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DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR WORKSHOP OCTOBER 2526, 2011 FINAL REPORT Sponsored by National Science and Technology Council’s Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology Hosted by University of South Florida Sirata Beach Resort and Conference Center, St. Petersburg, Florida

DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL - whitehouse.gov · SCIENTIFIC FINDINGS, OVERARCHING ... Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Principal ... Additionally, a poster session provided an opportunity

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  • DEEPWATERHORIZONOILSPILL

    PRINCIPALINVESTIGATORWORKSHOPOCTOBER2526,2011

    FINALREPORT

    Sponsoredby

    NationalScienceandTechnologyCouncils

    SubcommitteeonOceanScienceandTechnology

    Hostedby

    UniversityofSouthFlorida

    SirataBeachResortandConferenceCenter,St.Petersburg,Florida

  • TABLEOFCONTENTSEXECUTIVESUMMARY.......................................................................................................................................1

    INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................................................2

    WORKSHOPBACKGROUND...............................................................................................................................................2

    PLENARYANDSESSIONSUMMARIES..................................................................................................................3

    OILANDDISPERSANT:EXTENTANDFATE............................................................................................................................3OILANDDISPERSANTIMPACTSANDMITIGATIONINCOASTALENVIRONMENTS.........................................................................10OILANDDISPERSANTIMPACTSANDMITIGATIONINOFFSHOREENVIRONMENTS.......................................................................16OILANDDISPERSANTIMPACTSANDMITIGATIONONLIVINGMARINERESOURCES....................................................................20OILANDDISPERSANTIMPACTSANDMITIGATIONONHUMANHEALTHANDSOCIOECONOMICSYSTEMS.......................................25USEOFINSITUANDREMOTESENSORS,SAMPLINGANDSYSTEMS.........................................................................................32

    SCIENTIFICFINDINGS,OVERARCHINGOBSERVATIONS,ANDRECOMMENDATIONS............................................39

    APPENDIX1:WORKSHOPAGENDA....................................................................................................................42

    APPENDIX2:WORKSHOPPARTICIPANTS...........................................................................................................44

    APPENDIX3:SUPPLEMENTALSESSIONINFORMATION......................................................................................48

    WORKSHOPFORMAT....................................................................................................................................................48OILANDDISPERSANTIMPACTSANDMITIGATIONINOFFSHOREENVIRONMENTS.......................................................................58OILANDDISPERSANTIMPACTSANDMITIGATIONONHUMANHEALTHANDSOCIOECONOMICSYSTEMS.......................................61USEOFINSITUANDREMOTESENSORS,SAMPLINGANDSYSTEMS.........................................................................................63

    APPENDIX4:ABSTRACTSANDSPEAKERINFORMATION.....................................................................................65

    PLENARYSPEAKERS.......................................................................................................................................................65OILANDDISPERSANT:EXTENTANDFATE..........................................................................................................................66OILANDDISPERSANTIMPACTSANDMITIGATIONINCOASTALENVIRONMENTS.........................................................................70OILANDDISPERSANTIMPACTSANDMITIGATIONINOFFSHOREENVIRONMENTS.......................................................................74OILANDDISPERSANTIMPACTSANDMITIGATIONONLIVINGMARINERESOURCES....................................................................78OILANDDISPERSANTIMPACTSANDMITIGATIONONHUMANHEALTHANDSOCIOECONOMICSYSTEMS.......................................81USEOFINSITUANDREMOTESENSORS,SAMPLINGANDSYSTEMS.........................................................................................82POSTERSESSION...........................................................................................................................................................86

    APPENDIX5:ACRONYMS..................................................................................................................................90

    PhotoCredit:NationalOceanicandAtmosphericAdministration(http://www.gulfspillrestoration.noaa.gov)

    Citation:DeepwaterHorizonOilSpillPrincipal InvestigatorWorkshop:FinalReport.2012. NationalScienceandTechnologyCouncil,SubcommitteeonOceanScienceandTechnology.Washington,DC.91pp.

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    EXECUTIVESUMMARYTheDeepwaterHorizonMississippiCanyon252 (DWH)oilspill focusedunprecedentedattentionon theGulfofMexicoecosystem. DuringtheresponsetotheDWHevent,resourcemanagersandresearchersfromacrossthecountrypartnered toconductscience,monitoring,and responseactivities tounderstand impacts from thespill.Thedataand informationcollectedfromthoseeffortshavesincebeenusedtomakeprogresstowardsthe longtermgoalofprotectingandrestoringpublichealthandnaturalresourcesintheGulfofMexico.

    Duringthespillresponse,federalcoordinationwiththeGulfofMexicoacademiccommunity included jointworkonsubsurfacemonitoringofoil,aswellasselectionofresearch fordirectsupportthroughmechanisms liketheNational Science Foundations (NSF) Rapid Response Research grants program. Much of the early scientificknowledgegainedfromthisworkwaspresentedduringaNationalScienceandTechnologyCouncil(NSTC),JointSubcommitteeonOceanScienceandTechnology(JSOST)PrincipalInvestigatorConferenceheldOctober56,2010inSt.Petersburg,Florida.

    To date, the restoration and research efforts emanating from the DWH spill and the October 2010meetingcontinue. Atthesametime,anumberofneweffortshavebeen launchedtobettercoordinateshortand longterm studies related to theDWHeventand theGulfofMexicoecosystemasawhole toensure that researchinformsrestoration,recovery,andsustainabilitypracticesintheregion1.Theseactivities,andthemanyotherslikethem,arededicatedtoenhancingourunderstandingoftheGulfofMexicoecosystemandensuringitssustainableuseforgenerationstocome.

    Given the important role theOctober2010workshopplayed inbringing scientists togetherand thenumerousactivitiesthathaveensuedsince,theNSTCSubcommitteeonOceanScienceandTechnology(SOST)heldasecondworkshop on October 2526, 2011, again in St. Petersburg, Florida. This followon workshop provided anopportunityforresearcherstosharefinal(ornearfinal)resultsofstudiesthatwereverymuchworksinprogressduring the first coordinating conference in October 2010. It also provided an opportunity for researchers toparticipatewhowereunabletoattendthefirstworkshopbecausetheywereactivelyconductingresearch inthefield. The 2011 workshop encompassed a wide diversity of scientific disciplines and reported on criticalmethodologiesandfindingsresultingfromongoingDWHrelatedresearch.

    Thisdocumenthighlights the resultspresentedat theDWHPrincipal InvestigatorWorkshoponOctober2526,2011. Itdepictstheongoingscienceadvancementsandcoordinationhappeningacrossallsectorstoaddressourcollective longtermgoalsandneeds for restoringandeffectivelymanaging thenatural resources in theGulfofMexico.

    1Example efforts include:developmentof a longterm restoration strategyby theGulfofMexico EcosystemRestoration Task Force; establishmentof theBPsponsoredGulfofMexicoResearch Initiative;establishmentoftheGulfofMexicoUniversitiesResearchCollaborative;updatestothestakeholderdrivenGulfofMexicoResearchPlan;developmentoftheGulfofMexicoReportCardbytheHarteResearchInstitute;andnumerousplanningactivitieswithinstateandfederalagenciesandnongovernmentalorganizationsdesignedtobettercoordinatehoweachusesitsexistingGulfofMexicoresources.

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    INTRODUCTION

    WORKSHOPBACKGROUNDOnOctober 2526, 2011, theNational Science and Technology Councils Subcommittee onOcean Science andTechnology(NSTCSOST)convenedthesecondDeepwaterHorizonOilSpillPrincipal InvestigatorWorkshop inSt.Petersburg,Florida.

    The workshop brought together scientific investigators and stakeholders from academic institutions, privateresearch institutes, industry,and stateand federalagenciesactive inGulfofMexico scienceand research.ThisworkshopwasanopportunityforscientificinvestigatorstoupdateresultsofstudiesthatwereinprogressduringtheJSOSTcoordinatingconferenceinOctober2010;shareresultsofmorerecentprojects;provideinputtofutureGulf of Mexico research directions; and foster collaborative partnerships. Approximately 150 individualsparticipatedintheworkshopwithrepresentationfrom18statesandfivesectors(academia,federalgovernment,privateindustry,stategovernment,andnonprofitorganizations).

    Thetwodaymeetingwasorganizedto includeplenarytalks,panelpresentations,anddiscussionsessionswithinthematicbreakoutgroups.AsintheOctober2010JSOSTworkshop,thefirstdayofthemeetingfeaturedplenarytalksandconcurrentoralbreakoutsessionsfocusedonsixthemes:

    Oilanddispersant:Extentandfate

    Oilanddispersantimpactsandmitigationincoastalenvironments

    Oilanddispersantimpactsandmitigationinoffshoreenvironments

    Oilanddispersantimpactsandmitigationonlivingmarineresources

    Oilanddispersantimpactsandmitigationonhumanhealthandsocioeconomicsystems

    Useof insituandremotesensors,samplingandsystemsforassessing impactsandmitigationofoilanddispersant

    Additionally,apostersessionprovidedanopportunityforparticipantstopresentanddiscusstheirresearchwithothersworkingonsimilarprojects.

    Ontheseconddayofthemeeting,thebreakoutgroupswereaskedtoconsiderthescientific issuesdiscussedatthe 2010 conference, brainstorm additional issues, and determine their current status (see Appendix 3). Theafternoonconcludedwitha reportanddiscussionpresentedbyeachbreakoutgroupandaworkshopsynthesispresentedbyJerryMiller,theSOSTcochairperson.

    Theremainderofthisdocumentpresentsplenaryandsessionsummariesforeachthemefollowedbyasummaryofscientificfindingsandoverarchingobservations.Theworkshopagenda,participantlists,supplementalsessioninformation,andabstracts frompresentationsare included in theappendices.Additionally,manypresentationsareavailableontheworkshopwebpageathttp://www.marine.usf.edu/conferences/fio/NSTCSOSTPI2011/.

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    PLENARYANDSESSIONSUMMARIES

    OILANDDISPERSANT:EXTENTANDFATESessionBackgroundInformation

    During the workshops opening plenary, Dr. Tom Ryerson from the National Oceanic and AtmosphericAdministrations(NOAAs)EarthSystemsResearchLaboratoryprovidedanoverviewoftheextentandfateofoilfromtheDWHeventfromtheperspectiveofhisresearchgroupsworkontheatmosphericfeaturesofthespillandpresentedareviewofpublishedstudies.Theoverviewspecificallyfocusedonoilapproximatelyonehourtotwo days following release and how atmosphericmeasurements can provide strong constraints againstwhichtransportmodels canbequantitativelyevaluated. Atmospheric sampling indicatedanevaporative sourcearearoughly1.6km indiameter,offsetapproximately1km from thewellhead, implyinga single,directpath to thesurfacewithasurfacingtimeofthreetotenhoursafterreleasewithmillimeterscaledropletstransportingmostofthesurfacingmass.AtmosphericdataalsoindicatedDWHhydrocarbonpartitioningbetweensoluble,volatile,andinsoluble fractions after release, suggesting different ecosystems were exposed to different mixtures ofhydrocarbons (e.g., minimal amounts of benzene reached the surface). Overall, insoluble oil compoundscomprisedapproximately75%of the leaking fluidmassbutmadeuponlyabout31%of thedeepplumemass.Available chemical data show very different hydrocarbonmixtureswere transported along different paths. Inaddition,onlyabout15%oftheleakedmasswasexpressedpromptlyatthesurfacewithacalculatedflowrateintothe surface slickofapproximately1x106kg/day,whichagreeswith slickestimates fromairborneand satelliteremote sensing data. After the first few days following release, transport became far more complex, andadditionalsurfacespreading,sinking,andbeachingalloccurred.

