Digital Literacy Computer Basics/ Class Notes E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs,

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Digital Literacy Computer Basics/ Class Notes E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 2 Lesson 1: Introduction to Computers What Is A Computer? A computer is an electronic device that receives data, processes data, stores data, and produces a result (output). E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 3 What Is A Computer System? Hardware: the tangible, physical equipment that can be seen and touched such as: Computer Case Monitor Keyboard and Mouse Disk Drive Speakers Software: the intangible set of instructions that tells the computer what to do; know as programs or software programs. Two types: Systems/Operating System Applications Data: information entered into the computer to be processed, which consists of the following: Text, numbers, sounds, and images People: the users of the computers who enter the data and use the output. E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 4 Parts of a Computer: INPUT Devices Input Device: hardware that allows you to communicate with your computer. 1.2 E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 5 Output device: hardware that allows your computer to communicate with the user Parts of a Computer: OUTPUT Devices 1 2 3 4 5 1.2 E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 6 CPU: Central Processing Unit The device that interprets and runs the commands that you give to a computer. It is the control unit of the computer. Also known as the Processor 1.2 E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 7 System Components Central Processing Unit (CPU): the microprocessor, the brains of the computer. Housed on a tiny silicon chip Chip contains millions of switches and pathways that help your computer make important decisions. CPU knows which switches to turn on and which to turn off because it receives its instructions from computer programs (software). CPU has two primary sections: Arithmetic/logic unit Control unit Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU): performs arithmetic computations and logical operations; by combining these two operations the ALU can execute complex tasks. Arithmetic operations include addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division. Logical operations involve comparisons. Control Unit: is the boss and coordinates all of the CPUs activities. Uses programming instructions, it controls the flow of information through the processor by controlling what happens inside the processor. We communicate with the computer through programming languages. COBOL, C++, or VisualBasic.net, HTML, Java Script for example. 1.2 E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 8 System Components Memory: found on the motherboard; short term and long term. Random Access Memory (RAM): memory on the motherboard that is short term; where data, information, and program instructions are stored temporarily on a RAM chip or a set of RAM chips. When the computer is turned off or if there is loss of power, what ever is stored in RAM disappears. This memory know as the main memory and is considered volatile. The computer can read from and write to RAM. Read-Only Memory (ROM): memory on the motherboard that is long term; where the specific instructions that are needed for the computer to operate are stored. This memory is nonvolatile and your computer can only read from a ROM chip. The instructions remain on the chip regardless if the power is turned on or off. Most common is the BIOS ROM; where the computer uses instructions contained on this chip to boot or start the system when you turn on your computer. INTEL: Introduction to Computers Lesson 4: How Computers Store Information 1.2 E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 9 Motherboard: Main circuit board inside the computer where all components are attached. Expansion Slots: an opening on the motherboard where a circuit board or expansion board can be inserted. Examples: Additional Memory Video Cards Modem Cards Sound Cards Network Internet Card (NIC) System Components 1.2 E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 10 Network Internet Card NIC CD Drive Hard Drive ROM Power Box Memory RAM Motherboard Microprocessor CPU E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 11 Parts of a Computer: STORAGE Devices Storage device: allows you to store or retrieve information 1.2 E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 12 Serial and Parallel Ports USBs Universal Serial Bus PORTS... to connect! Phone/Ethernet Power Source E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 13 EQ: What is the P rocessing component of the IPOS Cycle? Part I. Systems Software: A group of programs that coordinate and control the resources and operations of a computer system. Enables all components of the computer system to communicate. Part II. Applications Software: Programs that work with the OS software to help you use your computer to do specific types of work. Types of Processing E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 14 Systems Software A group of programs that coordinate and control the resources and operations of a computer system. PC- Compatibles MACS Windows Win 95 Win 98 Win 2000 Win XP Win 7 OS Mac System 6 System 7 OS X Snow Leopard Operating System (OS): provide an interface between the user or application program and the computer hardware. PC- Intel Processor Mac-Motorola Processor Lesson 2/ Operating System E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 15 GUI (graphical user interface): graphical symbols (icons) represent files, disks, programs, and other objects. Windows MAC Windows MAC OS can run Parallel on MACs Systems Software E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 16 Part 2. Data Communications The technology that enables computers to communicate The transmission of text, numeric, voice or video data from one machine to