh sfs

  • ISBN-0-89994-287-3

    Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 84-60983Published 1984

    Ordering information

    This publication is available from: and

    The-National Council for the Social Social Science Education Consortium,Studies Inc.3501 Newark Street, N.W. 855 B-roadwayWashington, DC 20016 Boulder, CO 80302

    . This publication was prepared with funding from the National'.." Institute of Education; ELS._Department of Education, undercontract no. 400-83-0012. The opinions expressed do not

    1111 necessarily reflect the positions or policies of NIE or ED.

    The preparation of this publication was partially. Supported by a contract from theNational Institute of Education. Prior to publication, the manuscript was submitted tothe National Council for the Social Studies for critical review. Points of view or opinions;-;however, do not necessarily represent the official view or opinions ofthose organizationsor the National Institute of Education.






    CHAPTER ITHE CRITICAL ROLE DEFINEDThe Democratic CitizenAn Informed CitizenA Skil lfUl CitizenCommitted to Democratic Values




    The Narrow View 14The Broad View 16A Community-based Program 17A Community- and School-based Approach 19A School-based Approach 20

    CHAPTER IIISOCIAL STUDIES: EVERY DAY, EVERY GRADE 23Citizenship Is Learned 24Direct and Indirect Political Learning 27Social Studies Scope and Sequence 29

    CHAPTER IVADVOCATING THE SOCIAL STUDIES 33Doing What Is Needed 34Setting an Example 36Promoting the Social Studies 38

    Example 1 39Example 2 42Example 3 44Example 4 45Example 5 45Example 6 47Example 7 50


  • National Council for the Social Studies

    PresidentJean CravenAlbuquerque Public SchoolsAlbuquerque, New Mexico

    President-ElectDonald 11.13ragawNew York State Department of EducationAlbany, New York

    Vice PresidentPaul R:- ShiresGlendale-Niculet High SchoolMilwaukee, Wisconsin

    Acting Executive DirectorFrances Haley_ _Washington, DC

    Director af PublicationsCharles R. RiveraWashington; DC

    Executive Secretary EmeritusMerrill F. HartshornWashington, DC

    Board of DirectorsCharlotte C. AndersonJames A. BanksJanna BremerPhyllis ClarkeAn CottonLois W, DanielBetty S. DeanCarole L. HalmJean HuttClair KellerBob LynchMary McFarlandC:- Frederick RisingerJohn RossiDonald 0. SchneiderLois Conley SmithBob Stahl

    Publications BoardCaroline Penn, ChairpersonMarlowe BergMargaret CarterShirla McClainThomas TurnerDenny SchillingsLinda WojtanEx officio:Paul R. ShireSFrances HaleyCharles R. RiveraBoone C. Colegrove


    This volume does not attempt to trace the development of socialstudies education or examine alternative approaches to social studiesinstruction. Other volumes have done that quite well. It is a tool offeredto social studies educators acrOSS the country who are coining to anawareness of the need to advocate social studies education; assuringits presence every day in all thirteen grades.

    The critical role of the social studies, the authors point out; has falleninto the shadows of competing school and societal concerns. "If_ socialstudies is to be brought from the shadows to the curriculum limelight:they suggest; "its critical role must be widely understood and asserted.Social studies educators need to rise to the occasion. They need toclarify individually and in concert the importance of social studieseducation: And beyond being clear themselves, they need to becomearticulate advocates of social studies to students, parents, colleagues,building and central administrators, school boards, and legislators" (p.34)._

    Chapter one is a brief; persuasive statement of the critical role playedby the social studies in the general school curriculum. That role, theauthors_argue; is the cultivation of a particular kind ofcitizena "dem-ocratic" citizen. Chapter two goes to the heart of democratic citizen-ship: participation in social; political; and economic processes: Theauthors take a strong position that actual participation experiences arethe most _potent feature of a comprehensive social studies program:Chapter three reviews the research on political socialization to supportthe claim that a_strong social studies curriculum is needed every dayin each of the thirteen years of schooling: Finally, cluipter four askssocial studies educators to make the business of advocating the socialstudies their own personal business. Here; the question is put to thereader:

    What is happening in your classroom; your school; your district; and yourstate that others should know about and whichi_ if they knew about it;would help build public and professional enthusiasm for the social stud-ies? (p. 39).

    Since each reader's professional setting is unique; no "recipes" are

  • offered fbr advocating the social studies. Instead, the authors provideseveral diverse examples of advocacy efforts._

    This book; then; is a "user's manual:" Sections of the book may bereproduced without permission: Readers are encouraged to use thebook as they see fit to help Promote social studies teaching and learning"throughout the K-12 curriculum.

    James E. DavisAssociate DirectorERIC Clearinghouse for Social

    Studies /Social Science Education


    The authors express their gratitude to the many persons who reviewedthis manuscript at various stages in its development: Among them areDonald Bragaw; Gloria Contreras; Louis Grigar; Carole Hahn; Kay'Kaiser-Cook; Howard Langer; Samuel Perez; Thomas Turner; andPatricia Willsey. They are also grateful for the time; effort; and patienceof Sally Grofti typist. Of course; the views expressed herein are theauthors' and do not necessarily reflect those of the reviewers or thepublishers.



    Writing in 1840; when our republic was just over 50 years old; Alexisde Tocqueville warned Americans that voting was a necessary butinsufficient aspect of citizenship. An_ occasional act of voting; he sail&followed by another "relapse into dependency;"' is not the kind _ofcitizenship needed if democracy is to be sustained. Neither is it thekind of citizenship needed if pressing social challenges are to be methead-on;_ if p

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