    Aftertheopeningplenaryconcluded,theextentandfatebreakoutsessionbeganandincludedtwocomponents.On the first day, science presentations provided preliminary results of recent DWH oil spillrelated researchimportanttounderstandingtheextentandfateofoilanddispersants. Beginningwithpresentationsfocusedonsubsurfaceprocesses(e.g.,buoyantplumeformationandthedispersalofoildroplets),thesessionthenmovedtopresentations on surface processes (e.g.,microbial respiration in surface waters and surface tar distribution)beforefinishingwithpresentationsonatmosphericprocesses(e.g.,aerosolformation)andtoolsavailabletohelpunderstand theextentand fateof thespill (e.g.,numericalmodelsandsynchrotronbased techniques). On thesecondday,thebreakoutsessionparticipantsreviewedtheextentandfatescienceissueshighlightedatthe2010workshop and added several new ones before assessing the relative importance and amount of informationavailablefortheseissues.

    Participants(Table2,Appendix3) intheextentandfatesession includedrepresentativesfromfederalandstategovernments, universities, and private industry. The majority of the participants were actively conductingresearch,whiletheremainingparticipantsusedresearchresultsintheirprofession.

    SciencePresentations

    Oralpresentationsintheextentandfatesessionfocusedonthesourcecharacterization,transportprocesses,andfate(i.e.,sinkprocesses)ofhydrocarbonsfromtheDWHwellwithsomediscussionofhowdispersantmayhaveimpactedtransportandfate.Presentationsprimarilyfocusedonthesubsurfacemovementofhydrocarbons(twopresentations), biogeochemical cycling of hydrocarbons in the subsurface and surface waters (threepresentations),methodsforandresultsoftrackingoil(twopresentations),aerosolformationasaresultofthespillandtheburningofoil(twopresentations),modelingofthespill(threepresentations),andtheimpactofthespillonsummerhypoxiainthenorthernGulfofMexico.Alistofspeakers,theiraffiliation,andthetitlesandabstractsoftheirpresentationscanbefoundinAppendix4.

    Salientpointsfromthepresentationsinclude:

    Lab experiments suggest buoyant plume formation occurs in stratified waters and that trappingtimescalesvarywiththecompositionoftheoil.

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    TheSouthAtlanticBightandGulfofMexico/LarvalTRANSportLagrangianmodelsystemproducedresultswhichcomparefavorablywithobservationsofasubsurfaceplume.

    Degradation rates of oil droplet diameters had a marked influence on oil dispersal and oil dropletinteractionwiththeGulfcoastshorelineandtheslope/shelfbottom.

    MethanewasthemostabundanthydrocarbonemittedfromtheDWHwell.However,onlyaninsignificantquantityof thismethanewasemitted into theatmosphere.Themajorityof it remaineddissolved inadeepplumeor in intrusion layerswhere itsdegradationproducedapersistentoxygenanomaly in thedeepGulfofMexicowaters.

    Thefateandtransportofoil inthewatercolumncanbeeffectivelytrackedwithultravioletvisible (UVvis)andfluorescenceexcitationemissionmatrix(EEM)techniques.

    Ananalysisofthedynamicsofbacterialpopulationsat10001300mdepthhasshownthatthegrowthofsuchpopulationshelpeddiminishtheimpactofthedissolvedhydrocarbonsontheenvironment.

    ThemicrobialcommunityintheGulfofMexicosupportedunprecedentedratesofoilrespiration,despitetheirgrowthbeinglimitedbydissolvednutrients.

    Extensivesurveystocharacterizesurfacetardistributionhavebeenconducted.

    A narrow plume of hydrocarbonswas observed downwind of theDWH spill that is attributed to theevaporationof freshoilon the sea surface.Amuchwiderplumewithhigh concentrationsoforganicaerosol(>25microgramspercubicmeter)wasattributedtotheformationofasecondaryorganicaerosolfromunmeasured,lessvolatilehydrocarbonsthatwereemittedfromawiderareaaroundthewellsite.

    Approximately4%ofthecombustedmaterialfromoilburnswasreleased intotheatmosphereasblackcarbon[(1.350.72)x106kg].

    Modelingresultssuggestthattheprevailingwinds,throughtheirabilityto inducedirectandwavedrift,playedamajorroleinpushingtherisingoiltowardthecoastlinealongthenorthernGulfand,insynergywiththesurfacecurrents,preventedtheoilfromreachingtheFloridaStraits.

    Modeloutputspredictedtheformationofmultiplestratifiedplumes.

    In hypoxic bottom waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico, there were indications of hydrocarbonoxidation.

    Modelingexercisessuggestthatsurgeeventsassociatedwithtropicalcyclonesandnontropicallowscanpushoilfarintothemarshsystem.

    Theburningofcrudeoildoesnotreleasemetalsintotheatmosphere.

    BreakoutGroupDiscussionandGapAnalysis

    Ondaytwooftheworkshop,theindividualsintheextentandfatesessionparticipatedinafacilitateddiscussiononthescience issuesthathadbeenorstillneededtobeaddressedto increaseourunderstandingoftheextentandfateofoilanddispersantfollowinganoilspill.Duringthediscussion,participantsreviewedthescienceissuesidentified at the 2010workshop, identified new issues that have emerged, and assessed the importance andcurrentstateofknowledgeforeachoftheissues.

    Prior to the 2011 workshop, a facilitator collected and categorized the science issues identified at the 2010workshopinto35issuesgroupedintosevencategoriesfordiscussion.Thecategorieswere:

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    Bigpicture Modeling Atmosphericprocesses Interactionwithsedimentandresuspension Dispersant Detection Other

    The 2011 participants combined the 35 issues identified at the 2010 workshop into 32 discrete issues andidentified12newemerging science issues. Thesenew science issueswereplacedwithin the categoriesnotedaboveandratedonaLikertscale(04)fortheirimportanceinpreparingfor,respondingto,andrecoveringfromoilspills and the amount of information currently available for the issue. An issuewas either rated after beingselectedfordiscussionbythegroup(20issues)orbythecompletionofasurveyattheendofthesessionwithoutgroupdiscussion. Threeoftheemerging issueswerenotselectedfordiscussionandreceivednoratingbecausetheywerenot included in thepreprintedsurveyof issues from the2010workshop. Asummaryof thescienceissuesdiscussedduringthe2011workshopforeachcategory ispresentedbelow;thefullsetof issuesandtheirratingsareincludedinTable3(Appendix3)andplottedinFigure1.

    BigPicture A comprehensive Gulf observing system that includes sinks for hydrocarbonswas considered key to

    improvingtheresponsetooilspills intheregionwithsimilarsystemsestablished inotherregions. Thisgap needs to be recognized and addressed by funding agencies who should allow for infrastructuredevelopmentaspartof theirgrantingprograms.Suchanobservingsystemwouldhelpaddressexistingdatalimitationswhichcutacrossmultipleaspectsofoilspillresponseandresearch.

    Whileoilbudgetsareusefulafterthefact,whatismoreimportantduringaneventisanunderstandingofthefatesforreleasedhydrocarbons.

    Long term chemical, biological, and ecological studies are necessary to establish baselines and assessrecovery,withdecadaltimescaleslikelybeingthemostimportant.Suchstudiescouldhelpdetermineifandwheretippingpointsexist.

    Whenoilisinthewatercolumn,itgetsdispersedbyhydrodynamics,whichaffectsthepartsofasystemthatwillbe impacted. It isaverycomplexprocessthatmightnothavebeenproperlyaddressedduringtheDWHevent.Thereismoreknownabouthorizontalversusverticalmovementand,particularlyforthelatter,understandingdiffusivityofthedifferenthydrocarbonfractionsisimportant.

    With the creation of the Gulf ofMexico Research Initiative (GOMRI) and the funding opportunitiespreviously announcedby various federal agencies, there isnow a substantial amountofDWHrelatedresearch.Thisresearchneedstobetransparenttoavoidduplicationandtheresultsmadeavailabletoabroadaudience to increase theirapplicationand inclusion in theknowledgebase. Themechanism forsuchcoordinationisunclear,althoughtheGulfofMexicoAlliance(GOMA)isonepossibility.

    NEWISSUE:Effectsofhydrodynamicmixingonoiltransportandmixing(observationsandmodeling).

    NEWISSUE:Transparencyofnewresearch,e.g.,alistoffundedproposalsandatimelinefordeliverables(NSF,GOMRI,NOAA,BureauofOceanEnergyManagement[BOEM],AmericanPetroleumInstitute[API],International Association of Oil and Gas Producers [OGP], National Institute of Environmental HealthSciences[NIEHS],andothers).

    Modeling

    To better develop and validate numericalmodels, the parameters necessary to initialize and test themodelsandcoordinatemodelandobservingsystemdevelopmentmustbeidentified.

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    Techniques for validatingmodelsandquantifyinguncertaintyhaveprogressed,but the resultsarenotroutinely disseminated. There are large differences between transport and ocean circulationmodels(oftenusedforoilspillmodels),andthelatterneedstobevalidated.

    NEW ISSUE: Systematic validation techniques forquantifyinguncertainties inocean circulation andoiltransport.

    NEWISSUE:Dataareneededfordeepseamodels.AtmosphericProcesses

    Nodiscussion.

    NEWISSUE:Evaporativeprocessesandthefateofevaporatedoil.InteractionwithSedimentandResuspension

    It is necessary to know how oil fractions will interact withmarine snow particles and resuspendedsediments, particularly following storm events, and to incorporate this information into models.Mechanicallydispersedoildropletsaredifferent from chemicallydispersedoildroplets,which tend tointeractmuchlesswithsediment.

    The fate of oil deposited in sediment and colloidal suspensions, especially its degradation rate, isimportant.

    NEWISSUE:Fateofoildepositedinsedimentandcolloidalsuspensions,especiallyitsdegradationratesindifferenttypesofsediment.

    Dispersant

    There is a substantial amount of information available on the use of dispersants at the surface, butsubsurfaceuseremainsahugegap.

    Since efficacymay have a differentmeaning depending on your perspective (e.g., industry, response,restoration, etc.), it is preferable to focus on the effectof dispersanton deposition, partitioning, anddegradation.

    Industrysgoal istotreatthemostvolumeofoilwiththe leastdispersantso itsmoreefficienttoapplydispersantat thewellhead. However, theeffectsofdispersant stillneed tobequantified tooptimizedispersant application. Onemeasure could be the amount of dispersant needed to get to baselinerespirationrates.

    NEWISSUE:Effectofdispersantondeposition,partitioning,toxicity,anddegradation(deepseaandinthepresenceofhighflowrates).

    NEWISSUE:Effectofdispersantondeposition,partitioning,toxicity,anddegradation(surface).

    NEWISSUE:Measuringtheefficacyofdispersant.Detection

    Astandardprocedureforcollectingwatersampleswouldbeuseful,especiallyforconstructinglargedatasets.

    Theacademiccommunityneedstotakeadvantageofspillsofopportunitytoconductnewresearch,andeffort needs to be invested into setting up plans or approaches for easily mobilizing people andequipment.

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    The in situdetectionof subsurfaceoilusing fluorometryhasbeen testedand isanacceptedpractice;however,duetoanonlinearresponse,fluorometrycannotbeusedforquantification.

    Other techniques foroildetection such as in situmass spectrometers and sonar (for rapid screening)shouldcontinuetobeexplored.

    Flowrateisakeyparameterand,whendetermined,needstobequicklydisseminatedtoresearcherstoallowforfasterconfirmationorrefutation.Adiversityofassessmenttechniquesisagoodidea.

    Flowrateandthecompositionoftheflowinghydrocarbonswillchangeovertime,anditisnecessarytocontinuallyassesstherateofflow.

