Definition of Escalator

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    TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS

    GROUP 6

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    INTRODUCTION

    Use of lift and escalator for a building to be designed precisely to

    ensure the optimal level of consumption.

    Design-lift and escalator should be submitted to an expert to

    ensure best quality.

    Internal circulation within the building is a process in which the

    occupants in a building to move the pattern vertically, inclined and

    horizontal. Lift and escalator use is one of the means of transport in building

    the most suitable for high building exceeding 4 floors (lift) and 2nd

    floor (escalator)

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    DEFINITION OF ESCALATOR

    An escalator a moving starcase

    Escalators are continuous conveyors designed for moving large

    numbers of people quickly and efficiently from one floor to another.

    Unlike a normal lift installation it requires no waiting time, and in

    order to achieve a similar service a large number of lifts occupying

    more floor space would be required.

    Principals areas of usage include department stores, shopping

    malls, airport, transit system, convention centers, hotels, andpublic buildings.

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    FUNCTION & LAYOUT ESCALATOR

    The function is to provide convenience to passengers to

    change from one unit to one unit ladder stairs to another.

    Give good use, improve layout patterns and get an attractive

    arrangement

    Escalator layout concept can be divided into five types.

    - Crisscross arrangement

    - Parallel arrangement

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    Arrangements

    Various arrangements may be used for escalators depending uponthe standard of service required and the cost of installation.

    Location

    In order to ensure maximum use an escalator should be locatedwhere it can be easily seen, and in departmental stores it shouldnormally be possible to see over a wide area of the floors so as toencourage sales.

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    ADVANTAGES OF ESCALATORMoving People

    The escalator's primary attribute is its ability to move large

    numbers of people at once from one area to another, with some

    escalators, such as those in the London Underground,spanning particularly long distances.

    People can move both upward as well as downward when a

    pair of escalators are typically deployed next to each other.

    That is an advantage over an elevator, which can only go one

    way at a time with generally a much smaller capacity.

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    Comfort

    An escalator transports people automatically when switched on,

    with individuals simply standing still.

    As such, traveling on an escalator requires little physical

    exertion.

    People who experience pain or difficulty when walking are thus

    able to traverse longer distances with ease and in relative

    comfort.

    Escalators offer plenty of space, too, especially when comparedto an elevator or narrow staircase where people may be

    squashed together.

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    Efficiency

    The purpose of an escalator is to transport people.

    It performs this task efficiently, allowing individuals to move

    between potentially many floors of a building in a relativelyshort amount of time, when compared to a staircase, for

    instance.

    Because escalators are generally quite long, they allow a large

    group of people to get on at once and reduce the need for

    waiting periods typical of elevators.

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    Guidance

    Escalators are effective when used as a means of guidanceand circulation.

    In a complex transport situation, such as a city's subway hub,people need to be kept on the go, particularly at busy times, toreduce congestion and avoid excess waiting.

    Escalators are efficient at keeping people moving from onepoint to another.

    When used as part of a museum or similar building, anescalator is able to direct visitors to exhibitions or exits simplyby its appearance and the direction in which it's traveling.

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    Adjustable Speed

    As part of its ability to reduce and control congestion, an

    escalator offers an advantage to building managers in that its

    speed can be adjusted to reflect how quickly crowds need tomove.

    In a busy situation for example, an escalator can be made to

    run slowly, so that passengers don't arrive in the same area as

    an already substantial crowd.

    Escalators can also save energy during quiet periods, since

    they can be turned off, essentially becoming a staircase.

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    CAPACITY OF ESCALATOR

    Speed (m/s)

    Passengers moved per hour for the stated number of

    passengers per step

    1

    1.25

    1.5

    2

    0.45

    0.5

    0.6

    0.75

    3500

    4000

    4500

    6000

    4500

    5000

    6000

    7500

    5500

    6000

    7000

    9000

    7000

    8000

    9000

    12000

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    INSTALLATION OF ESCALATOR

    A factory-assembled and tested escalator erected as a single unit

    provides the quickest and most satisfactory method of installation.

    The units are usually lifted in position by a tower crane and space

    is therefore required on site for the crane and movement of the

    units.

    Alternatively, the escalator may be divided into sections and

    assembled on site.

    In design of the floor it is essential to take into account the loadimposed by the escalator and its passengers.

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    FIRE CONTROL

    Local fire regulations should be consulted with regard to the type

    of fire control required for escalators

    There are such different types fire control described as follow:1. Water sprinklers

    2. Fireproof sliding shutter

    3. Escalator hall

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    SAFETY DEVICE

    There are some of different tools and security tools combined withescalators for safety, all of the following are :

    1. Comb plate switches actuated by any object caught between the

    step and the teeth of the comb plate.2. Overload relays that trip if the motor should take an excessive

    current due to an overload, mechanical defect or any othercause. The power supply is switched off and a brake applied,bringing the escalator to a smooth stop.

    3. Interlock contacts which open if the step chain stretches undulyor breaks.

    4. An overspeed governor to stop the escalator should it overspeedin the 'down' direction.

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    5. Comb-plate lights to give confidence to nervous passengers by

    lighting up the entry and exit points.

    6. Switches to stop the escalator if any object is carried by the

    handrail into the newel openings.

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    CONSTRUCTION

    An escalator consists of a load-bearing steel truss structure which

    supports the steps, step rollers, sprocket motor, worm gear andelectrical controls. There are three sections which are as follows:

    1. Top

    2. Centre

    3. bottom

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    COMPONENT OF ESCALATOR

    Step

    Landing platform

    Handrail

    Frame construction

    Electric motor

    Track

    Truss

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    ESCALATORS SAFETY TIPS

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    Wear Safe Clothes and Shoes

    Dont Put Children inStrollers, carts, or walkers

    Always Hold the Handrail

    Always Face Forward

    Keep Space

    Always Secure Children

    Avoid the Edges of Steps

    Know Emergency Shut-off Buttons

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    SAFETY PROCEDURE IN REPAIRING AND

    MAINTENANCE WORKS

    Safe and easy ways and access routes with sufficient

    headroom to the machinery spaces should be provided.

    The enclosure and supporting structure should be sound

    and free from defects.

    The handrail, steps, combs and drive for steps should be

    functioning properly.

    The braking system and the manual control and emergencystop switches should also be functioning properly.

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    TRAVELATORS (MOVING PAVEMENTS) Known by some asa horizontalator, movealator, walkalator, autowalk or movato

    r), is a slow moving conveyor mechanism that transports

    people across a hor

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