# Decoding the Pyramids of Giza

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1. The Great Pyramid: Base =440 Royal Egyptian Cubits,

Height = 280 Royal Egyptian Cubits,

Base to Height ratio = 11/7 (440/280 = 11/7 exactly)

2. The Second Pyramid:

Base =411 Royal Egyptian Cubits,

Height = 274 Royal Egyptian Cubits,

Base to Height ratio = 3/2 (411/274 = 3/2 exactly)

3. The Third Pyramid:

Base =200 Royal Egyptian Cubits,

Height = 125 Royal Egyptian Cubits,

Base to Height ratio =8/5 (200/125 = 8/5 exactly)

We can notice the following numerologicalrelationships between 3 pyramids:

11 / 7 = (3 + 8) / (2 + 5)( we are adding to top value of 2ndand 3rdpyramid ratio to the bottom value of each ratio)

If we add this way all 3 ratios we will get:

(11 + 8 + 3) / (7 + 5 +2) = 22/14 = 11/7 (the ratio of the Great Pyramid and the approximation of pi ).

So ratios of all 3 pyramids added this way are equal the ratio of the 1stpyramid.

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Sir Petrie has noticed that the relation between the height and the base (ratio 3/2 = 6/4) conceal the

Pythagorean Triangle (the first Pythagorean Triplet):

32+ 42= 52

The 3rd Pyramid with its base = 200 has diagonal = 282.84 =100*2*sqrt(2).

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Radius of a circle circumscribed on 200*200 square is 141.4215= 100* sqrt(2) and the circles circumference = 888.

For this pyramid: base * height = 200 * 125 = 1000 * 25 (1000is the scale of the Giza pyramids layout and 25 is the scale of the

3rd pyramid).

Circle with radius=250 is very special since its circumference = 1570.8 = 1000* (1/2) * Pi

Base1+Base2+Base3+Height1+Height2+Height3=440+411+200+280+274+125 = 1051 + 679 = 1730

Interesting numerological connections:

1. Proportions connection (purely numerological):

Design proportions for the 1stPyramid 7:11;

7=5+2 and 11= 8+3; 7/11 = (5+2) / (8+3) from this proportion we generate these ratios: for the 2nd

pyramid 5/8 and for the 3rdpyramid 2/3

Also 100x 11/7 = 157.1 which is scale factor for the layout ( 11/9 ) of 3 pyramids.

8 and 5 give scale factor for the 1st Pyramid (58=40=523=40)

2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 11 give scale factor for the 2ndPyramid:

118+7x(5+2)=137 or 117+75+55= 137

2. For the Fist Pyramid the scale factor is 40and the ratio is 11:7

11 x 2222= 40

Connection with the Second Pyarmid:

(11+7) x 32 - 52 = 137

7x 42+ 52=137 and 11 x 23+ 72= 137 and 11.72is approximately 137 (scale for the Second

Pyramid), also 25 component is the same as the scale factor for the Third Pyramid

3. For the Second Pyramid the scale factor is 137and the ratio is 3:2(9:6 or 6:4)

(3+2)x 33+2 = 137 also (9+6)x 32+2 = 137 and (6+4)x7x2 3 = 137, Interestingly, (3+2)x 23= 40

(scale factor for the First Pyramid)

also, square Root of 137 is approximately 11.7 (11 and 7 are ratio numbers describing the First

pyramid)

The Third Pyramids scale factor is25and the ratio is 8:5 (same as 40:25) 52=25,

The Pyramids of Giza LayoutAnother interesting relationship is uncovered when we investigatethe layout of the Giza pyramids.

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Measured dimensions of the layout rectangle are 1732 Royal Egyptian Cubits by 1414 Royal

Egyptian Cubits.

This dimensions are equivalent of sqrt(3) x 1,000 by sqrt(2) x 1,000.

We can say that3 pyramids are inside the rectangle with proportions (side to side

ratio)equal: sqrt(3) / sqrt(2) = sqrt(3/2) = 1.224745In other words, the sqrt of the ratio describing the 2ndpyramid (3/2) generates proportions of

the Giza pyramids layout rectangle.

Note: The area of the rectangle is sqrt(3) x sqrt(2) =sqrt(6)= 2.4495

Perimeter of the Giza layout = 6,292(RC) [= 2* 1000* sqrt(2) + 2*1000*sqrt(3)]

Circle with the same perimeterwould have Radius = 1,001 RC [ 6292 = 2*pi*R so R=1,001 ]

Another amazing design feature:

Scale of the Giza layout: 1,000

Scaleof the 1stpyramid: 40

(btw, it generates base to height ratio 8/5 for the 3rdpyramid: 85 = 40)

Scale of the3

rd

pyramid: 25- the scales of the 1stand the 3rdpyramid generate also the ratio for the 3rdpyramid: 40/25 =

8/5

- 25 = 1000/40(this number is generated by the scale of the layout/scale of the Great Pyramid)

Scale of the 2ndpyramid is 137(see the paragraph below about 137)

It generates 11, the key number for the 1stpyramid (1+3+7 = 11).