    Areliablemeasurementofdropletsizeiscriticalforinitializingandvalidatingmodels.Thereneedstobefurtherdevelopmentof insitu techniques for thesubsurfacemeasurementofoildropletsize. Dropletsizeaffectsfateand,insomesense,istotallyseparatefromchemicalcomposition.Forgases,bubblesizeisimportant.

    NEWISSUE:Quantificationofsubsurfaceoilviainsitutechniques(fluorometryandothers).Other

    A federaldatabase that lists thechemicalcompositionofoilandnaturalgas fromwells,and thequickreleaseof this informationwhena leakoccurs, is critical forensuringaneffective response,especiallyduringtheinitialdaysofaleak.Theintegrationofthisinformationintothefederalpermittingprocessislikely themost seamless approach. It tookmonths for this information to becomewidely availablefollowingtheDWHevent.

    Both industry and academia recognize their limited knowledge of microbial degradation rates ofhydrocarbons in different environments. Determining the rate of microbial degradation is difficultbecauseof thedependenceonbacterial flora, temperature,and classofoil compounds,amongotherfactors. It isrecommendedthatgeneral informationonmicrobialdegradationratesbemadeavailable,alongwithplansforhowtocollectmorespecificdataintheeventofaspill.

    Whilethemosttoxicoilcompoundsandmetabolitescompriseonlyasmallfractionoftheoil,theycausethemostdamageandare,therefore,themostimportanttotrack.

    NEWISSUE:Thecapacitytodetermineratesofmicrobialdegradationindifferentenvironments,bothinpreparation for a response and during a response (e.g., temperaturedependent rates, bioassays, andprioritizedmethods).

    NEWISSUE:Routinemonitoringforsurfacetarballsandtarballlandingsonbeaches.

    Of the42 science issues rated, 16 fellwithin theGap category, suggestingmanyhighpriority extent and fatescienceissueslackadequateinformation.TwentyissueswerecategorizedintoGoodWork,meaningtheyarehighprioritieswithagoodtorobustamountofinformationalreadyavailable.SixissuesfellonthelinedividingtheGapandGoodWorkcategories. No issues fell intotheRescalecategory,whichsuggeststhattherehasnotbeenaninvestment in increasing our understanding (information) of low priority extent and fate science issues. TheReassesscategoryindicatesthatthereisrelativelylittleinformationavailable,buttheissueisalowpriority;hence,investmentinthisissueisnotwarranted.NoneoftheissuesratedfellintotheReassesscategory.

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    Figure1.Plotofthe42extentandfatescienceissuesdiscussedduringthe2011workshopbasedonthetworatingscales.

    The extent and fate science issues in the upper left of theGap category (least amount of information,mostimportant)include(seeTable3,Appendix3forcompleteratings):

    Effectofdispersantondeposition,partitioning,toxicity,anddegradation(deepseaandinthepresenceofhighflowrates).

    Federaldatabase forthechemicalcompositionofoilandnaturalgas fromwells (partofthepermittingprocessandimmediateaccessforresearchersintheadventofaspill).

    Capacitytomeasuretheefficacyofdispersantinjectedatthewellhead.

    Capacitytodetermineratesofmicrobialdegradationindifferentenvironments,bothinpreparationforaresponseandduringaresponse(e.g.,temperaturedependentrates,bioassays,andprioritizedmethods).

    Interactionsofdispersedandnondispersedoilcomponentswithmarinesnowparticlesandresuspendedsediments(allpathways).

    Comprehensiveobserving system in theU.S. (includesnaturalbaselines,e.g., seeps,andprioritizesoilproducingregions).

    Samplingandmonitoringofoiltransportinthesubsurface.

    Quantificationofsubsurfaceoilviainsitutechniques(fluorometryandothers).

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    Effectsofdispersantsontoxiccomponentsofoil(e.g.,whetherdispersantsincreasethebioavailabilityoftoxicoilcompounds).

    Theextentand fatescience issues in theupper rightof theGoodWorkcategory (mostamountof information,mostimportant)include(seeTable3,Appendix3forcompleteratings):

    Detectionofsubsurfaceoilviainsitutechniques(fluorometryandothers).

    Assessmentoftechniquesformeasuringflowrates(gasandoil)duringsubsearelease(NOTE:informationaccessforrespondersandresearchersisimportant).

    Systematicvalidationtechniquesforquantifyinguncertaintiesinoceancirculationandoiltransport.

    Increaseremotesensingdataresolutioninthenearshoreandinlandseasandalongcoastlines.

    Samplingandmonitoringofoiltransportatthesurface.

    Assessmentoftechniquesformeasuringthechemicalcompositionandphysicaltransformationofoil.

    Assessmentandcomparisonofmethodsforcollectingwatersamplesforoilandoildetection.

    Fateandextentofthemosttoxiccompoundsandmetabolites.

    Oilbudgetandpartitioningoffractions(i.e.,fractionationoftheoilanditslocation).

    CrossCuttingThemesOverall, several themes were raised repeatedly during the breakout discussion. The importance of access toinformationbyresearchers,aswellasresponders,wascitedaskeytofullyengagingtheresearchcommunity inthe spill response. Therewas general agreement that amore complete understanding of the importance ofmicrobialratesofhydrocarbondegradationwasneededtofullyunderstandtheDWHspillandtoplanforfutureevents. Theneed toconnect thecollectionofobservationswithmodelingneedswasalso seenascritical.Thecapacitytomodelhydrocarbontransport isnot limitedbyourunderstandingofphysicalprocesses,butrather islimited by the observations necessary to initialize the transportmodels (i.e., observations ofwhere the oil islocatedand itschemicalcomposition). Italsobecameclearthatformanyofthescience issuesthere isamuchgreater understanding of the issue in surfacewaters,but considerably less information for subsurfacewaters.Whiletherehavebeenanumberofopportunitiesforresearcherstosolicitsupportfortheirresearch,theabsenceof a commitment to fund the infrastructure necessary to assemble a Gulf ofMexico observing network willcontinue to limit oil spillrelated research, as well as oil spill response. Lastly, environmental differences,particularlyinmicrobialdecompositionrates,needtobemorefullyexploredbecausethenextspillmightnotbeintheGulforfromadeepwell.

    RecommendationsforMovingForward

    Theextentandfatesessionparticipantsidentifiedafewareaswherethesciencecommunityhasmadeprogressinaddressingissuesimportanttounderstandingthesource,transportprocesses,andsinksassociatedwithoilspills.Yet,considerableworkremainstoaddressthestillnumerousgapsthathavebeenidentified.Sessionparticipantsnotedthatfundingopportunitieshaveexistedandmaycontinuetoexisttoexplorekeyextentandfatequestions,but that transparencyandgreater coordination isneeded tomove the field forwardand toprepare for futurespills.GiventhecommunityofresearchersthathasdevelopedaroundthelargerissueofunderstandingtheextentandfateoftheoilanddispersantfromtheDWHoilspill,itislikelythatprogresswillcontinuetobemade.

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    OILANDDISPERSANTIMPACTSANDMITIGATIONINCOASTALENVIRONMENTSSessionBackgroundInformation

    Dr.Yonggang Liu from theUniversityof South Florida (USF)providedanoverviewof theworkofUSFsOceanCirculationGroupinresponsetotheDWHoilspillduringthecoastalplenaryontheopeningdayoftheworkshop.Hehighlighted theroleof theCoastalOceanObservationSystemon theWestFloridaShelf inprovidingcurrentand circulation data for theDWH response. The system, built on a series of acousticDoppler current profiler(ADCP)moorings, high frequency radars, bottom stationed ocean profilers, gliders, and drifters, allowed USFresearcherstoprovidedailybriefingsandupdatestostakeholdersonoilspillprogressionandtrajectoryforecastsin theGulf. Liu also discussed efforts tomodel subsurface oil dispersion and LoopCurrent evolution over thesummer of 2010 and the value of ocean color indices during midsummer when sea surface temperaturemeasurementsarelessresolved.

    Aftertheplenaryconcluded,thecoastalbreakoutsessionbeganandincludedtwocomponents.Onthefirstday,sciencepresentationsprovidedpreliminaryresultsofrecentDWHoilspillrelatedcoastalresearch.Abroadsetoftopicswere presented, including oil spillrelated impacts, coastal vegetation,microbial production, and beachsediment quality. On the second day, the breakout session participants discussed oil spill science issues andassessedtherelativeimportanceandamountofinformationavailableontheseissues.

    Participants (Table 4, Appendix 3) in the coastal section included representatives from federal and stategovernments and universities. Approximately 70% of the participants indicated that they primarily conductresearch,whiletheremainingparticipantsusedresearchresultsintheirprofessionorforrecreationalpurposes.

    SciencePresentations

    Oral presentations in the coastal session primarily focused on impacts to tidallyinfluenced ecosystems andmicroscopic organisms in coastalwaters. Presentations specifically focused onmarshes (three presentations),beaches (two presentations), microbial and zooplankton communities (three presentations), insects (onepresentation),andbiodegradation(onepresentation).Appendix4includesalistofpresentationspeakers,titles,andabstracts.

    Salientpointsfromthepresentationsinclude:

    Oiledmarshes remainnearly15monthspostspill,andmarsherosionhasbeen rapid insomeof theseareas,especiallyasa resultof tropical stormevents (e.g.,TropicalStormLee impactonBaratariaBay)(Chen).

    Abioremediationexperiment showed thatcrudeoildegradation isenhanced through fertilizationwithnitrogen,phosphorus,ororganicmatter(fish)(Mortazavi).

    Theoilspillandsubsequentdisturbances(TropicalStormLee)hadsignificantimpactsonantcommunitycomposition incoastaldunesandsaltmarshes;some invasiveantspecieswereable togainastrongerfootholdanddisplacenativeresidents(HooperBui).

    As timeprogresses, thepercentageof lightnalkanes inoceanandcoastalenvironmentsdecreases,asthese are themosteasilydegradable. However,polycyclic aromatichydrocarbon (PAH) abundance inmarshsedimentsofBayJimmyremainhighoneyearafterthedisaster(Deocampo).

    Broadoysterreefsampling indicatesthatthere isnoevidenceofPAHcontaminationabovebackgroundlevelsinoystertissues(Proffitt).

    ExtremelysmallamountsofMacondooil (

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    Whileoilresidue intheswashzoneofcoastsdecreasedovertimeonoiledbeaches,TropicalStormLeeresuspendedmaterialandincreasedthedensityofoilparticlesinthesands(Bell).

    The community composition of zooplankton was substantially outside the "envelop of typicalcomposition"fornearshoreandoffshoresitesduringMayJuly2010(Graham).

    Oil emulsions (which are typicallywhatwash ashore) are particularly difficult to degrade and requirebeingbrokendowntosignificantlyincreasedegradationrates(Pardue).

    Bacterial composition shifted substantiallyand rapidly in thepresenceofhydrocarbons (an increase inhydrocarbonmetabolizers),andthiscompositionchangedovertime(Sobecky).

    Pensacola beach sandswere contaminatedwith oil to a depth of 65 cm. Hydrocarbondecomposingbacteriastrainswerepresent inthesesandsandappearedto increasetheoxygenconsumptionbytwofold(Huettel).

    Fieldmeasurementsofchlorophyllaproductionwereused inconjunctionwithremotelysenseddatatoparameterizemodelestimatesofchlorophyllreductioninresponsetocoastaloiling(Cho).

    The Mussel Watch Program continues to collect and store oyster tissues (with state, federal, andacademicpartners)toactasabaselinedatasetfortheGulfofMexico.AportionofthesesampleshavebeenanalyzedfortheNaturalResourceDamageAssessment(NRDA)process(Lauenstein).

