dl. Transport Its...آ  Public Transport Public Transport covers the planning of all public transport

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  • Public Transport

    Public Transport covers the planning of all public transport systems (bus, coach, rail, taxi and domestic air travel) in Britain and other countries with similar systems. The term ‘planning’ is used both in the context of local authority and central government roles and in the work done by transport operators (for example, network structures, vehicle type selection).

    The emphasis is primarily on the urban and regional market, with issues spe- cific to long-distance and rural sectors considered separately. Material has been extensively updated to reflect changes in policy, recent statistical data, and research outcomes. A new chapter has been added on the role of service quality and marketing. A concluding chapter examines the broader long-term policy issues.

    Public Transport serves as a textbook for both specialist students in transport and those in related fields, such as planning, geography, civil engineering and business studies who are taking optional courses in transport. It is also of inter- est to transport planners in local authorities and consultancies and managers in transport operations.

    Peter White is Professor of Public Transport Systems, Department of Transport Studies, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, University of Westminster, UK.

  • The Natural and Built Environment Series Editor: Professor John Glasson Oxford Brookes University

    Introduction to Rural Planning Nick Gallent, Meri Juntti, Sue Kidd and Dave Shaw

    Regional Planning John Glasson and Tim Marshall

    Strategic Planning for Regional Development Harry T. Dimitriou and Robin Thompson

    Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment John Glasson, Riki Therivel and Andrew Chadwick

    Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment Peter Morris and Riki Therivel

    Public Transport Peter White

    Urban Planning and Real Estate Development John Ratcliffe and Michael Stubbs

    Landscape Planning and Environmental Impact Design Tom Turner

    Controlling Development Philip Booth

    Partnership Agencies in British Urban Policy Nicholas Bailey, Alison Barker and Kelvin MacDonald

    Development Control Keith Thomas

  • Public Transport Its planning, management and operation Fifth Edition

    Peter White

  • Fifth edition published 2009 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN

    Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016

    Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

    © 2009 Peter White

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

    The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any efforts or omissions that may be made.

    Every effort has been made to contact and acknowledge copyright owners, but the author and publisher would be pleased to have any errors or omissions brought to their attention so that corrections may be published at a later printing.

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data White, Peter, 1948- Public transport : its planning, management and operation / Peter White. p. cm. – (The natural and built environment series) Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Transportation–Great Britain. 2. Transportation and state–Great Britain. I. Title. HE243.A2W48 2008 388.068�4–dc22 2008011336

    ISBN10: 0-415-44531-0 (hbk) ISBN10: 0-415-44530-2 (pbk) ISBN10: 0-203-89228-3 (ebk)

    ISBN13: 978-0-415-44531-3 (hbk) ISBN13: 978-0-415-44530-6 (pbk) ISBN13: 978-0-203-89228-2 (ebk)

    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2008.

    “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”

    ISBN 0-203-89228-3 Master e-book ISBN

  • Contents

    Illustrations viii Preface x Acknowledgements xi

    1 Organization and control of transport in the British Isles 1 Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 The Irish Republic 5 Public spending in Great Britain 6 The operating industries in the United Kingdom 8 Regulation 12 Other organizations 14

    2 The role of public transport 17 The overall pattern 17 Definitions 17 Comparisons of bus and rail trip rates with the NTS 21 Composition of the rail and bus markets 21 Use of the ‘trips per head’ measure 22 Variations in public transport use by age and sex 23 Variations by time of day, and day of week 24 The ‘market gearing’ concept 26 The journey to work 27 Other journey purposes 29 Trip chaining 30 Time spent in travel 30 Changes in individuals’ travel over time 31 Taxis and private hire cars 32 Public transport and car use 33 The London case 34 Aggregate forecasting of public transport demand 35

  • Longer-term elasticities 39 Policy implications 40

    3 Service quality and marketing 43 Limitations of aggregate demand forecasting 43 Current service quality indicators 45 User perception of service quality 48 Quantifying the effects of service quality on ridership 49 Marketing and quality initiatives by bus operators 50 Marketing to the individual customer 53 Conclusions 55

    4 The technology of bus and coach systems 57 Design of the vehicle 57 Buses on road networks 68 Conclusion 76

    5 Urban railways and rapid transit systems 78 Early developments 78 Types of urban rail system 79 Basic system characteristics 81 Current rail developments in Britain 93

    6 Network planning 97 Typical structures 97 Urban form and land use 98 Design of public transport networks 100 Park-and-ride (P&R) 113 Public transport in low-density situations 116 Appendix: a technique for illustrating optimal interstation spacing 117

    7 Costing and cost allocation methods 121 The structure of costs 121 Cost allocation methods 127 Rail cost allocation 131 Examples of average costs 134 Statistical models of cost structures 135 Concluding observations 136

    8 Pricing theory and practice 137 Basic concepts 137

    vi Contents

  • Peak costing 140 Price elasticity 142 The form of the demand curve, and its implications 146 The travelcard concept 150 Is there a case for premium pricing? 154 Fare collection methods 155 Conclusion 158

    9 Rural public transport 160 Defining ‘rural’ 160 Improving ‘conventional’ public transport 168 Alternative ‘solutions’ to the rural transport problem 170 Impact of the 1985 Transport Act and subsequent policies 174 Concluding observations 176

    10 Intercity public transport 178 Introduction 178 The present long-distance market in Britain 178 Current patterns and recent trends within each mode 184 Developments in technology 195 The current network structure and policy issues 201 Some concluding observations 202

    11 Some current policy issues 205 Long-run demand issues 205 Population trends 205 Car ownership 206 Has a fundamental change occurred in the relationship between public

    transport use and established causal factors? 206 Substitution for travel 207 Capacity constraints 208 Separation of infrastructure and operations 209 Issues in pricing policy 210 Issues in specific sectors 211 The role of small vehicles 212 Trip rates in major conurbations 212 Environmental and sustainability issues 214 Some concluding thoughts 215

    Index 217

    Contents vii

  • Illustrations


    4.1 Energy consumption of an urban bus, related to stop spacing. Consumption during acceleration and engine idling increases with the number of stops per kilometre 61

    4.2 Effect of junction delays on bus service regularity 70 4.3 Bus station layouts 73 5.1 Time–distance graph of Birmingham–Coventry line 83 5.2 Energy consumption curves for urban rail services 87 5.3 Block section signalling 90 6.1 Optimal stop spacing to minimize total travel time 102 6.2 Break-even chart for bus and rail services in an urban corridor 112 7.1 Peak cost allocation; the shaded areas represent costs allocated

    wholly to the peak 132 8.1 Graduated fare scales 139 8.2 Break-even distance for peak-only operations 141 8.3 A demand curve, and scope for price discrimination 147 8.4 An S-shaped demand curve, around a threshold value 148 9.1 The rural bus network in northeast Lincolnshire and south

    Humberside in 2007 165 9.2 The rural bus network in northeast Lincolnshire and south

    Humberside in 1985 166 10.1 Ticket purchase period against method of ticket purchase 181


    1.1 Public transport current spending by central government and local authorities in Great Britain, 2005–6 6

    2.1 Public transport use in Britain 20 2.2 A notional example of ‘market gearing’ 26 2.3 Frequency of local bus use by size of settlement, 2005 27 2.4 Usual means of travel to work by usual place of work, 2005 28 2.5 Composition of the market for each mode, by journey purpose, 2005 29

  • 2.6 Relationships between car ownership and public transport use, per person per year, 2005 34

    6.1 Typical net residential densities 98 6.2 Percentage