Ratio 3/2 of the 2ndpyramid describes triangle [31/2]2+ [21/2]2= [51/2]2

which generates sides of the pyramids layout and its diagonal 51/2in scale 1:1000

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Such rectangle (representing the layout of the pyramids of Giza) can be generated in many ways:

1. From the Flower of Life:

The Flower of Life set in stone

at the Temple of Osiris at Abydos, Egypt.

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2. From arcs generating sqrt(2) and sqrt(3) (scaled 1000 times)

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3. From diagonals of a cube 1000 x 1000 x

1000:

137

Number 137 is the scale factor for the 2ndpyramid (which base to height ratio is 3/2)

137 is the 33rdprime number;

Using two radii to divide a circle according to the golden ratio yields sectors of approximately 137 (the

golden angle) and 222.

The fifth harmonic number is 137/60 The fine structure constant, a dimensionless physical constant, approximates 1/137, and

the astronomer Arthur Eddington conjectured in 1929 that its reciprocal was in fact precisely the integer

137

The fine structure constant of physics continues to convince esoterists that the universe has

numerological fine tuning: for example the age of the universe could be considered as roughly 137

times the square of a myriad of years.

The atomic number of the highest allowed element on the periodic table allowed by the Bohr Model and

the Dirac equation( Caesium-137)

Source: Wikipedia

On autumn equinox the distance of the Sun from Earthis approximately 150.336 million km,

about 108times that of the Suns diameter (or216 timesof the Suns Radius)

216=63, also 216=23x 33

108 x 2= 216 = 6 x 6 x 6, 666 is the number of the Sun (and also number of the Beast)

108 has 12 divisors: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 27, 36, 54, 108

Interesting, multiples of 3 multiplied by 37 = repeating digits

(13) or 1+1+1=3 x 37 = 111

(23) or 2+2+2=6 x 37 = 222

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(33) or 3+3+3=9 x 37 = 333

(43) or 4+4+4=12 x 37 = 444

(53) or 5+5+5=15 x 37 = 555

(63) or 6+6+6=18 x 37 = 666

(73) or 7+7+7=21 x 37 = 777

(83) or 8+8+8=24 x 37 = 888

(93) or 9+9+9=27 x 37 = 999

Divisors:

108 has 12 divisors: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 27, 36, 54, 108

216 has 16 divisors: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 18, 24, 27, 36, 54, 72, 108, 216

360 has 24 divisors: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20, 24, 30, 36, 40, 45, 60, 72, 90, 120, 180, 360

666 has 12 divisors: 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18, 37, 74, 111, 222, 333, 666.

666 and the Magickal Seal of the Sun

The Seals of the Planets,popular before the time of Christ according to Budge (Amulets and

Superstitions), are interesting because the seal containing the Grand Number of the Sun contains thevery sacred number 36laid out in a66square with the numbers from 1 to 36so arranged that

they add up the same in all directions,withthe total of the whole seal 666.

Though popular also in Eastern lands, the Greek and Roman, or Latin, inscriptions on these seals show also

their popularity in the West.. Since the sun-god was considered as the ruler over the 36

constellations of the skyand the 36 rooms of the circle of the zodiac, it was inevitable that the

summary number of the numbers from 1 to 36, the number 666 should have been assigned to the

sun as the ruler over all the gods of heaven and earth.

Babylonian astrologers divided the starry heavens into 36 constellations (ten days each).These

were represented by different amulets called Sigilla Solis, or theSun Seal.These amulets were worn by

the pagan priests and they contained all the numbers from 1 to 36. By these figures they claimed to be able

to foretell future events.These amulets were usually made of gold, yellow being the sun color.While

being carried, these amulets were wrapped in yellow silk, as it was thought that the bearer would thus

receive the beneficent powers believed to emanate from that jewel.

The 66 Magic Square of the Sun contains the first 36 numbers arranged in such a fashion so that each line

of numbers, weather added horizontally, vertically or diagonally from corner to corner, will yield thesolar

number 111.The entire magic square therefore equals 666, a number which was significant to early

Christian mystics. In Hebrew Kabbalah, the names of the intelligence of the Sun and Spirit of the Sun were

designed to equal 111 and 666 respectively. Like 888, 666 is an important musical number, for 0.666is the

ratio of the perfect fifth, the most powerful harmonic interval. FromJesus Christ, Sun of God

(Fidler)

By the way:

1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12+13+14+15+16+17+18+19+20+21+22+

+ 23+24+25+26+27+28+29+30+31+32+33+34+35+36= 666

Check it out with calculator or use this formula:

the sum of the first n numbers = n(n+1)/2

Number 144

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144=12 x 12

144=32x 42

1 day = 24 hours = 1440 minutes

100 days = 144,000 min

Sacred Tetractys

The Pythagoreans adored numbers. Aristotle, in his Metaphysica, sums up the Pythagoreans attitude

towards numbers.

