Developing intercultural language learning textbooks: Dari kami ke kita

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Developing intercultural language learning textbooks: Dari kami ke kita . Lesley Harbon (The University of Sydney) Michelle Kohler (Flinders University and UniSA) Anne-Marie Morgan (UniSA). Overview. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


<p>Intercultural Language Learning and Professional Standards for Language Teaching: what have we learned and what are the implications for practice?</p> <p>Developing intercultural language learning textbooks:Dari kami ke kita </p> <p>Lesley Harbon (The University of Sydney) Michelle Kohler (Flinders University and UniSA)Anne-Marie Morgan (UniSA)1OverviewHistorically, textbook development for languages education has reflected methodological trends in languages learning</p> <p>Current orientation to languages and cultures learning is towards developing intercultural perspectiveslends itself to different methodological approaches in teaching and learning, and in development of resources such as textbooks Authors written Indonesian textbook series with intercultural orientation for middle years learners</p> <p>Presentation exploreshistorical context of textbook developmentintercultural construct and how it has influenced the seriespersonal account of complexities of development of resource and thinking and questions that have arisen</p> <p>2Part A: Historical context of textbook development Language teaching profession only recognised academically since around start of the 20th century</p> <p>Quest to identify principles and processes for the design of language teaching methods and materials in similar historical frame </p> <p>Textbooks developed to support and enact theoretical perspectives of methodologies</p> <p>Informed by the disciplines of linguistics, psychology, sociology, ethnography and education3Nomenclature Approach: describes set of assumptions or philosophies about the nature of language teaching and learning</p> <p>Method: plan for how to present material to learners, based on the approach, involving instructional system; considers objectives, content organisation, tasks, teachers and learners Rodgers (2001) distinction between method and approach seen as defining a continuum of entities ranging from highly prescribed methods to loosely described approaches</p> <p>Technique: specific stratagem to accomplish an objective as part of the method </p> <p>Methodology: links theories of language and learning, instructional design features and observed teaching practices 4NomenclatureNewcomer to nomenclature is orientationOrientation: stance of teacher and learners, in relation toteaching learninglanguage(s)culture(s)languages and cultures teaching and learning(inter)relationship of these in learning and using language (Scarino &amp; Liddicoat 2009) sense of self in relation to all theseNot tied to particular methodology, or how to guide linked to methods or techniques5NomenclatureFlexible positioning in relation to viewing and thinking about languages teaching, of conceptualising, articulating and reflecting on what it is we do as teachers and learners</p> <p>Orientation, therefore, can draw upon many different theoretical positions and methodologies, and make use of a range of methods and techniques, without being compelled to use any </p> <p>Choices made on basis of appropriateness of context and need, including learners experiences and backgrounds, the teaching situation, the teachers background and experiences and with what it is the teacher is intending learners will engage (learning aims) 6Languages textbook trends Grammar-translation period (1900s-1950s)texts focused on grammar points and drills; passages for translation; reading and writing emphasisAudio-lingual period (1950s and 1960s)texts focused on listening and speaking tasks; use of language laboratories; behavioural psychology influenceNotional-functional methodology (1960s and 1970s)cognitive psychology influence (SLA and interlanguage); texts organised into notions- ideas, concepts, topics; and functions- operationalisation of target language Communicative language learning (1980s- )texts similar to notional-functional texts, organised around topics, with exercises to promote learner-centred, meaningful understanding for communication 7Indonesian teaching: grammar translation period 1958 in Australian universities, early 60s in schools GTM used until late 60s (and beyond)no consideration of suitable method for an Asian language or for Australian learners of Indonesianlittle consideration of applicability to use in real, lived contexts TextbooksSarumpaet (1966)The Structure of Bahasa IndonesiaSarumpaet &amp; Mackie (1966) Introduction to Bahasa IndonesiaEmanuels (1966) Bahasa Indonesia Sehari-hari (radio course UNSW)Lie (1968) Introducing IndonesianEmanuels &amp; Turner (1967 &amp; 1968) Indonesian for Schools 1 and 2grammar-translation in format/approach; focus on reading and writingview of culture as static (museum culture)Purwanto Danusugondo (1966) Bahasa Indonesia for Beginnersopposed to