DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FINGER PRINT CONTROLLED DOOR CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION Security has become a pre-requisite in virtually every organization ranging from small to large organizations. There is a need for development of a standard security protocol to checkmate problems that could occur due to the absence of security features. As the number of theft and intrusion cases increases, there has been a need for firms to develop a security system that can deny or grant access for only authorized individuals into some specific areas. Normally, this can be done manually whereby a human worker could be placed to give or deny access to people. This can be dangerous as humans and can be unfaithful. The project Design and implementation of a finger print controlled door is considered to have solved some of the problems existing. Some of the solutions to these problems are as follows; Provide restricted access to certain areas in an organization Minimize the problems of insecurity of life and property Provide an alternative to a security worker Provides a reliable, efficient and more modern access system for security Save time and energy in checking for authorized persons and equally in opening and closing door.1
In the design, different workers have different passwords with which they can gain access through the door. The door is interfaced to the computer through a printer cable. This design focuses its attention on the use of parallel port and visual basic.net software for the programming of the software. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY Checking in and checking out of people in all most every organization in Nigeria and some other developing country has been done manually. This design is being considered based on this event that has been taking place all the while. This present method of checking in and out of people has constituted a lot of problems which has been highlighted in the introduction part of this study. Those days are gone where we hire few people for security at our offices, home and other sensitive places. In this hard economy time we have to think about something smarter which can save our money and can also provide better security. Finger print scanning is a form of security where people are identified by a scan that analyses the blood vessels at the back of the hand. Finger Print scan security usually involves a low-intensity light source and optical coupler, which read the blood vessels with accuracy. Finger Print patterns are difficult to fake and even the Finger Print of a dead person will change soon after they have died. Finger Print scans prove identity in a way which few other security measures can. Finger Print scan technology involves the use of small green light to record the Finger Print patterns of a person and ensure they match up with the finger print patterns of those people who are allow access. This green light contains a low-intensity2
light source. The user needs to keep their head still and keep their fingers focused on the green light for about ten seconds. During this time, the finger print scanner will read the pattern of the finger print2.It is on this background that we carry out our design. 1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
.There are a lot of problem in the present method with which different organization or companies check in people into the restricted areas, some companies biometric measurements are taken from the fingers of the guests to ensure that the persons ticket is used by the same person from day to day. but in this study we are also using finger print that why our objective of embarking on this study is to help solve some of these problems and make security more tighter by the help of Finger Print controlled door. Some of our aims of achievement include the following. The objectives include the following:
Finger Print scan provide restricted access to certain areas in the organization.
Finger Print scan make sure that only the authorized persons gain access into the company.
To reduce cost of employing workers who will always keep watch at the door. To improve the level of security.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The present method of checking on people in an area has left many companies with problems to solve. The design of a password -controlled door using the finger print is so important to the society for many reasons but not just for an organization in the sense that doors and gates at individual homes will only recognize finger print patterns of only residents of the building thereby reducing theft and irregular burgling of home. Furthermore, this design will reduce the cost of employing workers at that will keep watch at the door and will equally check in and out people in the organization. This design will help solve the problem of admitting unauthorized persons into an organization .It is easier to disarm the security worker and gain entrance into a restricted area and then it is illicitly manipulate the purposed design. 1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY
This design is restricted to the use of the finger print in accessing a door to a particular place. There are many ports of the computer that can be used in interfacing but this design makes use of a parallel port. There are also many programming languages that can be used to program the hardware but our design is based on the use of the visual basic.net. 1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY. This study has to make use of security worker in the design but it has not been possible for us to get this as a result of unavailability of materials in the market; as a result of this, we are doing the construction ourselves.
The study need to be done with construction of this hardware component that will make use of the software system but due to the lack of resources and time frame we are limited to the simulation of the software system only.
CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 HISTORY OF DOORS The earliest records are those represented in the paintings of the Egyptian tombs in which they shown as single nor double doors, each in a single piece of wood .in Egypt where the climates is intensely dry, there would be no fear of their warping, but in other countries it would b necessary to frame them, which according to Vitruvius (.IV.6) was done with stiles and rails the spaces enclosed being filled with panels (tympana) let into groups made in the stiles and rails. The styles were the vertical boards, one of which, tenure or hanged, is known as the hanging stile. The other as the middle or meeting stile. The horizontal cross pieces are the top rail, bottom rail, and middle or intermediate rails. The most ancient doors were in timber, those made from King Solomons temple being in olive wood (1 kings vi.31-35), which were carved and overlaid with gold. The doors dwelt upon in homers epics would appear to have been cased in silver or brass besides olive wood, elm, cedar, oak and cypress were used. According to Thomasi Gioachino Lanzi and Angela Zalapi (1980), the ancient Greek and Roman doors were either single doors, double doors, sliding doors or5
folding doors, in the last case the leaves were hinged and folded back. In Eumachia, is a painting of a door with three leaves. In the tomb of thereon at agrigentum there is a single four-panel door carved in stone. Kostoff, spiro (1989) says; in the church of SS Cosmas and Damiano in Rome, are important examples of roman metal work of the best period; they are in two leaves, each with two panels, and are framed in bronze. Those of the pantheon are similar in design, with narrow horizontal panels in addition, at the top-bottom and middle. Two other bronze doors of the Roman period are in the Lateran Basilica. Rybezynski withhold in (1995) held that, of the 11th and 12th centuries there are the numerous examples of bronze doors, the earliest being the one designed at Hildesheim on Germany in the year (1015) of others in south Italy and Sicily, the following are the finest: in Sant Andrea, Amalfi (1060): Salerno (1099); Canosa (1111); Troia, two doors (1119 and 11224); Ravello (1179), by Barisano of Trani, who also made doors for Trani cathedral; and in Monreale and Pisa cathedrals, by Bonano of Pisa. OGorman James (1986) posited that the exact period when the hinge was substituted is not quite known, but the change i.e. the introduction of the hinge to doors brought about another method of strengthening and decorating doors, with the wrought iron bands of infinite varieties of design. As a rule three bands from which the ornamental work springs constitute the hinges, which have rings outside the hanging stiles fitting on to vertical tenons run into the masonry or wooden frame. There is an early example of the 12th century in Lincoln; in France the metal work of the doors of Notre Dame at Paris is perhaps the most beautiful in execution, but examples are endless throughout France and England.
In the renaissance period, the Italian doors were quite simple, their architects trusting more to the doorways for effects; but in France and Germany the case was contrary. The French and the Germans made sure their doors were elaborately carved, especially in the era of Louis XIV and Louis XV periods, and sometimes with architectural features such as columns and entablatures with pediment and niches, the doorway being in plain masonry. While in Italy, the tendency was to give scale by increasing the number of panels. The French made one of the greatest doors at that time which was called the door of Fontainebleau, which is in two leaves, is entirely carried out as if consisting of one great panel only. In England in the 17th century the door panels raised with projecting modules or bolection sometimes richly carved round them; Also, in the 18th century the moldings worked on the stiles and rails were carved with the egg and tongue ornament. According to Gerchenfeld, Neil A.(1