Designing Effective Training
Train the Trainer Series - Day TwoAn Infopeople Workshop
Cheryl Gouldgouldc@infopeople.orgOctober 28, 2004
Overview of TodayQuick ReviewAudience and Objectives Determine DesignHow to DesignDesign Your Training
To Create Training Think ADDIE
Analysis - what are the needs?Design - create the blueprintDevelopment - develop the training and materials Implementation - deliver the trainingEvaluation - did you achieve your objectives?
Train From the Learners PerspectiveBy the end of the training session, the learner should be able to SMARTSpecificMeasurableActionRealisticTimeframe
Why Offer Training?New proceduresNew technologyNew hiresA problemConsistent job performanceImprove job performance through a change in Skills, Knowledge or Attitude
The Design Phase
delivery methodtopic order and depthavailable resourcesWhat Should I Teach?
How Should I Teach It?
What Would Change?10 newly hired reference librariansAll staffUpdate and teach yearly to all reference staffYou need to train Using the Internet for Ready Reference
Know Your AudienceDo they need history? theory? background?Previous experienceJargonReading proficiencyResistance, assumptions, stucknessDesign training based on learners, not topic or what software can do.
Whose Needs?Organizational needsROI, competencies, library mission Learner needssolve immediate problems, enjoy job, feel competent Task needsget the job done. - no fluff
Tasks Can Be Broken Into StepsJobs have DutiesDuties have TasksTasks are broken down into Sub-tasksSub-tasks are broken down into Steps
Task AnalysisWhat tasks do learners need to doBreak tasks into sub-taskscan have from 5-9 stepssteps should be able to be followed and performed without assistance
Task Analysis WorksheetFill in the top a task you need to train:Write the task at the top Add sub-tasks in the left-hand columnFill in steps in the right-hand column.
If you have trouble figuring out the sub-tasks and steps, interview someone else in the room who does the job or have them interview you
Be able to identify side effects and drug interactions from drug information sites and pharmaceutical (.com) sites.Select a digital camera and type of storage media.Help book group members develop a reading list that reflects their interests and abilitiesUnderstand the process of the reference interview and its components.Name the four phases of Transition and locate your current position on the Change Continuum. Be able to create an event flyer by laying out text and graphics in Microsoft Word.List the 5 most important government/genealogy/business websites to know to help a typical public library patron.Sample Objectives
Simplicity is Complexity Resolved Constantin Brancusi (1867-1957) Designing
Decisions in the Design PhaseOutlineDelivery methodLengthDetermine materialsPlan interactivityLogistics
Determining Delivery OptionsTasksrequire demonstrationcheat sheetLearnerscan they learn independentlyhow fast do they need to knowhow critical is the informationwill they use a manualWhat delivery methods are available
Technical vs Soft SkillsTechnicallogical orderskills and knowledgepracticeSoft Skillspsychologicalattitude and skillsbehavior change is difficult
MediaOverheadsManualWorkbookPowerPoint PresentationPaper Exercises or handoutsOnlineWeb castLibrary BlogTutorial
Make It ActiveIdeal training is:35% Presentation65% Application and FeedbackRetentionfirst thing - 95%last thing 65%middle stuff 20% or less
You Cant Cover It All So Cover Whats Important!Frequency and complexity of taskconstantinfrequent and simpleinfrequent and complexjob aidsteach the online help systemBetter payback to teach critical tasks wellExpert strategy is more important than shoulds
Work From Your ObjectivesOutline - put chunks in logical sequenceDetermine method and media Prepare:questionsreal life examplesexerciseshandoutstransitions
Start Your OutlineCreate the laundry listPut in orderChunk in to 3 to 5 main partsOne main idea per chunkFill in chunks
For Every Chunk
Tell them what you are going to teach and why they carebig picture/overviewhow it fits into their work life with examplesTeach themshow them howdo an exerciseask/receive questionsGet them to personalize, by having them:say how they will use itconsider pros, cons and barriers
Structure the Day
Buy-inWIIFM conversation through question(s)bring out main concerns (fears, resistance, prerequisite knowledge required)overviewContent in Chunksdiscuss big picture, then detailsdemonstrateIndividual or small group practice with debriefClosurequestions, summarize, state something learned or changed, follow-up, evaluate
I would never waste my time learning something that I could simply look up.