    BreakoutGroupDiscussionandGapAnalysis

    Theparticipantsinthecoastalsessionfocusedonscienceissueprioritiesondaytwooftheworkshop.Priortothe2011workshop,coastalsectionfacilitatorscollectedandcategorized38scienceissuesfromthecoastalsectionofthe2010workshopfordiscussion.Thecategorieswere:

    Baselines Impactassessment Remediationandresponse Monitoringandmodeling Coordinationandsciencecommunication

    The2011participantsreviewedthe38scienceissuesandidentified25more.Thenewscienceissuescoveredfivebroadheadings.Asummaryofthescienceissuessupportingeachbroadheadingispresentedbelow;thefullsetofprioritiesisincludedinTable5,Appendix3.

    Education:Programsshouldeducatethegeneralpublicabouthowthescientificprocessworks.Currentandfuturescientistsneedtohavemoretrainingondatamanagement,communicationwithgovernmentagenciesandthepublic,anddisasterpreparation.

    Coordination: Coordination of the science response to disasters could be improved through: (1)developing prequalified teams of experts that are prepared to rapidly respond; (2) fosteringmechanisms for integrating academics into the formal federal/state response; (3) increasingcoordination from local officials to the federal government; (4) implementing a process to quicklyapproveacceptablecuttingedgescienceapproachestoassessdisasters;and(5)developingaplatformforresearcherstorapidlyaccessdatafromdisparatesources.

    Communication: Ingeneral,scientistsneedto improvetheircapabilitytosharescientific findingswiththepublic.Thisincludesexplainingdatauncertaintyandotheraspectsofthescientificprocess.Thereisaneedtoclearlyarticulatesciencetopolicymakersandtosharefindingsinnontraditionalmediaoutletswhoseprimaryaudiencesarenotscientists(e.g.,TheEconomist,NewYorker).

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    LegislationandResources:Legislationcouldenhancethescientificresponsetodisasters.Suchchangesshouldincludemechanismstorapidlyreleasefundsforresearchandtoimproveaccesstodata. Thesemechanisms should be established as soon as possible so that disaster response efficiency can beimproved. Legislation should provide clear guidance and processes to encourage federal and stateagenciestointegratethebestavailablescienceintotheirresponse.Finally,scienceandscientificfindingsshouldbebetterincorporatedintolegislationandthedecisionmakingprocess.

    ScienceSupportandAssessment:Morework isneededtounderstandthetransportofcontaminants.This includesassessing theremobilizationofoilspillmaterialsafterstormeventsand the transportofcontaminants into water bodies after their placement in landfills. Additional efforts are needed tounderstand trophic relationships and the connectivityof species andhabitats, including the ability todiscernstressorimpactsfromnaturalvariation.Thiscanpartiallybeaddressedbyimprovingthestateofknowledge of baselines. For example, atmospheric composition baselines and baselines from understudiedregionsareneededtobetterunderstanddisasterimpacts.Finally,riskassessmentsandmodelsthatincorporatesocioeconomicdataareneeded.

    Oncethenewscienceissueswereidentified,thecoastalbreakoutsessionratedtheoriginal38scienceissuesfromthe2010workshopandthe25newissues.Therewereseveralcaseswherethegroupdecidedtorewordscienceissues from the2010workshopand thenrate the rewordedscience issue.Each issuewasevaluatedusing twoLikertscalequestions:HowimportantisissueXXinpreparingfor,respondingto,andrecoveringfromoilspills?andHowmuchscientificinformationisavailableforissueXX?TheLikertscalewasfrom0(meaningnoneorverylow)to4(meaningveryhigh).TurningPoint,aninteractivesoftwarepackageallowingparticipantstoelectronicallyrecordanswers,wasusedtoratethequestions.TheresultsoftheratingprocessarelistedbycategoryandlevelofimportancewithineachcategoryinTable5(Appendix3).Figure2displaysaplotofthe63scienceissuesbasedonthetwoquestionsthegroupansweredforeachissue.

    Figure2.Plotofthe63coastalscienceissuesdiscussedduringthe2011workshopbasedonthetworatingscales.

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    Ofthe63scienceissues,55fellwithintheGapcategory,suggestingmanyhighprioritycoastalscienceissueslackadequate information. No issues fell into the Rescale category, which suggests that there has not been aninvestment in increasingunderstanding (information)on lowpriority coastal issues.Six issueswere categorizedintoGoodWork,meaningtheyarehighprioritieswithahighamountofinformationalreadyavailableanditwasahighpriorityissue.ThecoastalscienceissuesintheGoodWorkcategoryinclude:

    Collectingbaselinesforanimaltissuecontamination;

    Identifyingimpactsonecosystemsandecosystemservicesthathavealreadybeenobserved;

    Improvingremediationtechniques;

    Identifyingmethodsand techniques thatareappropriate formonitoringanddetectingcontaminants indifferentcoastalenvironments;

    Improvingsensortechnology;and

    Obtainingadditionalaerialsurveysforexaminingthespatialheterogeneityofimpacts.

    TheReassesscategory indicatesthatthereisrelatively little informationavailable,butthe issue isa lowpriority;hence,furtherinvestmentinthisissuemaynotbewarranted.Reassessissueswere:

    Evaluatingsensor technologyand remediation techniques,perhapswithan intentional,controlledspill;and

    IdentifyingopportunitiesforotherscientiststobeinvolvedinNRDAefforts.

    Newissuesidentifiedbythecoastalsectionparticipantsatthe2011workshop

    Education1. There isagreaterneedforscience,technology,engineering,andmathematicseducation:noteveryone

    needstobeascientist,buteveryoneshouldatleastknowhowthescientificprocessworks.Thereweretrust issueswith the American public during the DWH event due to a lack of knowledge about thescientificprocess.OnemodelforthiseducationisaconsumerchemistrycourseforAmericanhighschoollevels.

    2. Better training isneeded for future scientists.Training should cover topics suchasdatamanagement,communicationwith government agencies and the public, , and disaster preparation. This could alsoincrease thepoolofqualifiedpeople toassist the federalgovernment indisaster response,whichwasstretched very thin scientifically during the DWH response. Examples of training programs includeChemcomm, theWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) training program, and SeaWeb (AldoLeopoldprogram).

    Coordination

    3. Rapid response science teams should be developed on a regional basis to assist other regions inemergencies,with scientistsvettedand/orcertifiedaheadof time.Theprocess for science response iscurrentlytooslow.

    4. Thereisaneedforincreasedinstitutionalawarenessofthecapacityofscientiststocontributetodisasterresponse.Academicshavearesponsibilitytoeducatethepublic,electedofficials,governmentagencies,andothersabouttheexpertiseavailablefromacademia.

    5. Thereneedstobeabetterstructureofleadershipatthelocaltonationallevels.DuringtheDWHspill,itappeared thatmanyagencieswere inchargeat the local level.Abetter internalcoordinationbetween

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    higher and local levels is needed; legislation and policy issues should be clearly established aboutfederal/staterolesandresponsibilities.

    6. Federal,academic,andnongovernmentalorganization(NGO)coordinationneedstobeimproved.

    7. There should clear guidance on the scientificmethods that need to be used. A process needs to bedeveloped to streamline approval of stateoftheart scientific approaches. Expertise from all federalagenciesneeds tobemined fordisaster response (better interagencysharing),andpoliciesneed toberesponsivetodisastersthatgobeyondnationalboundaries.

    8. Somescientistsshouldbeusingcuttingedgetechniquestoadvancethescience,whileothersshouldusethestandardizedtechniques.

    9. Infrastructureneedstoallowforeasyaccessofdatafromdifferentsources.Oneoption istheworktheNationalCoastalDataDevelopmentCenterofNOAAiscompleting(NOAA.ntis.gov).

    10. Access to oil from BP for testing, a litigation issue. A library of oil and oil characterizations fromdifferentregions isneeded(apparentlyNOAAsOfficeofResponseandRestoration[OR&R]hasa libraryofthousandsofoiltypes).Theuseofactualversussurrogateoil.

    Communication

    11. Scientistsatallcareerlevelsneedtrainingonhowtocommunicatewiththepressandpublic.

    12. There is a need to communicate science effectivelywith policymakers (print and nonprint formats).Developrelationshipswithpeoplewhowriteindifferentformats(e.g.,TheEconomist,NewYorker).

    LegislationandResources13. Rapidresponsefundingisneededforscience:

    o Dataandmoneyneedtobeeasilyaccessible;perhapspenaltyphasefundingshouldbeputintoatrust.

    o Mechanisms should be preestablished regarding how to use response funds and how todistributethem.

    o Allow rapid funding fordisasters, regardlessofwhether theyare technicalornaturaldisasters(e.g.,moneyfortheOfficeofScienceandTechnologyPolicy[OSTP]todisseminate).

    o Thefederalgovernmentappearstohavelimitedresources(funds)forsciencedisasterresponse.o Understandhowprivatemoneyimpactsdecisionsrelatedtofederalfundingofscience.

    14. Disaster legislation should include science. Currently, science is marginalized and thus the NationalContingencyPlanshouldberevised.Thereisalackofscienceinputwhenmajorlegislativedecisionsaremade for disasters. The law should allow local and regional knowledge to be incorporated into thedecisionmakingprocess.

    o TheNRDAprocessneedstobestreamlined.Slownessofprocessiscompromisingscience.o NOAAsubcontractingfortheNRDAprocesshascreatedissues.o Spirit of cooperation may have been compromised by threatening criminal charges against

    responsibleparties.

    15. Thereisalackofstatefundingtorespondtodisasters.

    16. Each federal agencyhas congressionalmandates toprotectdifferent resources,whichhas resulted indifferentprioritiesanddecisionsmadeinresponsetotheoilspill.

    ScienceSupportandAssessment17. Examinetheremobilizationofoilafterstormevents.

    18. Characterizeoiltransportanddepositionincoastalenvironments.

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    19. Assessthesignaltobackgroundnoiseratioinvariousenvironmentssothattheimpactsfromoilorotherstressor(s)canbedelineatedfromnaturalvariation.Thisrequiresadequatesampling.

    20. Conduct riskassessment in coastalenvironmentsand includedata froma varietyof sources tomodelenvironmentalresponse.

    21. Socioeconomic data are linked to coastal issues, services, and valuation. Link resource availability tosocioeconomicdata.

    22. Examinelinkagesbetweensystems,includinglifehistoryinformationandtrophiclinkages.Takeaholisticperspective.

    23. Studytrophiceffectsathigherorganismallevels(beyondtoxicity).

    24. Groundwatercontaminationissuesandbaselinesshouldexplorethefloodingoflandfillsandoilimpacts.

    25. Atmospheric baselines are needed to examine the exchangewith thewater surface. There is naturalvariability, e.g., howmuchmethane is released frommarsh systems. There is a need for the activemonitoringofvolatiles(e.g.,H2S).

    26. Baselinedata areneeded inunderrepresented environments including theArctic (Chukchi Sea,BristolBay),particularly inareas thatare likely tobedeveloped foroilandgasextraction in thenear tomidterm.

    RecommendationsforMovingForward

    The coastal sectionparticipants identifieda fewareaswhere the science communityhasbeenmakingpositiveprogress to theextent that it canbe consideredGoodWork;however, there ismuchwork still tobedone toaddress the Gap science issues. Participants indicated that there can be improvements in the response rate,fundingopportunities,dataaccess,andintegrationofscienceinthedecisionmakingprocessthroughcoordinationandlegislativeactions.Additionally,thegroupindicatedtheimmediateinvolvementofthescientificcommunityiscritical for rapid and effective response to disasters such asDeepwaterHorizon. The group suggested severalapproaches toaddress theseneedsandappreciates the involvement in thedecisionmakingprocess.Therewasoptimism that theseeffortsareachievablebut requirecollaborationamongstacademia, federalagencies, stateagencies,NGOs,andothers.

