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Different shades of grey the arts of plagiarism Different shades of grey the arts of plagiarism Paul Kleiman PALATINE Higher Education Academy Subject

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Different shades of grey the arts of plagiarism Different shades of grey the arts of plagiarism Paul Kleiman PALATINE Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Dance, Drama and Music Lancaster University Slide 2 Left: Book cover illustration by Anthony Roberts for Robert Heinlein (1970) Double Star Right: Glenn Brown (2000) The Loves of Shepherds, Turner Prize entry Slide 3 WARNING PLAGIARISM CAN SERIOUSLY DAMAGE YOUR ACADEMIC HEALTH Plagiarised Original but derivative Slide 4 The outcome of this debate is that everyone now believes that there are many shades of opinion allowable in the sleazy world of the plagiarist: there arent its wrongend of debate Contribution to the Jiscmail Plagiarism discussion list http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/PLAGIARISM.html Slide 5 I realised that I really ought to start worrying when they STOP copying me! (Ron Arad, Designer/Architect, 2010) Slide 6 Creative property has many livesthe newspaper arrives at our door, it becomes part of the archive of human knowledge, then it wraps fish. And, by the time ideas pass into their third and fourth lives, we lose track of where they came from, and we lose control of where they are going. The final dishonesty of the plagiarism fundamentalists is to encourage us to pretend that these chains of influence and evolution do not exist, and that a writers words have a virgin birth and an eternal life. (Gladwell, 2004) Slide 7 500 years of plagiarism creative borrowing Slide 8 The Judgment of Paris, ca. 151020 Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio or Santi) (Italian, Marchigian, 14831520) Slide 9 The Judgment of Paris, ca. 151020 Marcantonio Raimondi (Italian, ca. 1480before 1534); Designed by Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio or Santi) (Italian, Marchigian, 14831520) http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/08/eusts/ho_19.74.1.htm Slide 10 Marco Dente da Ravenna (Italian, active 1515-1527) The Judgment of Paris, ca. 1520, engraving after Raimondi after Raphael (photo: Phil) http://www.wesleyan.edu/dac/coll/prnt/eurmas.html Slide 11 Manet, Edouard Le Djeuner sur l'herbe 1863; Luncheon on the Grass; Musee d'Orsay; Oil on canvas, 81 x 101 cm http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/manet/dejeuner/ Slide 12 Advert for Aga Cookers 1935 http://creativeriff.c om/2009/07/13/the- king-of-madison- avenue-by-kenneth- roman-book-review/ Slide 13 Pablo Picasso Le djeuner sur l'herbe (d'aprs Edouard Manet), 1960 Succession Picasso 2003 http://www.musee-picasso.fr/pages/page_id18634_u1l2.htm Slide 14 BOW WOW WOW Album cover See Jungle!........ (1981) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f0/Bowwowwow_seejungle.jpg Slide 15 2005 2001 Images from: www.amazon.co.uk There are few intellectual offences more serious than plagiarism in academic and professional contexts. (OWL, 2008) Slide 16 Peter Bialobrzeski Shanghai, 2001 www.artnet.com Horst Zielske, Daniel Zielske Megalopolis Shanghai, 2008 There are few intellectual offences more serious than plagiarism in academic and professional contexts. (OWL, 2008) Slide 17 Elliot Erwitt Provence, France, 1955 http://www.andrewward.com/Elliott_Erw itt_Photo_Provence_France_1955.htm HEINEKEN ADVERT, 1970s http://www.advertisingarchives.captur eweb.co.uk/images/trueimages/30/53 /95/28/30539528-1.jpg Slide 18 Art Rogers, Puppies, 1985 http://www.designobserver.com/obser vatory/entryprint.html?entry=6467 Jeff Koons, String of Puppies, 1988 http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/ martin/art_law/image_rights.htm Slide 19 Jack Vettriano. The Singing Butler, 1992 Illustrators Manual Slide 20 Academic plagiarism Slide 21 A few distinctions (Martin, 1994) Word-for-word plagiarism Paraphrasing plagiarism Plagiarism of secondary sources Plagiarism of the form of a source Plagiarism of ideas Plagiarism of authorship Most of the plagiarism by university students that is challenged by their teachers is word-for-word plagiarism, simply because it is easiest to detect and prove. One of the most serious types, plagiarism of authorship - which occurs when a student gets someone else to write an essay - can be extremely difficult to detect and prove. This creates a suspicion that most of the concern is about the least serious cases. (Martin, 1994) Slide 22 From "Avoiding Plagiarism," Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) Slide 23 When Brahms wrote his first symphony, he was accused of having used a big theme from Beethoven's Ninth. His reply was that any fool could see that. (Julian Barnes, 2005) These problems arise from the reality of borrowing and other techniques that involve some degree of copying as important elements in the creation of new works. (Arewa, 2006) Rodchenko, 1924 Matthew Cooper, 2006 Images from: www.creativereview.co.uk/crblog/constructivism-the-ism-that-just-keeps-givin Slide 24 It may come as a shock to customers, but most designers regularly dispatch staff worldwide to scour vintage depots in search of inspiration. (The fashion world is stalled in a staunch