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Determination of Moisture Content

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REPORT LAB SOIL

1.0 DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT (STANDARD METHOD - OVEN DRYING METHOD)

1.1 OBJECTIVE

The water content is the most frequently determined soil characteristic. It is defined as the ratio of the weight of water to the weight of the dry soil grains in a soil mass. The water content is a good indication of the strength of clay soils. The standard method of determining the moisture content is by overdrying at 105110 degrees but several other methods are available as rapid alternatives more suitable to site conditions. In this experiment you are required to compare these tests for a clay and granular soil. 1.2 APPARATUS

1. A thermostatically controlled oven set at a temperature of 105 110C.

2. Sample tins.

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REPORT LAB SOIL

3. Balance readable and accurate to 0.01 g.

1.3 PROCEDURE 1. The sample container shall be cleaned, dried and weighed to 0.01g .

2. Place the soil loosely in the container .

4. Weigh the every of container.

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REPORT LAB SOIL

5. Weigh the every contents of soil sample.

6. Then place in the oven. Time period required are differences depending on the type of soil and sizes of the sample. Usually 16-24 hour enough for drying most soils.

7. The sample will be deemed to be dry when the differences in successive weighing of the cooled sample at four hourly intervals do not exceed 0.1 % of the original weight of the sample.

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R

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R B 1.4 L L I The i t e tent f the il ( ) hall e al lated as a ercentage f the dry soil eight, from the formula: m = m2 m3 m3 m1 Where, m1 = mass of container m2 = mass of container and et soil m = mass of container and dry soil 100 % Container 1 Moisture content = 72.115 -64.234x 100%

64.234 -27.948= Container 7 Moisture content = 79.779 - 70.756 x 100%

21.719%

70.756 -27.626= Container 9 Moisture content = 76.2-69.336

20.92%

x 100%

69.336 -31.46=

18.122%

1.5

alues up to 10 % and to the nearest hole number for higher alues.

Moisture Content Location

Soil Description Determination of moisture content Test Method Related test Specimen ref. Container no. Mass of wet soil + container (m ) Mass of dry soil + container ( m ) Mass of container (m ) Mass of moisture (m m)Mass of dry soil (m - m )

Moisture Content w =(m - m ) (m - m ) Operator Checked Approved 100% 21.719 20.92 18.122

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R LAB SOIL

ES L S The moisture content of the soil (m) should e reported to t o significant figures foe

Form 2.A Job Ref Borehole/ FSPU, UiTM Shah Alam Pit no. Sample No. Depth Date 28/1/2010 m

BS 1377: Part 2: 1990: 3.2

1

7

9

g

72.115

79.779

76.2

g g

64.234 27.948

70.756 27.626

69.336 31.46

gg

7.88136.286

9.02343.13

6.86437.876

R PORT LAB SOIL

1.6 CONCL SION As conclusion, from the test that had been done, the percentages of every moisture contents for each sample of soils are not same because it has different mass of moisture. It means that, mass of moisture for each strata of soil is different by each others depending mass of moisture and mass of moisture content.

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REPORT LAB SOIL

2.0 DETERMINATION OF PARTIC E SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY DRY SIEVING

2.1 OBJECTIVE

This test covers the quantitative determination of the parti le size distribution in a soil c down to the fine and size. This method shall not be used unless it has been shown that for the type of material under test it gives the same results as the methodsof analysis by wet sieving. 2.2 APPARATUS 1. Trays / Sieve

A nest of BS test sieves of required sizes: 5 mm, 2 mm, 1.18 mm, 600 Appropriate receiver m, 425 m, 300 m, 212 m, 150 m, 63 m

2. Sample Divider

Used for put the sample before the test done. Help in giving measured quantities of sample.

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3. Weighing balance

Help in giving the accurate mass of samples.

4. Trays

The last layer in the BS sieve that act to catch the sample that pass through the 0.063 mm.

5. A thermostatically controlled oven

Oven set at a temperature of 105 110 C

7. Sieve Brushes

Used to clean up the sieve from any material after the test done. There are two 2 types of brushes; one for large size of sieve and for small size of sieve.