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    OILANDDISPERSANTIMPACTSANDMITIGATIONINOFFSHOREENVIRONMENTSSessionbackgroundinformation

    Dr.RayHighsmithfromtheUniversityofMississippiprovidedanoverviewoftheworkinresponsetotheDWHoilspillduring theoffshoreplenaryon theopeningdayof theworkshop.Dr.Highsmith alsoupdated theplenarysessionontheproposedresearchtobeconductedaspartofGOMRI,fundedbyBP.

    Aftertheplenaryconcluded,theoffshorebreakoutsessionbeganandincludedtwocomponents.Onthefirstday,sciencepresentationsprovidedpreliminaryresultsofrecentDWHoilspillrelatedoffshoreresearch.Abroadsetoftopicswaspresentedfromdeepoceancirculationtooilspillrelatedimpacts,sedimentation,andbenthichabitats.On thesecondday, thebreakoutsessionparticipantsdiscussedoilspillscience issuesandassessed the relativeimportanceandamountofinformationavailableontheseissues.

    Participants (Table 6, Appendix 3) in the offshore section included representatives from federal and stategovernments and universities. Approximately 70% of the participants indicated that they primarily conductresearch,whiletheremainingparticipantsusedresearchresults intheirprofession/managementresponsibilitiesorforrecreationalpurposes.

    SciencePresentations

    Oralpresentations intheoffshoresessionprimarily focusedonthe impactstodeepoceanbenthiccommunitiesandsediments.Appendix4includesalistofpresentationspeakers,titles,andabstracts.

    Salientpointsfromthepresentationsinclude:

    TherewassignificantLoopCurrentandLoopCurrentEddyinfluenceonthedistributionofsurfaceoil.Thedetachmentandreattachmentofeddies from theLoopCurrentwereobserved topartiallycontrol thetransportoftheoil. Generally,theLoopCurrentEddydidnotmakeacleanbreakbefore itswestwardmigrationawayfromtheLoop.Observationsweremadeforthefirsttimeinthelowerlayerdepthrange(13002000m), indicating cyclone/anticyclone coupledpairsas theeddybegan to separate. Thiswaspreviouslyonlypredictedinmodels.Thelowerlayerbehaviorseemstobeanimportantmechanismfordetachment. Themooring cruisesprovidedhydrocarbon sampling in July 2010.During the cruises,nosignificanttraceofoil inthenorthernmostpartoftheLoopCurrentwasdetected.Thequestionsraisedare:WhywastherenoentrainmentacrosstheLoopCurrentfront?IfoildidentertheLoopCurrent,wereshearandmixingsufficienttodiluteitbeyondthedetectabilitycutoff?(Hamilton)

    Therehavebeen six sediment coring cruises todate,with60+ core samples.The coreswere sampledusinganeighttubemulticorer.Thereweresamplestakenforasetofradioisotopesincluding210Pband234Th.TheAugust2010cruiseresultsshowedpetroleumhydrocarbonstobehighlyelevatedinthetop1cmorsoofthecores,whichwereburiedtoadepthof89cmbyFebruary2011. A largeaccumulationrate of very finematerial, the dirty blizzard hypothesis, is apparent. The radioisotopic data suggestsedimentaccumulationratesincreased20100xinmid2010.Oiledsedimentswerefoundat1001500mwaterdepthsnearDeSotoCanyon.Theelementsnickelandvanadium,whichareenrichedinpetroleum,indicated a slight enrichment in surficial sediments. The data do not yet allow for a differentiationbetweenthedirtyblizzardandtoxicbathtubring(TBR)hypotheses.(Flower)

    Sediment Quality Triad is a concept developed nearly 30 years ago.2 The axes of the triad are: (1)measure chemical dose, biological response (toxicity test,Microtoxwas used here), and (2)measureecological response (benthic community was used here). From historical Gulf of Mexico OffshoreMonitoringExperimentresults,itwasassumedthateffectsshouldonlybedetectablewithin100200km

    2LongE.andChapmanP.1985.A sedimentquality triad:Measuresof sedimentcontamination, toxicityand infaunalcommunitycomposition inPugetSound.MarinePollutionBulletin.16:405415.

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    oftherig.3FromtheDeepGulfofMexicoBenthicStudyresults,therewasnoindicationofanthropogenictracemetalinputrelativetoaluminum,buttherewasforbarium,nickel,lead,cadmium,arsenic,copper,andmanganese. In amission carried out by BP andNOAA from September 16 toOctober 24, 2011,sampleswereacquiredfrom169stationswithchemistry,Microtox,andinfaunalanalysis,withaprimarydesire to relate observed toxicity to the distribution of chemicals. Onethird of the stations foundMicrotoxtoxicity,althoughtherewerenoPAHspresent.Therewasstrongtoxicityupto25kmawayandcorrelationsbetweenblowout/drillingandtoxicity.(Montagna)

    Ourgrouphadpreviouslystudiedmethane(CH4)dynamicsinthewatercolumnovercoldseepsatshallowanddeepwatersites.OursamplingexpandedfromearlyMay2010untilearlyDecember2010.Discretelayers of CH4 andhydrocarbons between 9001300mwere initially observed. These layers or plumessupportedhighratesofaerobicCH4oxidationand increasedmicrobialabundance.TheCH4andaerobicmethanotrophicactivityweredistributedthroughoutthewatercolumnafterJuly2010;aerobicmethaneoxidationactivitydecreasedsharplybylateJune2010.(CrespoMedina)

    There appeared to be subsurface zones of oxygen deficit that reflect where oil plumes had beenpreviously located. Particulate carbon and particulate nitrogenwere not observed to be consistentlyelevatedinturbidlayers.Someturbidlayerstendtowardlower13C,otherstowardhigher.(Montoya)

    Workwasbegunin2008tostudydiversity,distribution,andgeneticconnectivityofcoralecosystemsintheGulfofMexicopriortothespill.Afterthespill,weobservedbrownflocculentmaterialoncoralsatsomesites,underneathwhichthereweredeadpolyps.Ophiuroidsassociatedwithcoralsappearedtobeunhealthy(armstightlywoundratherthanextendedintothewatercolumn).(Cho)

    CruiseswereconductedinearlyandlateMay2010,latesummer2010,andAugust2011.Althoughnickelandvanadiumarecommonlyenriched inpetroleum, theywerenot so in theDWHoil. Analyseswereperformedon iron,cobalt,barium,andcopper;wenoticedclearanomalies incobaltandbariumandaslight anomaly in copper.We found: (1) tracemetal anomalies due to oil (cobalt) and drillingmud(barium); (2) iron isprobably limiting formethaneconsumptionbut theredoesappear tobeabenthicsource;and(3)anindicationfromPAHdistributionsthatoilagesasitmovesawayfromtheblowoutsitetoshore(yieldingapparentpyrogenicPAHdistributions),whichcouldbemistakenforburning.(Shiller)

    For sediments, we considered the flocculent blizzard (FB) and TBR hypotheses. (FB:aggregation/flocculation of hydrocarbons with biologic and lithogenic particles that increasesedimentation; TBR: subsurface oilmoves along bathymetric contours and impinges on sediments).EvidenceforTBRis(1)uppersedimentsareclearlylaminated(millimeterscale),notbioturbated,and(2)waterintheplumeisenrichedintoxicPAHs.EvidencefortheFBisthatthesedimentincludesterrestrialbiomarkersovercappedbyhighmolecularweightoilhydrocarbons.(Hollander)

    Samplesatthreeof14stationsweretoxictobacteria;threeof13weretoxictophytoplankton;sixof14weremutagenicbytheInductest.TheMictrotoxassayismoresensitivetooil;QuikLiteismoresensitivetodispersant.(Paul)

    Industryperspectivesonthevalueofdispersantsinrespondingtooffshoreoilspillswerepresented.Itistheresponsibilityof industrytorecoverspilledoil. However,nomorethanabout15%ofspilledoilhasever been mechanically recovered, spurring one of the strongest arguments for dispersants. Theencounterrateisthekeytooffshoreresponse.Asingleairplanecandistributedispersantoveranentireslickineighthours,whereasitwouldtakedaystoweeksforaslowmovingskimmerbargetocleanupasignificantquantityofoil.Spillconditions limit responseoptions. It isdifficult tomechanically recoversurfaceslickoilofsubmillimeter thickness.Unlikeothermethods,dispersantdistributioncancontinuedayandnight.(Nedwed)

    3GreenR.andMontagnaP.1996.Implicationsformonitoring:Studydesignsandinterpretationofresults.CanadianJournalofFisheriesandAquaticSciences.53:26292636.

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    Spermwhales,beingtoppredators,candemonstratebehaviorthatindicatedisturbanceduringalargeoilspill,both in response to thenoiseof the increasedvesselactivityand thepossibilityofoilingofprey.Individualspermwhalescaneat4%of theirbodyweightperday (approximately1.6 tonsofsquidperday).Squidliveforonlyonetotwoyears.Inregardtospermwhaleecology,itisreasonabletoinquireabout the impactofoilanddispersantsonsquid.Becauseof the largesizeofwhales, theycansurviveseriouschangesinpreysupplythatmayonlymanifestlaterasreducedcalvingratesorlowernumbersofforagingattempts.Ifsquidnumbershavebeensubstantiallydiminished,theimpactonspermwhalesmaylastforanextendedperioduntilenoughsquidlarvaearerecruitedfromadjacentareasandhavetimetomaturetosustainlocalrecruitmentandoffsetpredation.(Mate)

    BreakoutGroupDiscussionandGapAnalysis

    Theoffshoresectionparticipants identifieda fewareaswherethesciencecommunityhasbeenmakingpositiveprogress;however,there ismuchworkstilltoaddressotherscience issues.Participants indicatedthattherecanbe improvements in the response rate, funding opportunities, data access, and integration of science in thedecisionmakingprocessthroughcoordinationand legislativeactions.Therewasoptimismthattheseeffortsareachievablebutrequirecollaborationamongstacademia,federalagencies,stateagencies,NGOs,andothers.

    Gaps Neustonimpacts. Planktoncommunities/youngsquid. Longtermsedimentaryfates,metalsaswellashydrocarbons. Ecosystemmodelingnotyetatsystemlevel. Noactionorconsensusonobservatories.

    GoodProgress Repeatedcharacterizationofpetroleumfractionationandpartitioningintodifferentcompartmentsinthe

    watercolumnandbenthos. Lotsofsamplingandanalysesareongoing. Manyissuesarestillatthedatacollectionphase,butthisisexpectedtochangewithtime.

    NoReassessorRescaleIssues

    Summary

    Didissuesfromlastyearmoveonthegrid? Manyissuesmovedforwardonthegridasinformation/databecameavailable. Thisdidnotreducethenumberofgaps.

    Whatarethenewissues(allgaps)? Sedimentimpacts. Ecosystemmodels. Oil/gastransportmechanisms. Impactofdispersantuse,fateofdispersant. Impactsonlarge,mobile,hightrophicpositionorganisms.

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    Figure3.Plotofthe34offshorescienceissuesdiscussedduringthe2011workshopbasedonthetworatingscales.

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    OILANDDISPERSANTIMPACTSANDMITIGATIONONLIVINGMARINERESOURCESSessionBackgroundInformation

    Dr.SteveMurawski from theUniversityofSouthFloridaprovidedanoverviewof livingmarineresources in theGulfofMexico in relation to theDWHoilspill. Heoutlined thesciencepriorities that the researchcommunityidentified in 2010 during themidst of theDWH oil spill (e.g., plankton assessments, fisheries abundance anddistribution, integrated ecosystem assessment). He then recognized the numerous ongoing assessment andplanningeffortssincetheoilspill(e.g.,NRDA,GulfofMexicoEcosystemRestorationTaskForce,NationalAcademyofSciences,OceanStudiesBoardstudyonlossofecosystemservicesintheGulf).

