Developmental Psychology - ... Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology - branch of psychology

  • View
    17

  • Download
    2

Embed Size (px)

Text of Developmental Psychology - ... Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology - branch of...

  • Developmental Psychology ROWLAND HIGH SCHOOL

  • Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology - branch of psychology that studies how human beings change over time as the result of biological and environmental influences.

  • Developmental Psychology Major Themes:

    ◦ Nature versus nurture (interaction)

  • Nature versus Nurture

  • Studying Nature versus Nurture Twin studies

    ◦ Identical

    ◦Fraternal

    ◦Adoption studies

  • Developmental Psychology

  • Developmental Psychology Major Themes:

    ◦ Nature versus nurture (interaction)

    ◦ Continuity versus discontinuity

  • Developmental Psychology Major Themes:

    ◦ Nature versus nurture (interaction)

    ◦ Continuity versus discontinuity

    ◦ Stability versus change

  • Developmental Psychology Pair Share: Identify three things about you that have remained the same over time and three things that have changed over time.

  • Developmental Psychology Prenatal Development

    ◦Three stages

    ◦Zygote (10 days)

    ◦Embryo (2-8 weeks)

    ◦Differentiation

    ◦Fetus (9 weeks)

  • Life is sexually transmitted: (a) Sperm cells surround an ovum. (b) As one

    sperm penetrates the egg’s jellylike outer coating, a series of chemical events

    begins that will cause sperm and egg to fuse into a single cell. If all goes well,

    that cell will subdivide again and again to emerge 9 months later as a 100-

    trillion-cell human being..

    (a) (b)

  • Prenatal Development: (a) The embryo grows and develops rapidly. At 40 days,

    the spine is visible and the arms and legs are beginning to grow. (b) By the end

    of the second month, when the fetal period begins, facial features, hands, and feet

    have formed. (c) As the fetus enters the fourth month, its 3 ounces could fit in the

    palm of your hand.

    (a) (b) (c)

  • Developmental Psychology The Role of the Environment

    ◦ Teratogens - prenatal toxins

    ◦ Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

  • Developmental Psychology The Neonatal Period

    ◦ Birth to one month

    ◦ Abilities:

    ◦ Sight

  • Developmental Psychology

  • Developmental Psychology The Neonatal Period

    ◦ Birth to one month

    ◦ Abilities:

    ◦ Sight

    ◦ Sensory preferences

    ◦ Reflexes (video clips)

  • Developmental Psychology

    The Grasping Reflex

  • Developmental Psychology

    The Rooting Reflex

  • Developmental Psychology

    The Sucking Reflex

  • Developmental Psychology

    The Moro Reflex

  • Developmental Psychology

    The Babinski Reflex

  • Developmental Psychology Infancy and Early Childhood

    ◦Cognitive abilities

  • Infants can discriminate between possible and impossible objects : After

    habituating to the stimulus on the left, 4-month-olds stared longer if shown the

    impossible version of the cube—where one of the back vertical bars crosses over

    a front horizontal bar.

    Habituation - is the decreasing responsiveness with repeated presentation of the same.

  • Baby Math: Shown a numerically impossible outcome, 5-month-old infants stare longer.

    Developmental Psychology

  • Developmental Psychology

    Quick—which is the cat? Researchers used cat-dog hybrid images such as these to test how infants categorize animals.

  • Developmental Psychology Infancy and Early Childhood

    ◦Synchronicity (video clip)

  • Developmental Psychology Infancy and Early Childhood

    ◦Brain development

    ◦Neural pruning

  • Developmental Psychology Maturation – the process by which the genetic program manifest itself over time.

  • Developmental Psychology

    “This is the path to adulthood. You’re here.”

  • Attachment

  • Attachment

  • Attachment

  • Attachment

  • Developmental Psychology Imprinting

    ◦ Konrad Lorenz

    ◦ Critical period

    ◦ Mere exposure effect

  • Development Psychology Attachment Styles

    ◦ John Bowlby & Mary Ainsworth

    ◦ Types of attachment:

    ◦ Secure attachment

    ◦ Avoidant (insecure)

    ◦ Anxious/ambivalent (insecure)

    ◦ “the strange situation” (video clip)

  • Developmental Psychology 1. I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult

    to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and love partners often want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being.

    2. I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn’t really love me or won’t want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away.

    3. I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them. I don’t often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me.

    1. Avoidant - insecure 2. Anxious – ambivalent 3. Secure

  • Correlations Secure individuals have more positive self-concepts of themselves and believe that most other people are good-natured and well-intentioned. They see their personal relationships as trustworthy and satisfying.

    Secure respondents are satisfied with their job security, coworkers, income, and work activity. They put a higher value on relationships than on work and derive their greatest pleasure from connections to others.

    Secure individuals tend to choose as partners others who are secure.

  • Correlations Insecure, anxious-ambivalent persons report emotional extremes and jealousy. They feel unappreciated, insecure, and unlikely to win professional advancement. They make less money than those with other attachment styles, working more for approval and recognition than for financial gain. They fantasize about succeeding but often slack off after receiving praise.

    Avoidant people fear intimacy and expect their relationships to fail. They place a higher value on work than on relationships and generally like their work and job security. They follow a workaholic pattern, but (not surprisingly) they are dissatisfied with their coworkers.

  • Developmental Psychology Contact Comfort

    ◦ “cupboard theory” and Sigmund Freud

    ◦ Harry and Margaret Harlow (video clip)

  • Harlow’s Experiment

  • Social Deprivation and Fear: Monkeys raised with

    artificial mothers were terror-stricken when placed in

    strange situations without their surrogate mothers.

    (Today’s climate of greater respect for animal welfare

    prevents such primate studies.

  • Application Pair Share: What are some things you would advise parents do immediately after their baby is born to insure healthy social and psychological development?

  • Developmental Psychology Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory

    ◦ Background

    ◦ Discontinuous

    ◦ Three key ideas:

    1. Schemas

  • An impossible object : Look carefully at the “devil’s tuning fork.” Now

    look away—no, better first study it some more—and then look away and

    draw it. . . . Not so easy, is it? This is an impossible object; you have no

    schema for such an image.

  • Developmental Psychology Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory

    ◦ Background

    ◦ Discontinuous

    ◦ Three key ideas:

    1. Schemas

    2. Assimilation

  • Assimilation

  • Developmental Psychology Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory

    ◦ Background

    ◦ Discontinuous

    ◦ Three key ideas:

    1. Schemas

    2. Assimilation

    3. Accommodation

  • Accommodation

  • Developmental Psychology Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory

    ◦ Background

    ◦ Discontinuous

    ◦ Three key ideas:

    1. Schemas

    2. Assimilation

    3. Accommodation

    Does Piaget’s theory based on nature or

    nurture?

  • Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

    Sensorimotor (birth to 18 months)

    grasping, sucking

    object permanence (video clip)

  • Object Permanence: Infants younger than 6 months seldom understand that

    things continue to exist when they are out of sight. But for this infant, out of

    sight is definitely not out of mind.

Recommended

View more >