postmodernism, where success is measured in the ability to synthesize various influences and make them commercially viable.) These designers buy up bags, belts, or even a coat and then limit their pilfering to the details: the stitching here, perhaps, or a buttonhole there. But they usually stop a hemline short of producing a direct copy. (Larocca, 2002) Wong, 1973 Ghesquiere, 2002 Slide 25 A conception of the creative process that imagines that new works are original and autonomous may often be at odds with actual acts of creation that in many instances involve copying, collaboration, and other uses of existing works. (Arewa, 2006) 1957 2002 Slide 26 Book cover illustration by Anthony Roberts for Robert Heinlein (1970) Double Star Glenn Brown (2000) The Loves of Shepherds, Turner Prize entry Images and text from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertanment/1044375.stmhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertanment/1044375.stm The chairman of the Turner Prize jury, Sir Nicholas Serota, told BBC Radio 4s Today programme that the painting was not a form of plagiarism. He said: Glenn Brown has frequently used the work of other artists in developing his work, but that is true of Picasso, who borrowed from Rembrandt..this is not new. He uses other artists work, but that doesnt mean to say you could possibly mistake his work for theirs.he takes the image, he transforms it, he gives it a completely different scale. Slide 27 The discourses of the disciplines Consideration of issues such as influence, intertextuality, formulaic cultural production, appropriation and borrowing are important parts of discourse in a number of fields of study. In musicology, for example, terms used to discuss relationships between musical texts include borrowing, self-borrowing, transformative imitation, quotation, allusion, homage, modeling, emulation, recomposition, influence, paraphrase, and indebtedness. In literary criticism, terms such as intertextuality, allusion, quotation, and influence are used. (Arewa, 2007) Slide 28 Multiple phenomena are being addressed. Multiple practices = multiple causal factors and multiple remedies. Plagiarism is necessarily a chaotic conception, not a scientific one Plagiarism will not be resolved by better measuring instruments:there is no it to measure. A far better strategy than feeding the moral panic by numbers is to confront the phenomenon in its complexity. (Clegg and Flint, 2006) Slide 29 As examples accumulate it becomes apparent that appropriation, mimicry, quotation, allusion, and sublimated collaboration consist of a kind of sine qua non of the creative act, cutting across all forms and genres in the realm of cultural production. Jonathan Lethem, The Ecstasy of Plagiarism, Harpers Magazine Feb 2007 Slide 30 Academic plagiarism Staff Students Institution The challenge ahead is to consider how staff, student, and institutional perspectives can be reconciled or unified, as well as balancing them with the QAA Code of Practice and maintaining the reputation of the university as one that values high academic principles. Flint, Abbi, Clegg, Sue and Macdonald, Ranald(2006)'Exploring staff perceptions of student plagiarism',Journal of Further and Higher Education,30:2,145 156 Slide 31 I must not plagiarise So How might we creatively? collectively? effectively? tackle plagiarism? Discuss. Slide 32 References AREWA, O. (2006) From J.C. Bach to Hip Hop: Musical Borrowing, Copyright and Cultural Context. Case Legal Studies Research Paper No. 04-21, North Carolina Law Review, Vol. 84, p. 547, 2006 Available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Delivery.cfm/SSRN_ID633241_code542 089.pdf?abstractid=633241 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Delivery.cfm/SSRN_ID633241_code542 089.pdf?abstractid=633241 AREWA, O. (2007 ) Culture as Property: Intellectual Property, Local Norms and Global Rights. Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 07-13 Working Paper Series Available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Delivery.cfm/SSRN_ID981423_code337 501.pdf?abstractid=981423 AREWA, O. (2007) Freedom to Copy: Copyright, Creation and Context. UC Davis Law Review, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2007, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 07-06 Available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Delivery.cfm/SSRN_ID964054_code254 274.pdf?abstractid=964054 AREWA, O. (2008) Borrowing the Blues: Copyright and the Contexts of Robert Johnson Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 08-19 Working Paper Series Available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Delivery.cfm/SSRN_ID1139931_code33 7501.pdf?abstractid=1132789 FLINT, ABBI, CLEGG, SUE and MACDONALD, RANALD (2006) 'Exploring staff perceptions of student plagiarism', Journal of Further and Higher Education,30:2,145 156 GLADWELL, M. (2004) Something borrowed: Should a charge of plagiarism ruin your life?. Article in The New Yorker, 22 November 2004. Available at: http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2004/11/22/041122fa_fact and http://www.gladwell.com/2004/2004_11_25_a_borrowed.html http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2004/11/22/041122fa_facthttp://www.gladwel

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