Supplies needed: Timer Index cards, 5 sticky note pads 10 blank puzzles and bandannas Anything new since last week? New people in the class? Clarity about what training you might do?
Have them fill in an index card with their name in the upper right corner and list one or two training topics they are responsible for. I can use these later to see if there are groupingsWe talked last week about the process of training and touched briefly on different skills you need as a trainer. Today well get more in depth into designing and what you need to do before you can design.The first two analysis and design or very closely tied. Shouldnt be designing without some analysis of needs.
A book group is not trainingMaybe have them (or me) look at their lists of training topics and start asking questions.Can have them use what they started on the day before with their objectives have them read an objective that they wrote yesterday and start talking about what they need to teach whos the audience, how would they analyze a task.
The How should I teach part is separate from the actual activities and development of materialTo make this real life- you should also consider what resources are available training rooms, SMEs, computers for trainees
Since they can really analyze learners for this one- whats one where they can analyze both the learner and the tasksDiscuss
Keep the focus that presumably they are doing job training which usually has specific task requirements.
Heres where the language gets a little tough for me whether something is a task or sub-task or step of a task.My job is training director my duties are mentor trainers, keep up the trainers web site, support other grant projects, find instructors. Break down find instructors duty into tasks read magazines, attend conferences, call potential, interview, follow all leads. Task of call potential includes finding contact info, getting questions together, references. Call, ask, take notes.Look at job of filling out a time sheet.
Person hired to do Circulation- what are their duties?
Task analysis for restroom hand drying machine:**STEP 1: Push button*STEP 2: Rub hands gently under nozzle*STEP 3: Wipe hands on clothes OK youve talked to your audience, broken down tasks to know exactly where the gap is and now you have to get committed and write down some objectivesSo you ve got your objectives what do you do next? - DiscussionTeach email may have some generic steps but then when you have to teach a free Web based mail versus teaching Outlook, you have a whole nother ball game.
Things that effect your choice of how to designObjectivesNumber of people to train overallHow many people will get trained at onceHow much time is allotted for trainingAppropriate setting (a computer for everyone?)Sequence of activities/topics
Organizational Needs, Learner Needs, Task Needs all have to be considered.Build in some sharing time for the stuff they brought
Discuss their options their situationsOne-on-one, instructor led, on-site expert, tutorial, manual, set up mentoringTeaching training is a soft skill and a technical skill. There is a lot of 1,2,3 information and also a lot of behavior and communication skills required.These days, media and method are combining in the form of webcast or blog or online training that has synchronous and asynchronous components via discussion boards and chat and instant messaging.presentation being the lecture part. Application and feedback being the doing, being active part. Having a group discussion could be either presentation or feedbackImportant considerations when teaching computer stuff is how often the person will perform the task if often, then practice in training will do it. If infrequent, some kind of job aid is necessary and teaching someone to use the help system or creating a mentoring or buddy system is better.
Some complicated programs could have an entire manual covering all commands, a procedural manual of steps to doing certain tasks, and a troubleshooting guide to explain recovering from errorsThere may be several objectives for the entire training and one or more objectives for each chunk
Take out Training Event Design worksheet try filling it out for the class you wrote objectives on.
Do this with one of their topics or how to light a furnacehow about how to hang a pictureHow to parallel park
For every important detailWhy? Have a reasonWhat? Give them the factsHow? Let them try itWhat if? Let them think how they would use itLet them teach it to othersOther pointsDesign to challengeRemind them to understand the steps, not just complete the exercises
Catalog training example: MPrepare for questionsPrepare ahead of time for questions in crucial areas e.g. policies of the library or difficult topic areas for youList areas that might provoke questionsList questions that might be asked in these areasWrite out polish your answerMay include an anecdote or exampleReview your answer for terms to define, conclusions that may need to be supported, statements that might cause misunderstandings, logicMake a note to yourself to ask questions before the conclusion so that you can end the question period with your prepared conclusionImpromptu questionsReceive questions in an open and friendly mannerListen and restate the questionThink before answeringWhy is this question being asked?How does the question fit my topic?KISSKeep It Simple and SuccinctIf you dont know the answersay so!!Offer to find out and get back to them
Discuss alternatives to manuals - How important it is to break it intosections that are small and usable from the users point of view.
I envision an exercise with an out of order table of contents and they have toput it in order with main sections and sub-topics.