    Followingthisbroadintroduction,Dr.Murawskithendiscussedrecentresearchonlivingmarineresourcesthathasbeenpotentially impactedbytheoilspill, includingfishreproduction, ichthyoplankton,theplanktoncommunity,andmarinemammalssuchasdolphins.Healsodiscussedimpactstoseafoodsafetyinthecontextoftheextensivesamplingconductedduringtheoilspilltounderstandtheeffectofoilanddispersantson fishconsumption. Anadditional area of potential impact discussed during this plenary talk was the emerging issue of fishdiseases/lesionsinrelationshiptotheoilspill(bothspatiallyandtemporally).

    Dr.Murawski highlighted the Integrated Ecosystem Assessment approach (including Atlantismodeling) as oneanalysistooltodevelopanendtoendecosystemmodelthatincludesbiology,physics,andchemistrydata,andtheabilitytoanalyzevaryingscenariosaroundpredatorpreydynamicsandfisheries impacts.Histalkconcludedwithanumberofsuggestednextsteps, includingtheneedtoconsiderhowsciencedeveloped for livingmarineresourcescanassistrestorationplannersto:(1)setachievablegoalsforrestorationactions;(2)monitorprogressinrecovery efforts towards longterm goals; (3) help prioritize restoration efforts based on where the greatestpotentials for recovery lie; and (4) provide ecosystemlevel understanding of the linkages among individualrestorationactivitiesandthetotalityofecosystemservicesimprovedthroughrestoration.

    SciencePresentations

    After the plenary session concluded, the living marine resources breakout session began and included twocomponents scientific results and science issue priorities. On the first day, science presentations providedpreliminary resultsof recentDWHoil spill studies related to livingmarine resources. Presentations specificallyfocusedonoverviewsof theecosystemand restorationpolicy componentsof theGulfofMexico (e.g.,GulfofMexico biodiversity, the NRDA process, fishery closures), specific flora and fauna (e.g., plankton, Sargassum,turtles,marinemammals,whalesharks,bluefintuna,killifish,anddeepseacorals),andpotentialphysiologicalandgeneticeffects(e.g.,fishotoliths,killifish).Participants(Table8,Appendix3)inthelivingmarineresourcessectionincludedrepresentativesfromfederalandstategovernmentsanduniversities.

    Salientpointsfromthepresentationsincluded:

    TheGulfofMexicoisaspeciesrichecosystem,with1,708knownspeciesidentifiedfromadepthrangeof10003000metersinthegeneralvicinityofthelocationoftheDWHoilspill.(Moretzsohn)

    TheGulfbase.org/biogomxwebsiteisaresearchportalfortheGulfofMexico.(Moretzsohn)

    Ongoing researchon theDWHoil spillwill generate a vast amountofbiodiversitydatawhich canbeincorporatedintotheBiodiversityoftheGulfofMexicodatabase(BioGoMx),suchasnewrecords,rangeextensions,newspecies,conservationstatus,etc.(Moretzsohn)

    The ongoingNRDA process to assess environmental impacts from theDWH oil spill consists ofmultidimensional components, includinganalyzingeffects to resources inopenwaters,deepwaterhabitats,nearshoreandshorelinehabitats,andhumanuses.(DiPinto)

    As of October 2011, NRDA cotrustees have collected over 70,302 samples and completed 42,354contaminantanalysesonthesesamples.(DiPinto)

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    Duringtheoilspill,35%ofthefederalfishingareawasclosed.ThisclosurebeganinMay2010andendedinmidApril2011.(Die)

    Federallymanaged fish stocks affected by the fishery enclosure includedmackerel, snapper, grouper,tilefish,jacks,sandperch,graytriggerfish,hogfish,shrimp,lobsters,andstonecrabs.(Die)

    UnderstandingimpactsfromoilspillfisheryclosurestothefishingeffortontheWestFloridaShelfincludeevaluating the static biomass for reef fish specieswithin the closure area and comparing that to thepredictedandobservedfishingfleetbehavior.(Die)

    Killifishwereused as a studyorganism to trackmarsh fishhealthbefore andduringoilexposure andduringa recoveryperiod tocharacterizeoilspill impactsonexposedGulfcoastmarshes. Killifishwereusedbecausetheyarewidelydistributed,havealimitedhomerange,andareimportanttoestuarinefoodwebs.(Galvez)

    StudyresultsfoundalargesignalofhydrocarbonexposureinLouisianamarshfishcollectedinsitu.CYP1aproteinexpressionwashighlyelevated inthegills, intestine,head,andkidneyofkillifishcollectedfromoilcontaminated sites. Exposure to fieldcollected sediments increased timetohatch, reduced thepercenthatchofkillifishembryos,andaffectedheartformandfunction.(Galvez)

    Nodevelopmentalabnormalitieswereobservedinkillifishexposedtofieldcollectedwaters,butverylowconcentrations of oil exposure during development, while insufficient to induce cardiovascularabnormalitiesinembryos,canimpaircardiacperformanceinadulthood.(Whitehead)

    Divergence in genome expression coincides with contaminating oil and is consistent with genomeresponses thatarepredictive toexposure tohydrocarbonlikechemicalsand indicativeofphysiologicalandreproductiveimpairment.(Whitehead)

    PelagicSargassumisanopenwaterhabitatfornumerousfloraandfaunaintheGulfofMexico,includingbyrozoans,barnacles,hydroids,andjuvenileandadultfishspecies.Sargassummayenhanceoverallfoodwebproductivitybyservingasasubstrateforepiphyticalgae.(Hernandez)

    ItiscurrentlynotknownhowmuchSargassumwasoiledduringtheoilspill.StudiesarenowunderwaytoconductrealisticmesocosmexperimentstocomplementfieldobservationsmadeduringtheoilspilltoassessacuteandchronicmortalityofSargassumanditsanimalassociatesbyfloatingoilanddispersants.(Hernandez)

    Concurrent research separate from ongoing work on Sargassum suggests that changes inmesozooplanktonandichthyoplanktonassemblagestructurewereidentifiedasaresultoftheoilspill,butlongtermfisheriesimpactsareyettobedetermined.(Hernandez)

    Since2003,over475sightingsofwhalesharkshavebeendocumented in thenorthernGulfofMexico.From 20052010, aggregations of 20200 sharkswere observed at Ewing Bank during June and July.Whalesharksareopportunisticfeeders,butdatasuggesttheyareaggregatingduringthesummerinthenorthernGulftofeedprimarilyonlittletunnyeggs.(Hoffmayer)

    Whalesharkswereobservednearoilplumesduringtheoilspill,buttheimpactofthisontheacuteandchronicmortalityofindividualshasyettobedetermined.(Hoffmayer)

    Ananalysisoftheoverlapbetweensatellitederivedestimatesofsurfaceoilandpredictedbluefin tunaspawninghabitat in thenorthernGulfofMexico suggested that, althougheggs and larvaewere likelyimpactedbyoilcontaminatedwaters in theeasternGulfofMexico,high abundancesof larvaewithinsuitablespawninghabitatwere locatedelsewhere,especially inthewesternGulfofMexico,awayfromtheinfluenceofthespill.(Lamkin)

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    Overall, lessthan10%ofbluefintunaspawninghabitatwaspredictedtohavebeencoveredbysurfaceoil,and less than12%of larvalbluefin tunawerepredicted tohavebeen locatedwithincontaminatedwatersinthenorthernGulfofMexicoonaweeklybasis.(Lamkin)

    Fishotoliths serve as a living record tounderstand exposure to the crudeoil components,nickel andvanadium.Otolithprofilecomparisonsofdiseased(e.g.,lesionsandinfections)andnondiseasedfishwillbecomparedtodetermineifelevateddiseaseratesareassociatedwithoilexposure.(Peebles)

    Deepseacorals(primarilyParamuriceabiscaya)atadepthof1370mwereexposedtooilfromtheDWHoilspill.WorkcontinuestocharacterizeoilintheGulfofMexicoandmonitorimpactedandhealthycoralsites.(White)

    Spermwhaleswere known tobe in the vicinityof theoil spill. Taggingworkwasperformed to trackwhalesduringandafterthespilltobetterunderstandtheirmovementsandlifehistorypatterns.(Mate)

    BreakoutGroupDiscussionandGapAnalysis

    The participants in the livingmarine resources session focused on science issue priorities on day two of theworkshop.Twoquestionswerediscussedforeachissue:HowimportantisissueXXinpreparingfor,respondingto,andrecovering fromoilspills?andHowmuchscientific information isavailable for issueXX?Participantsthenassignedeachissuetoaquadrant:Gap,GoodWork,Reassess,orRescale.The2011participantsreviewedtheresultsfromthe2010livingmarineresourcessessionandidentifiedthefollowingscienceandcoordinationgaps.

    Gaps:ScienceIssues1. TheNeed forBaselineData:As in2010, there is stilladearthofbaseline information in theGulfof

    Mexico for tracking short and longterm species and ecosystem changes over time. Information isspotty,dependingon thespeciesandgeographic location. Baselinedataarecritical tounderstandshort and longterm health effects, synergistic interactions from oil/dispersants, and reproductiveconsequences (particularly those thatcouldhavemissingcohorts,e.g., tunaandsnapper);behavioralandphysical impacts to longlived species like sea turtles;and impactsonopenwaterhabitats likeSargassumthatprovideahabitatfornumerousspecies intheGulfofMexico. Examplesofdatagapsinclude:

    Mesopelagic,deepwater/corals,andmicrobialcommunities.

    Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) data gaps in temporalresolution(dataarecollectedinthespringandfall,butfinerscaledatacollectionisrequiredtoaddressimpactsofoilspills).

    OceanobservingintheGulfofMexicothecurrentsystemlackscontinuityindatacollection,storage,reporting,andfunding.

    Insitubiologicalandchemicaldata (e.g.,dissolvedoxygendata inadditiontothe largedeadzoneintheGulfofMexico).

    Fishery independentdata gaps for thepelagic environment (e.g.,highlymigratory speciessuchasbillfishes,tunas,sharks,andturtles).

    Habitatusepatternsgapsexistespecially forpelagic species, includingdataonhorizontal,vertical,andseasonalmovements(e.g.,duskyandmakosharks)

    Benthichabitatmapsthere isasignificant lackofmappingevenforeconomicallyimportantspecies like oyster beds. There is no comprehensive multibeam mapping in the Gulf ofMexico.Territorialseamapsarealsoincomplete.

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    2. TheNeedforaGulfwideMonitoringProgram:Thereisalackofremotesensingdata,inshore/offshoreaerialandshipboardsurveys,andsatellitetaginformationtotrackecosystemchanges,includingpelagicspeciesandSargassummonitoring.Howcanwelooptheoil/gasindustryintothiswork?

    3. TheNeedforModeling:Ecologicalmodels(Atlantis,trophodynamicmodels)andtrajectorymodelsforturtlemovementsarefinallybeingdevelopedfortheGulfofMexico. Biophysicalmodels liketheSpillImpactModelAnalysisPackage(SIMAP)arecurrentlybeingused,butmodelinggapsexist introphicinteractions, species behavior, and chemical data (e.g., oil distribution, behavior at depth, toxicity).Modeldevelopmentrequiresmorefundingandacriticalmassofsupportbytheresearchcommunityto ensure its success. For example, Sea Grant and GOMRI have funded small projects, but betterorganizationandintegrationareneeded.Howcanwelooptheoil/gasindustryintothiswork?