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R PORT LAB SOIL

the cooled sample at sample. 2. CALCULATIONS

The moisture content of the soil (m) shall be calculated as a percentage of the dry soil eight, from the formula: M = m2 m Where m1 m2 m 2.4 ESULTS = = = mass of container mass of container and et soil mass of container and dry soil m m1 x 100%

The moisture content of the soil (m ) should be reported to t o significant figures for value up to 10% and to the nearest hole number for higher values.

Borehole/ pit no.

Related test Specimen ref. ontainer no.

Mass of dry soil + container (m3) Mass of container (m1) Mass of moisture (m2-m3) Mass of dry soil (m3-m1) oisture content, = m 2 m / m m1) x 100

g g g g w %

64 28 8 36 22.22

71 28 9 43

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#

20.9

Mass of

et soil + container (m2)

Test Method

BS 1 77: Part 2: 1990 : 3.2

1 1 g 72

"

"

Soil

escription

Sample no. epth ate m

LOCATION

!

The sample

ill be deemed to be dry

hen the differences in successive

eight of

hourly intervals do not exceed 0.1% of the original

eight of the

J B REF.

2 7 0

3 9 76 69 31 7 38 18.42

R PORT LAB SOIL 2.5 CONCLUSION From the test result, it can be concluded that the soil have average moisture content. It is because, the type of sample soil can easily absorb also easily discharge the ater and at the same time it can ith 0% and above ater through exposure from sun heat. It can be said that the soil

has been tested is clay type because according to BS 930: 1981, soil moisture is considered as sandy clay or stiff clay.

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REPORT LAB SOIL

3.0 DETERMINATION OF IQUID IMIT USING THE CONE PENETROMETER3.1 OBJECTIVE The liquid limit is defined as the moisture content corresponding to a come penetration of 20 mm. 3.2 APPARATUS 1. A flat surface glass surface .

2. Spatula.

3. Penetrometer apparatus

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4. A cone of stainless steel or duralumin approximately 35 mm long, with a smooth, polished surface and an angle of 30 1 .

5. A metal cup approximately 55 mm in diameter and 40 mm deep with the rim parallel to the flat base

6. A plastic wash battle containing distilled water .

7. Mortar and pestle.

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8. 0.42500 BS test sieve.

3.3 PROCEDURE OF IQUID IMIT

1. A soil sample are take from lab which it material passing the 0.425mm BS test sieve. We are weighting 200g from the soil to do this test. Before we are weight the soil sample, we must crush it with mortar and pestle. After that, the sieve process must do to make sure the soil is passing like BS want.

2. After that, the sample are placed on the flat glass and mixed thoroughly with distilled water using the spatula until the mass becomes a thick homogeneous paste.

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3. We are taken some part of the sample to be pushed into a metal cupwith using spatula which taking care not to trap air. The excess soil shall be struck off and leveled to five a smooth surface.

4.The sample in the metal cup will place on the base in Penetrometer cone apparatus which placed lower, so that it just touches the surface of the soil. When the cone is the correct position, a slight movement of the cup will just mark the surface of the soil and the reading of redial gauge is noted to the nearest 0.1mm. Then, the cone is released for a period of 5 1 second.

5. After the cone has been locked in position the dial gauge shall be lowered to the new position of the cone shaft and the reading noted to the nearest 0.1mm are taken.We are recorded the difference between the readings at the beginning and end ofthe test as the cone penetration.

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6. The core is lifted out and cleaned carefully. Then, a little more of wet soil is added to the cup and the same process at 2 to 6 is repeated.

3. PROCEDURE OF P ASTIC IMIT

1. We are selected a sample weighting from the material passing the 0.425mm BS test sieve remaining after the liquid limit test. We are reduced the water content of the soil to a consistency at which it can be rolled without sticking to the hands by spreading and mixing continuously on the glass plate. The weights of empty tin/container are being recorded.

2.

rom the sample, select a portion and form into an ellipsoid. We are rolled this mass

between the palm or fingers and the glass plate with just sufficient pressure to oll the mass r into a thread of uniform diameter throughout its length. Continue to alternate rolling, gathering, kneading, and re-rolling until the thread crumbles under the pressure required for rolling.

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3. Gather the portions of the crumbled thread t gether and place in a moisture tin/container. o

4. We are repeating steps 2 and 3 until the moisture tin contains in about 3 pieces of moist soil. ecord the mass of the moist soil and tin/container to the near