translation, still very formal (Read &amp; Reeve, 2010)</p> <p>8Indonesian teaching: audio-lingual period UniversitiesIchsan, Baker &amp; Lane (1968)Lancar Bahasa IndonesiaJohns (1975) Langkah BaruSchoolsHendrata (1969) An Audio-lingual Course in Bahasa IndonesiaMcGarry &amp; Sumaryono (1970, 1971, 1974) Learn IndonesianPartorejo (1975) Bahasa Indonesia Moderenpackages as they came with sets of tapes, slides and flashcards, and sometimes readers and guided composition textsCollins (1977) Bunga Rampai (reader)RadioGorton (1972) Learn Indonesian 10,000 Australians bought the booklets and records to participate</p> <p>(Read &amp; Reeve, 2010)9Indonesian teaching: notional-functional period Australia late to take up notional-function method in Indonesian textbooks, after dominance of audio-lingual texts</p> <p>White (1988)Bahasa Tetanggaku3 stagesstill widely used10Indonesian teaching: communicative language learning period Australia also late to embrace CLL in textbooksSeveral series from 1990s and 2000sTaylor &amp; Sedunary (from 1991)Ayo! seriesHibbs (from 1996)Kenalilah! Miller, Matahelumual, Page &amp; Horne (from 2008) Saya bisa! series of chapters arranged in topics (greetings and introductions, colours, numbers, sport, the environment, holidays, celebrations, transport, etc),possibly a cartoon story or readinggrammar points arising from the cartoon or readingcultural information, replacement activities to practice set phasesrange of other practice activitiesSupported by audio packs and workbooks, and teacher resource book </p> <p>11Towards intercultural language teaching and learningDifferent approaches tried with resource banks, in recognition of the sociocultural dimension of language learning</p> <p>National Indonesian Language Curriculum Project (1993) Suara Siswanot a prescribed coursegraded (less complex to more complex) collections of readings, realia, authentic texts of many varieties, photo kits, video stimulus materials and teacher resource guidelinesReeve (co-ordinator) (1992-1995) Teaching Indonesian as a Foreign Language (TIFL) Tertiary Education Project20 introductory themes and 14 intermediate themeslarge body of resources and materialsBersama-sama seriestexts, resources, activities all intermingledintercultural awareness- questioning introduced to raise awareness of diverse perspectives and self as language user</p> <p>12Towards intercultural language teaching and learningTextbooks more likely to contain range of approachesFunctional-notionalCommunicative-humanisticLexico-grammaticalTask-based (Prodromou 2007)</p> <p>Conversely, there has also been decline in textbook use and use of a range of resources and real world texts, and more focus on intercultural perspective, in curriculum documents, pedagogical approaches 13Part B: Realising an intercultural orientation Number of key considerations/underpinning principleslanguage and culture intertwinedvariability and multiplicity, dynamic view of language(s) and culture(s)inter-action interpretation/making sense/meaning, interpersonal, intrapersonal (who am I and how does this matter to me?), connecting with the individuala developmental/longitudinal perspective on learning</p> <p>Two main design considerations:ConceptualOrganisational</p> <p>14Realising the intercultural: conceptual considerationsOverall goals young Australians learning an additional language (many with other languages), emerging intercultural language learnerscognitively engaging with increasing linguistic demands (i.e. driven by conceptual and linguistic development, not structurally driven)developing a framework for understanding language and culture and for learning language/sHence decisions about what and whenpitch to suit middle years studentshow to represent the distinctiveness of the target language and culture (Indonesia/n)</p> <p>15Realising the intercultural: conceptual considerationsScope and sequence, coverage:concept based design (e.g. time, play, idol, place), selected according to students development and interests, and nature of target language and culturelinguistic development (structures, vocab &amp; meta-linguistic knowledge understanding the system) learning experiences and interactions that are increasingly complex, demanding and stimulating (with on-going interpretation and reflection) representation of target language and culture what kind of Indonesia/n is depicted? variable, languages and cultures within national language and culture/s, challenge typical exotic treatment, challenge simplistic views of traditional and modern etc.16Realising the intercultural: organisational considerationsStructure and organisation, how, where, when e.g.a fixed product and associated expectations of audience (teachers, students and publisher)finite space and restricted format (genre of textbooks)design and layout (look and feel)voice and audience - how to deal with multiple voices/authors and audiencesconsistency some degree of consistency for scaffolding learning while some variability in nature and format for student interest</p> <p>17Realising the intercultural: organisational considerationsConcept: