Demystifying Explosives: Concepts in High Energy 9.2.5 Diamagnetism-Based Magnetic Field Detector ... (plastic bonded explosive) composition 1952 ... research and development explosive

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  • Demystifying Explosives:Concepts in High Energy Materials

    S. VenugopalanFormer scientist,

    High Energy Materials Research Laboratory,Pune, India

    AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD

    PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO

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  • TNT (1863)

    RDX (1889)

    HMX (1930)

    CL-20 (1987)

    ONC (1999)

    FUTURE

    ?

    (YEAR OF INVENTION OF EACH EXPLOSIVE IS GIVEN IN PARENTHESIS)

    TNT Trinitrotoluene

    RDX - Cyclo trimethylene trinitramine(Research & Development EXplosive)

    HMX - Cyclo tetramethylene tetranitramine(High Melting EXplosive)

    CL-20 Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane(China Lake - 20)

    ONC Octanitrocubane

    A JOURNEY TOWARDS HIGHER EXPLOSIVE POWER

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    NoticesKnowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broadenour understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may becomenecessary.

    Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and usingany information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methodsthey should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have aprofessional responsibility.

    To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume anyliability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence orotherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in thematerial herein.

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    ISBN: 978-0-12-801576-6

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    Front cover photograph: Controlled explosion of unexploded ordnance. Courtesy: The U.S. Department ofDefense (DISCLAIMER: The use of military imagery does not imply or constitute endorsement of the authoror his services by the U.S. Department of Defense)

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  • The author dedicates this book to the memory of countless number ofinnocent human beings who lost their lives in terrorist explosions all over the

    world with the prayer that this planet will be free from the clutches ofterrorism in the near future.

    High energy materials (HEMs; explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics) arevery dangerous if they are not handled with care and caution. In my careerspanning over three decades, I have witnessed gruesome accidents, some of

    them fatal, at almost every stage, synthesis, scale-ups, production, testing, andeven waste disposal of HEMs. The victims of those accidents include notonly the beginners who were ignorant but also veterans who wereeither overconfident or complacent. Odds are highly against you whenHEMs are handled with disregard for standard operating procedures (SOPs)and the Dos and Donts. Read Chapter 8 on safety for more details.

    Remember that like fire and electricity, HEMs can be your best friend or worstenemy depending on how you handle them.

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  • Contents

    About the Author and Editor ............................................................................ xiii

    Foreword 1 ...................................................................................................... xv

    Foreword 2 .................................................................................................... xvii

    Foreword 3 ..................................................................................................... xix

    Preface ........................................................................................................... xxi

    Acknowledgments ...........................................................................................xxiii

    Abbreviations ..................................................................................................xxv

    Chapter 1: In Pursuit of Energy and Energetic Materials....................................... 11.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 11.2 Gunpowder to Nitrocubanes .................................................................................. 11.3 Classification of Explosives................................................................................... 6

    1.3.1 Maximum Power per Unit Volume ................................................................... 61.3.2 High Velocity of Detonation ............................................................................. 61.3.3 Long-Term Storage Stability ............................................................................. 71.3.4 Insensitivity to Shock and Impact ..................................................................... 71.3.5 Ability to Withstand Large Accelerations ........................................................ 7

    1.4 Explosives and Molecular Structure...................................................................... 81.5 Classification of Propellants .................................................................................. 8

    1.5.1 Small-Arms Propellant..................................................................................... 101.5.2 Mortar Propellant ............................................................................................. 101.5.3 Gun Propellant ................................................................................................. 101.5.4 Rocket Propellant............................................................................................. 11

    1.6 Pyrotechnics ......................................................................................................... 111.6.1 Light ................................................................................................................. 141.6.2 Smoke............................................................................................................... 141.6.3 Sound................................................................................................................ 141.6.4 Heat .................................................................................................................. 14

    Appendix A................................................................................................................. 15Appendix B................................................................................................................. 16Appendix C................................................................................................................. 16Suggested Reading ..................................................................................................... 17Questions .................................................................................................................... 17

    vii

  • Chapter 2: Energetics of Energetic Materials ..................................................... 192.1 Are Explosives and Propellants High-Energy Materials? .................................. 192.2 Explosive: The Wonderful Lamp ........................................................................ 202.3 Thermochemistry and Explosive Energy ............................................................ 22

    2.3.1 Heat of Reaction .............................................................................................. 232.3.2 Heat of Formation............................................................................................ 232.3.3 Heat of Explosion (DHe) and Heat of Combustion (DHc)............................. 272.3.4 Oxygen Balance ............................................................................................... 29

    Worked Example 2.1 .................................................................................................. 322.3.5 Heat of Explosion: Dependence on Heat of Formation and

    Oxygen Balance ............................................................................................. 332.3.6 OB of Composite Explosives ........................................................................ 342.3.7 Hazard Assessment from OB ........................................................................ 352.3.8 Composition of Gaseous Products ................................................................ 352.3.9 Significance and Limitations of OB.............................................................. 36

    2.3.10 D

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