    4. ImproveDataCollectionTechnology:Investmentsinsatellitetagsareneededtotrackanimalsandthusimproveourunderstandingofspatialandtemporalhabitatusepatterns.Oilrigscouldbeoutfittedwithsensorstoprovideoceanobservingdata.Howcanwelooptheoil/gasindustryintothiswork?

    5. TheNeedforaBroadAssessmentofHealthImpacts:ThereisnocomprehensivehealthassessmentfortheGulfofMexico(throughoutthefoodchainfromplanktontomarinemammals).

    6. Take an Ecosystem Approach to Understand the Gulf ofMexico: Participants suggested that theresponse to the oil spill emphasized the need to look at the Gulf ofMexico ecosystem from thestandpoint of resiliency. How has bioaccumulation (acute/chronic) of oil and/or dispersantswithinorganismsoccurred? Thisquestionneeds tobeconsidered froma foodwebperspective rather thanjustasinglespecieslevel.Thegroupalsodiscussedtheneedtoconsiderfunctionalbiodiversity.Howdid the impact of the oil spill cause reductions and loss of functional responses (e.g., trophic andnutrientcycling)?

    Gaps:CoordinationIssues1. Better Interactions across Disciplines are Needed: More collaboration between economists and

    biologistson, forexample,ecosystem servicesvaluation, isneeded toensure thatwe canblend socialscience analyses with research on livingmarine resources. We also need continued and enhancedcollaboration across scientific disciplines like hydrology, biology, ecology, and oceanography tounderstandtheGulfofMexicoasanecosystem.

    2. BetterInteractionsacrossCountries[NEW in2011]:TherearegoodexamplesofworkbetweenMexicoand the United States, such as the Large Marine Ecosystem program to build from. How can wecollaboratetounderstandthepopulationdynamicsforhighlymigratoryspecieslikewhalesharks,turtles,andfishlarvaethatshareinternationalwaters?WeneedtoexplorehowtoworkwithCuba,especiallyonthe issues ofdeveloping a system ofmarine reserves andworkingwith them as they develop oil/gasproduction.

    3. Better use ofManagement Tools likeMarine Reserves/Marine Protected Areas [NEW in 2011]: Anetworkofmarine reserves/marineprotectedareasshouldbeexploredasoneway toprotectspecialplaces.Theseareascanbeusedassourcesofbiodiversityandreferenceareasformarineresearch.

    4. TransparencyinDataSharing:AgencieslikeNOAA,BOEM,andtheNavy,incoordinationwithacademia,thefishingcommunity,andtheoil/gasindustry,shouldworktogethertoshareGulfofMexicodata.

    5. Regulatory Improvement:The regulatoryprocedureneeds tobe improved to speedup theprocess toobtainresearchpermits(e.g.,protectedspeciessamplingpermits).

    GoodWork:Strongdatasets/programsexistorGoodWorkwasaccomplishedoverthepastyear.1. There have been better andmore regular interactions betweenNOAA and the academic community

    regardingNRDAresearchandGulfofMexicoresearchingeneral.Collaborationondataandinformationsharing across sectors and scientific disciplines has increased. This includesmeetings like this SOST

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    workshopdesigned to sharedataand informationon theoil spill. CollaborationbetweenGOMRIandfederalagenciesshouldbeconsidered.

    2. Significantrecognitionofanddiscussionabouttheneedforacomprehensiveoceanobservingsystemhasoccurred.

    3. Thereisgoodbaselineinformationforbrownshrimp.

    4. Aerialsurveysexistforcertainspecies(e.g.,manatee,reddrum,marinemammals,Sargassum)andforoiltrajectories. These are most often performed for very specific purposes, but provide importantinformation.

    5. Stockassessmentsareinplaceforspecifictargetspecies.

    6. Theresearchcommunityhasdoneagoodjobinsamplingforcertainspecies,butthereisstillaneedtoelevate this to theecosystem level togainamoreholisticunderstanding (unitsofbiodiversity, trophiclevels,trophiccascade).

    7. TheNRDAprocessisdevelopingalibraryofgenomicsamples(e.g.,plankton,Sargassum,oysters).

    8. The Large Marine Ecosystem program provides a unique opportunity to share data and resourcesbetweentheUnitedStatesandMexico.

    9. TheexistingmarinereservesintheGulfofMexicoaregreatexamplesofcrosssectorcollaborationandaprocessthatcanbebuiltontocreateasystemofmarinereservesacrosstheGulf.

    Reassess:Thesearenewscienceorcoordinationissuesthatshouldbeconsideredmovingforward.1. Improveinteractionsbetweensocialscienceandlivingmarineresourcemanagers.

    2. RedefinehowweexaminePAHs.Thisincludesimpacts,toxicologytests,andanalyticaltechniques.

    3. IdentifybiomarkersuniquetoPAHandoilsandtranslatethemintoeffectsanalyses.

    4. Refineprecisionandcoverageindatacollectiontobetterunderstandtheeffectsofaspill(e.g.,SEAMAP).Finerscaleissuesneedtobeaddressed.

    5. Useandfurtherdevelopexistingfisheriesmodelsforfederallymanagedspeciestobetterunderstandtheimpactsofoilspills.

    RecommendationsforMovingForward

    The livingmarine resources sectionparticipants identifieda fewareaswhere the science communityhasbeenmakingpositiveprogresstotheextentthatitcanbeconsideredGoodWork.However,thereisstillmuchworktoaddress theGap scienceand coordination issues.Participants indicated that there canbe improvements in theresponserate,fundingopportunities,dataaccess,and integrationofscience inthedecisionmakingprocess.Thegroupsuggestedseveralapproachestoaddresstheseneeds.Therewasoptimismthattheseeffortsareachievablebutrequirecollaborationamongstacademia,federalagencies,stateagencies,NGOs,andothers.

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    OILANDDISPERSANTIMPACTSANDMITIGATIONONHUMANHEALTHANDSOCIOECONOMICSYSTEMSSessionbackgroundinformation

    Dr. Lynn Grattan, Associate Professor ofNeurology, Psychiatry, Epidemiology and Public Health, University ofMarylandSchoolofMedicine,providedanoverviewofherworkonthehealth impactstoresidents ineastGulfcoastcommunitiesduringandimmediatelyaftertheDWHincident.Herkeyfindingsareasfollows.First,themostsignificanthealth impact to residentsofeastGulfcoastcommunitiesduringand immediatelyafter theDWHoilspillwaspsychological. Clinicallysignificantdepressionwas found in35%to55%ofpeopleexamined inFloridaandAlabamacommunities.Second,incomelossafterthespillhadagreaterpsychologicalhealthimpactthanthepresenceofoilonimmediatelyadjacentshorelines.Accordingly,depressionandanxietyweresignificantlyhigherin people who suffered income loss versus those who did not across all study communities. Third, thepsychologicalimpactsoftheoilspillextendedbeyondareasofdirectoilexposure.Researchfindingssuggestthatincomelossandeconomicuncertaintywerethegreatestcontributorstodistress.

    The human health and socioeconomic systems breakout session included two components.On the first day,science presentations provided preliminary results of recent DWH oil spillrelated human health and socioeconomic systems research.A broad set of topicswere presented, including perceived and anticipated healthimpacts; impacts to women and children; an overview of BOEM research projects; and a seafood safetyassessment.On the secondday, thebreakout sessionparticipantsdiscussedhumanhealthand socioeconomicsystems issuesandused the ImportancePerformanceAnalysis (IPA) tool toassess the relative importanceandamountofinformationavailableonthoseissues.TheuseoftheIPAgridtoolallowedfacilitatorsandparticipantsto:(1)revisitthegapsidentifiedatlastyearsmeeting;(2)assesshowwellgapshavebeenaddressedthusfar;(3)Identify new gaps; and (4) highlight accomplishments in addressing gaps to this point. Participants (Table 9,Appendix3) inthehumanhealthandsocioeconomicsystemssection includedrepresentativesfromfederalandstategovernmentsanduniversities.

    SciencePresentations

    Appendix4 includea listofpresentationspeakers, titles,andabstracts from theoilanddispersant impactsandmitigationonhumanhealthandsocioeconomicsystemssession.Salientpointsfromthepresentationsinclude:

    ChangesinhealthandwellbeingincommunitiesaffectedbytheDWHdisaster:Linkingwellbeingwithecosystemservices.SusanLovelace.HollingsMarineLaboratory.

    Toprepare forand respond toevents like theDWHdisaster,decisionmakers, resourcemanagers,andothergovernmentofficialsneedinformationaboutthesocialandeconomicaspectsoftheircommunities.

    Because the oil has a significant impact on important ecosystem services that people from the Gulfregularlyenjoy,wewant tounderstandhowachange in theseecosystemservicescanaffect thewellbeingofentirecommunities.Thegoalofthisresearchprojectistodeterminewhetherameaningfulsetofsocial and economic indicators, compiled in an index or scorecard, can be developed to documentchangesinwellbeingthatoccurasaresultofchangesinecosystemservices.

    Having such indicatorswould allow NOAA and/or other government agencies to better evaluate therelativeconditionofcoastalcommunities,aswellasassesstheirdegreeofresiliencytosignificantsocial,economic,andecologicalchangesovertime.Further,havingsuchindicatorscouldhelpofficialstopredict,anticipate, and prepare for the types of social disruptionmost likely to accompany acute changes tocoastalenvironments,suchashurricanesandmajoroildisasters,orchronicimpactstotheenvironmentcausedbyhumanactivities.

    Asaresultofthisresearchproject,wearebuildingadatabaseofsocial,economic,andpublichealthdatafor the counties thathadoiled shorelines,aswellas for reference counties in theGulfofMexicoand

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    alongtheeastcoast.Fromthisdatabase,wecandevelopcountyprofilesthatwillprovideinformationforplannersandmanagers. Indicatorsand indiceswillallowus to retrospectively lookathow changes inecosystemconditionaffectedwellbeing. Ifourmodelsarerobust,wehopetodevelopmodelsthatcanpredictchangesinwellbeingforfutureevents.

    StatusofBOEMsocioeconomicresearchandresponsetotheDWHoilspill.JohnPrimoandHarryLuton,BOEM.

    BOEMmanages resourceson the federalOuterContinental Shelf. Its Environmental Studies Program(ESP)providesresearchinsupportofsounddecisionmaking.

    ESP socioeconomics reflect this situation by focusing research on the effects of normal offshoreoperations.AtthetimeoftheDWHoilspill,theESPhadperformedrelativelylittleworkonspillsoronsuchenvironmentallydependentindustriesasfisheries,recreation,andtourism.

    Withindaysofthespill,BOEMwasabletoputwelltrainedfieldworkersinplacetodocumentthesocioeconomic effectsof the spill. This effortwas facilitatedby animbleprocurementoffice, ahistoryofcommunitybasedresearch,andtheabilitytodrawonresearchersveryfamiliarwithandalreadyworkinginthearea.

    Becauselargeoilspillsareuncommon,becausetheoutcomesofonedonotpredictthoseofthenext,andbecause events occur and change rapidly, there is no substitute for reliable eyes on the ground todocumenttheconsequencesastheydevelop.

    ThisongoingBOEM fieldefforthasalreadyhighlightedfactorsthataremakingthesocialandeconomicconsequencesofDWH verydifferent from thoseof the ExxonValdezoil spill,which formanypeoplecurrentlyservesasamodelforspillimpacts.Forexample:

    The DWH follows close after one of the largest natural disasters in U.S. history, the 2005 hurricaneseason.This isapsychological factor,butalsoaneconomicone that limits theabilitiesandshapes thestrategiesofsomebusinesses,communities,households,andindividualstorecover.