another. Popular examples: Internet, electronic messages (e-mail), faxes, and electronic or online banking Four components: Sender: the computer that is sending the message. Receiver: the computer receiving the message. Channel: the media that carries or transports the message. (telephone wire, coaxial cable, microwave signal, or fiber optic) Protocol: the rules that govern the orderly transfer of the data sent. E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 17 Sender Channel Receiver Channel Sender Sender-sends message Channel-path message travel Receiver-receives message Protocol-An agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices. Example: Text. Images. Soundformatdata devices WAN Wide Area Network local area networks (LAN) are expanded to include several local area networks within a city, state, region, territory, country, continent, or the world. LAN Local Area Network Computers connected close location- same building/same department E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 18 Modem: allows you to use your computer to communicate with other computers. Data Communications Sender Receiver Channel E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 19 Data Communications Network: when computers are connected to other computers They can share information and sometimes hardware (printers) Local Area Networks (LAN): computers connected together in a relatively close location such as in the same building or department. The data and software for these computers are stored on a central computer called the file server. Wide Area Networks (WAN): when local area networks are expanded to include several local area networks within a city, state, region, territory, country, continent, or the world. E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 20 WAN Wide Area Network local area networks (LAN) are expanded to include several local area networks within a city, state, region, territory, country, continent, or the world. LAN Local Area Network Computers connected close location- same building/same department Network: When computer are connected to other computers that can share information and sometimes hardware (printers) E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 21 Types of Computers E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 22 The Space Shuttle Columbia Supercomputer File:Columbia Supercomputer - NASA Advanced Supercomputing Facility.jpg, Retrieved on September 23, 2011, from Wikipedia.org Supercomputers: most powerful Used to do things like predict hurricanes and navigate satellites E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 23 Mainframes and minicomputers: used by business, government and school systems to process large amounts of information. E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 24 Personal Computers Desktop computer: designed to be used on a desktop. Notebook/Tablet computer: designed to be used on a desktop but still small enough to be portable. Laptop computer: designed to be small enough and light enough to be used on your lap. E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 25 Additional Types of Computers PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants): a handheld device that is often used in conjunction with a desktop or other PC. May have a special keyboard, some use a pen or stylus for entering data - Data can be transferred to a desktop or laptop computer Web TV: provides easy access to the Internet without having to have a traditional computer. Enables you to connect to the Internet and usually includes a keyboard or other device for entering and selecting data. E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 26 Role of Memory A collection of electronic circuits, which can be on or off (open or closed). -These two states of the circuit are represented by two digits, 0 and 1. Called the Binary System Combining bits (0 and 1), you can represent any character or number E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 27 Bits to Bytes 1 bit is either a 1 or a 0 (on/off) 8 bits (combination of 1s and 0s) = 1 byte 01010100 1 byte 01010100 = 1 character T BYTE SizeApprox. SizeExample of Storage Capacity KB-Kilobyte 1,024 bytes1 email/1 document MB-Megabyte 1-million bytes1 textbook GB-Gigabyte 1-billion bytesHUGE storage/video storage TB-Terabyte 1-trillion bytesGovernment/School Files E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 28 Application Software Software designed for specific tasks. Categories Business Communications Graphics and Multimedia Education and Reference Entertainment and Leisure Integrated Programs E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 29 Business Software Word Processing (WORD) program that allows you to create, edit, and print text documents Report, flyer, memo Spreadsheet (EXCEL) Numbered Rows and Lettered Columns Intersection of them = cell Grade book, financial info Database (Access) Lets you set up an electronic filing systems Enter text and numbers Find, search, and printer info in different ways Address book, Card Catalog E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 30 Applications Software Communications Works with your modems or network hardware and allows your computer to communicate with other computers. Exchange computer files and email. Internet Graphics Software - uses pictures or images to help communicate messages. Multimedia: - combines text, graphics, animation, video, and audio. Clip art: - graphical images to be added to documents Desktop Publishing: - uses both pictures and words to give you the ability to create documents Newsletters and brochures E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review) Slide 31 Applications Software Education & Reference Available on many topics Help Easier Quicker Examples: AR, Encyclopedia, etc. Entertainment & Leisure Fun Games and simulations Tests your skills Interactive E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ f...

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