chapter title with sub-sections e.g. Pulang-pergi: Why do we travel? concept in target language (showing language orientation)question in English (showing learning orientation, a students perspective)Key Ideas: outlines the rationale and learning focusTexts: Dominant organising feature of each chapterselected for ideas and linguistic contentranging in authenticityrange of types across the materials (not cartoon driven!)Boxes Using (TL), Understanding (TL)Other Thinking Further, extending possibilities</p> <p>18Realising the intercultural: organisational considerationsTasks:varied processes e.g. notice, compare, reflect, communicate, exchange, respond to, list, explain etc.varied positioning of students e.g. actual (as self), possible (in future), imagined (as someone/thing else)developmental, short and long term i.e. single text, series of texts, chapter section, end of chapter, end of seriesAssessment:on-going and end-point, integrated and stand aloneaddress communicative skills, linguistic knowledge, intercultural movement, interpretation and reflectionan on-going challenge</p> <p>19Realising the intercultural: reflectionsIntentions not necessarily realised e.g.treatment of formal and informal languagescope and sequencing of language structures and textual knowledgeTensions exist e.g. retaining familiar while introducing newreframing requires letting go of old habits</p> <p>Future: work informed by Australian Curriculum, language specific roadmap</p> <p>Teething pains: evidence from a professional journalKeeping a journal throughout the two year process has been extremely interesting, and now, we find, important, in us knowing what we now knowSlides that follow show how we have grappled with the key considerations of realising the intercultural in our textbook series21The next slidesIssues we confronted in the structural choices we needed to make in our text: layout, composition; divisions and relationships of the materials22Conceptual considerations in realising the intercultural: organisation scope &amp; sequenceSunday 22 Feb 2009 Finally a chapter draft written... So much to consider. Confronting me is the fact that I want to introduce some intercultural concepts and identity concepts and this will require teaching language which is more complex than might be found in a traditional Indonesian textbook which introduces difficulty of grammar and structure gradually. So much to tell the kids about concepts of Indonesian and Australian time, and not much room to do it. Chapter 3 they dont have much language already. 23...and also this journal entry20 June 2009. Am also coming to the conclusion that writing an intercultural textbook is hard. With the traditional approach to bringing in grammar from perceived ease to perceived difficulty, that is so easy. Now, bringing in work out of the limitations of themes or grammars, it is very very difficult to work out how to teach students this way through a textbook.24...and also this one9 Nov 2009. A challenge to remember the intercultural. I find myself clicking back into the formats and structures of the more traditional communicative, task-based textbook. </p> <p>The co-author finds she is a product of being educated herself through an earlier method/methodology/pedagogy Indonesian textbooks of the 1970s &amp; 80s25The next journal entryWhat to include in the materials (relevance for middle school learners) and how essentially personal this process becomes? Surely we are more aware of our choices than those early authors quoted earlier, who ran sentence upon sentence of disconnected ideas together, such as angry sweethearts, drinking cold coffee and big fat crocodiles only separated by two or three lines 26Conceptual considerations in realising the intercultural: pitch to learner group20 June 2009. I am confronted by so many things in this textbook writing. But chiefly the issue of acknowledging what I choose, for a reading passage, or a photograph. How can a textbook writer avoid choosing something she thinks is interesting? Unless the students in Years 7-10 write the textbook themselves, then how can they choose something interesting for them. How can an almost 50 year old Indonesian teacher not lay her perceptions, ideas, choices before the 14 year old student? This became most shocking to me as I realised a text I wrote for Chapter 8 perayaan, was on the topic of marriage. Why did I choose that? It is very middle class, heterocentric, assumes marriage, assumes another age group. Assumes it will be interesting to a 14 year old. But will it be? I need to find a better text.27Conceptual considerations in realising the intercultural: seen through the practical writing of the chaptersIn this journal entry I am jolted back into remembering to consider the organisation of our text and layout and our important dialogue and guidance for teachers/sts26 Jan, Australia Day public holiday 2010. Have responded to Marghes comments that she asked me to respond to when she read my Nongkrong and Bayangan chapters. At some points my intent...</p>


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