    TheDWHoccurred inanareawithavery largeanddiverseeconomyandpopulation,andtheeconomyand population varied greatly in size and composition across the geography that was impacted.Consequently, the type,magnitude,andcausesofeffectswerehighlyvariable,aswere thecontexts inwhicheffectsoccurred.

    Becausemanyindividualscommutelongdistances(e.g.,oilworkers)orshorterdistances(e.g.,eastNewOrleans fishermen) for oceandependent work, some socioeconomic impacts of DWH were verywidespreadbutalsooftenhiddenby theirsurroundings. Incontrast,becausemanycoastal individualscommuteinlandtowork,thedirectimpactsofDWHweresomewhatmitigated.

    The areas complex ethnicity and ethnic relationshipswere also significant in shapingDWH social andeconomicimpacts.Forexample,whiletheVietnamesearehighlyinvolvedinfisheriesandfishprocessing,manyinthiscommunitysawthemselvesasunderrepresentedinDWHmitigationprocesses.

    TheDWHoccurredinanareainwhichtheoilindustryanditssupportsectorsareasignificantpartoftheeconomyandsociallandscape.Thismeantthespillsimpactsonoilindustryoperationsandregulationsalsohadeffectsonmanyhouseholds andwill continue todo so. Sincemanyhouseholdsmixoil andfisheryemployment,thesechangeswereasignificantconduitforeffectstothefishingindustry.

    TheDWHdirectlyandindirectlyimpactedallfiveGulfstatesandmultiplelocalpoliticaljurisdictionsthatexhibited substantial differences in organization/function and in their response to the spill and itsaftermath.OnenotablecharacteristicofDWHsocialandeconomicimpactswasthegeographicvariabilityduetodifferencesinstateandlocallevelpoliticalcontexts.

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    InteragencyresponseandassessmentofseafoodsafetyintheaftermathofDWH.RobertDickey,FoodandDrugAdministration(FDA)GulfCoastSeafoodLaboratoryandDivisionofSeafoodScienceandTechnology.

    TheFDAoperatesamandatorysafetyprogramforallfishandfisheryproductsundertheprovisionsoftheFederal Food,Drug andCosmeticAct, thePublicHealth ServiceAct, and related regulations. The FDAprogram includes research, inspection, compliance, enforcement, outreach, and the development ofregulations and industry guidance. The FDA works closely with NOAA and the states whenevercommercial fishingwaters are closed forpublichealth reasons and againwhen they are reopened toharvest.

    TheDWHoilspillpresenteda threat to thehealthofGulfseafoodconsumersdue to thepotential foraquaticspeciesexposedtocrudeoiltobioconcentrateharmfulcrudeoilconstituents.WhentheGulfofMexico oil spill began in 2010, the FDA, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA),U.S.CoastGuard,andtheGulfcoaststatestookunprecedentedstepstoensurethattheseafoodharvestedfromtheGulfwassafe.

    The initial seafood safetyhazardwasmitigatedby the closureofoilspill impactedwaters,andwatersexpectedtobeimpactedbyoil,tocommercialandrecreationalboattrafficandfishing.

    Stateandfederal inspectionsofprimaryseafoodprocessorsandwholesalersacrosstheGulfcoastwereperformedtoassurethatseafoodenteringthemarketwasobtainedonlyfromoilfreeandopenwaters.

    Seafood fromoilfree andopenwaterswas collected and tested to verify that fishery closuresofoilimpactedwaterswereprotectiveandtoperformbaselinetesting.

    AunifiedGulfwidefisheriesreopeningprotocolwasdevelopedtospecifyproceduresandcriteriaforthecollectionandtestingofseafoodfromGulfareasbeingconsideredforreopeningonceoilhaddissipated.

    SeafoodwastestedfortheharmfulconstituentsofcrudeoilknownasPAHs. Testingmethods includedsensoryassessmentand chemicalanalysesusing liquid chromatographyfluorescencedetectionand/orgas chromatographymass spectrometry. Seafoodwas also tested for the keydispersant constituent,dioctylsulfosuccinate(DOSS),usingliquidchromatographymassspectrometry.

    DuringtheperiodfromJune2010August2011,morethan10,000seafoodspecimenswerecollectedandtestedfromfederalandstateterritorialwatersoftheGulfofMexico.Approximately50%ofallspecimenswerealsotestedfordispersantresidue.

    SeafoodtestingresultsfromJune2010August2011revealedthatPAHlevelsinalltestsampleswere100to 1,000 times below levels of concern specified in reopening protocol criteria. Testing results alsorevealedthatdispersantresidueinalltestedsampleswas>1000timesbelowlevelsofconcernspecifiedinreopeningprotocolcriteria.

    DefinedareasoftheGulfwerereopenedforfishingonlyaftertestinghadshownthatassociatedfisheriesweresafeforconsumption.Thedurationofclosuresrangedfrom16daysforareasthatreceivedminimaltonooilimpactto>18monthsforareasthatweresignificantlyimpactedbyDWHoil.

    The visible impacts of theDWH oil spill on coastal andGulfdependent communities, industries, andecosystems caused significant public distress. Sciencebased information related toGulf fisheries andseafood safetywasnotwidelydisseminatedduring the initialphasesof the spill response, resulting insignificantdiscrepanciesbetweenrealandperceivedhazardsandsituationalawareness.Theresiliencyofcommunities,cultures,andindustriesimpactedbyeventssuchasDWHcanbestrengthenedbyimprovedcoordination and means of communicating human health risks and situational status. Bettercommunicationscanalsominimizenegative impactsonpublichealth,socioeconomicsystems,and theenvironment.

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    BreakoutGroupDiscussionandGapAnalysis

    Theinitiallistofhumanhealthandsocioeconomicsystemsissuestobeaddressedweregeneratedfromthe2010workshopreport.Agreatdealofthesessiontimewasspentrefiningthewordingofthe list,adding itemstothelist,andremovingredundantitems.Thisresultedinafinallistof30issuestoberatedusingtheIPAtool.Theissuesweregroupedintothreecategories:abroadsocialsciencecategory,human/environmentalhealth,andintegrativeandholisticapproachestoissues.Thebreakoutgroupusedaconsensusprocessforassigningnumericalratingstothe twoquestions foreach issue.Each issuewasevaluatedusing twoLikertscalequestions:How important isissueXX inpreparingfor,respondingto,andrecoveringfromoilspills?andHowmuchscientific information isavailableforissueXX?TheLikertscalewasfrom0(meaningnoneorverylow)to4(meaningveryhigh).

    Generalobservationsfromthediscussionincludethefollowing:

    Thetableadequatelyrepresentsthesocial,economic,andhumanhealthresearchcurrentlytakingplaceintheGulfofMexicoasaresultoftheDWHdisaster.Sincelittleworkhasbeenperformedtoanalyzethesocialecological interactions inthisregion,an informationgapexists. ThecompilationofcurrentGoodWorkwillbenefitfromsolicitingtheinputofresearchersconductingthistypeofwork.

    ManyofthesocioeconomicandhealthstudiescompletedorinprogressinthenorthernGulfareattheplace scale. Over time, a synthesis of these projects could provide information useful to makinginferencesaboutareaswith similar socialandeconomic characteristics.Regionalmonitoringof coastalcountieswillhelpus identify changes in the social and economic condition in response to changes inenvironmentalcondition.

    Theworkshopsfocuswasskewedheavilytowardsthefateanddistributionoftheoilandtheecologicalaspectsoftheoilspill.Relativelylittleemphasiswasplacedonthehumanhealthandsocioeconomicconsiderationsofthespill.Thisrepresentsageneralgapinthescienceprocess.

    Of the30science issues, fourwere ratedasmoderately important,butnotconsistentlyconsidered,eightwereimportanttoconsiderinmostcases,and19wereveryimportantinpreparingforandrespondingtooilspills.Oneof the issueswas identifiedashavingno informationatall.Twelvewere ratedashaving informationwithhighuncertaintyorverylimitedinscope,scale,orfunctionalityfordecisionmaking.Finally,17wereratedashavingabodyof informationthat isexpandingbutwithnotable insufficiencies.Atotalof13 issuesfellclearly intheGapquadrant,and17wereonthelinebetweentheGapandGoodWorkquadrants.NoneoftheissueswerelocatedintheReassess,Rescale,ordirectlyintheGoodWorkquadrants.

    Gaps:ThirteenissuesfellintheGapcategory:

    1. GulfofMexicoecosystemservices.

    2. Cultural/historicalresourcepreservationintheGulfofMexico.

    3. ImpactstosubsistenceusesoftheGulfofMexico(e.g.,informaleconomy).

    4. Furthercharacterizationofcontaminantmixtures.

    5. Biomarkersofexposure/effect/susceptibility.

    6. Clinicalevaluations,diagnostics,anddocumentation(e.g.,casedefinition).

    7. Trackingofdiseaseatmultiplegeographiclevelspre/postevent;registriesasneeded.

    8. Studiesontheinfluenceoflitigation.

    9. Individualandcommunityvulnerability/resistanceandadaptationtoadversehealthoutcomes.

    10. HealthimpactsofharmfulalgalbloomsandtoxinsassociatedwiththeDWHoilspill.

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    11. Assessmentofresilienceacrosssocialecologicalsystems.

    12. Creationandevaluationofecosystemmodels(e.g.,asocialecologicalsystem).

    13. ResearchonthephysicalhealtheffectsoftheDWHoilspill.

    Gaps/GoodWork:17issuesfellonthelinebetweentheGoodWorkandGapcategories:

    1. Secondaryeconomicimpacts.

    2. Socialandeconomicimpactsofchangesinallfishingsectors(baseline+/impact).

    3. Socialandeconomicvulnerabilityincoastalcommunities.

    4. Attitudes,perceptions,andbeliefsaboutseafood.

    5. Attitudes,perceptions,andbeliefsaboutGulfofMexicotourism,recreation,andbeachuse.

    6. RiskperceptionandriskcommunicationoftheDWHoilspill.

    7. CommunicationandoutreachregardingtheDWHoilspill,e.g.,media,governmentagencies,academia,andNGOs.

    8. ImpactstosubsistenceusesoftheGulfofMexico(e.g.,informaleconomy).

    9. Socialandeconomicimpactstocoastalcommunities.

    10. Socialandeconomicimpactstodisproportionatelyaffectedpopulations.

    11. Institutionalmultilevelanalysisofpoliciesandregulationsandthecapacityofagenciesandorganizations.

    12. Multilevelanalysisoftheinstitutionalresponsetoanoilspill(e.g.,governance).

    13. Toxicitytesting,e.g.,animalmodels.

    14. Genetictoxicityandgeneenvironmentinteraction.

    15. ResearchonthebehavioralandmentalhealtheffectsoftheDWHoilspill.

    16. Healthimpactstodisproportionatelyaffectedpopulations.

    17. Economicimpactofnonusevalue(e.g.,cultural,existence).

    Recommendationsformovingforward

    Anumberoffutureresearchneedsandrecommendationsformovingforwardwereidentifiedandexpandeduponinthesession.Theyinclude:

    Researchaimedatdescribingandassessing selected socioeconomic consequencesof the spill to localgovernment,businesses,communities,andfamiliesastheyunfoldinthemiddletolongerterm.

    Biomarkers of exposure, effect, and human health concerns related to direct exposure to the oil andpotentialexposurethroughcontaminatedseafood.

    Measurementsofhumanvulnerabilityorresiliencytothespillanditseconomicimpactsattheindividualorcommunitylevel.

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    Longitudinalstudies thatcanmonitorchanges in thesamepopulationgroup. Someof thesequestionsmay be answered by the NIEHS Gulf Longterm Followup Study and the NIEHS Deepwater HorizonResearchConsortia,butimprovedcommunicationbetweenSOSTandtheseeffortsmightbeinorder.

    It is important to consider the northernGulf as a socialecological sy