The (Pythagoreans were) the first to take up mathematics (and) thought its principles were the

principles of all things. Since, of these principles, numbers are the first, in numbers they seemed to see

many resemblances to things that exist more than [just] air, fire and earth and water, (but things such

as) justice, soul, reason, opportunity

One of fascinating ancient discoveries is Tetractys.It is a symbol

composed of ten dots in an upward-pointing triangular formation. It was a sacred pattern for the school of

philosophers who followed the teachings of the Greek sage Pythagoras.

Tetractys itself can be interpreted as the symbolic blueprint of creation.Its image is an equilateral

triangle based on the essential numbers 1 (top), 2, 3 and 4 (base), whose sum is the perfect number 10 (

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10).

These numbers were considered by the Pythagoreans to be holy and at the origins of the

universe.They believed that a four-fold pattern permeated the natural world, examples of which are

the point, line, surface and solidand the four elements Earth, Water, Air and Fire.

Musically they represent the perfect consonants: the unison, the octave, the fifth and the fourth.

The importance of the tetractys to the Pythagoreans is illustrated by their oath of fellowship:

I swear by the discoverer of the Tetractys,

Which is the spring of all our wisdom,

The perennial fount and root of Nature.

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Tetractys generates hexagon which is 2-D projection of 3-D cube

he Great Pyramid and the Speed of Light

The Great Pyramid encodes enormous amount ofnumerical coincidences( pi, Phi, dimensions and

movement of our planet, axial tilt, precession, speed of light, and more)

We can only wonder if the ancient architects were fully aware of these special numbers encoded in

their designor are these numbers simply the result of selecting 2 numbers (7 and 11)for

proportions for the Great Pyramid???

The design of the Great Pyramid is based on the ratio 11:7. This ratio (equal

1.571) is perfect approximation of the squaring the circle principle.

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For the Great Pyramid, Base to Height Ratio 440/280 is exactly 11/7

Most pyramidologists appear to bechasing their tails uncovering huge amount of

numerical coincidences embedded in the Great Pyramid

It is simply unbelievable, however ALL of thesenumerical coincidences are result of selectingust 4 numbersfor the pyramid design: 7,

11(height to base ratio), 40(the scale factor), andthe 4th key number is the value of the measuringunit: Royal Cubit= 20.62 = 0.524 m.

This single, fundamental design principle: 11 : 7 Base to Height Ratio generates ALL amazing

mathematical properties of the Great Pyramid:

the Golden Ratio Phi=1.618 (the Great Pyramid is a Golden Pyramid: length of the slope side (356)

divided by half of the side (440/2 = 220) height is equal to 1.6181818 which isthe Golden Ratio Phi

squaring the circle ratio 1.571 (base/height = 44/28 = 1.571)

pi=3.14159 (2 x base/height = 2 x 44/28 = 3.14286 which is very close approximation of pi =

3.14159)

Perimeter of the square base, 4440=1760, is the same as circumference of the circle with

radius = height: 2x pi x height (2x 22/7 x 280=1760)

The ratio of the perimeter to height of 1760/280 cubits equates to 2x pi

to an accuracy of better than 0.05%

Side of the base (440) plus double height (2x 280=560) = 1,000

Perimeter of the square base is equal 4440=1760 RC = 0.5 nautical mile =1/7,200th of the radius

length of the earth

the slop angle 51.843 The Pyramid exhibits in the design bothpiand by Phi, given the similarity

of 2/ sqrt(phi) (2 divided by the square root of Phi) withpi/2 :

11/ 7 equal 1.5714

2/ sqrt(89/55) equal 1.5722

2/ sqrt(Phi) equal 1.5723

pi/ 2 equal 1.5708

Royal Cubit = 0.5236 m, piPhi2= 0.5231

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Its almost universally accepted that archaeologist Flinders Petries determination of the royal cubit length

at20.632 inches, from his measurements of the Kings Chamber in the Great Pyramid of Giza ,

was the likely measure to survey the dimensions of that pyramid, 440 royal cubits per base side, but the

experts stop there, not then letting you know that those 1,760 royal cubits which total the Great Pyramids

base perimeter length, when multiplied by 20.632 inches, equals half a modern nautical mile, or 1/7,200th

of the radius length of the earth, so there certainly is a connection.

By most accurate series of measurements Petrie concluded that the royal cubit standard for the Great

Pyramidwas 20.620 .005 inches( 523.7 mm).

Lets use the lower value20.615 for the Royal Cubit (allowed by the 0.005 accuracy):

the Royal Egyptian Cubit (RC) is 20.615 = 0.523621 m

B = 440RC = 9070.6 = 755.883 feet = 230.393 mTherefore C = 1.301290285 x B = 983.6 feet = 299.8 m

The value of Cx 106

is surprisingly very close tothe speed of light in m/s

The speed of light in a vacuum is983, 571, 056.43 feet per second =

299, 792, 458meters per second.Another very strange Great Pyramid coincidence related to thespeed of lightwas discovered by John

Charles Webb Jr. :

Precise latitude of the centre of the Grand Gallery (inside GP) is

29 58 45.28 N = 29.9792458 N

The speed of lightin vacuum, usually denoted by c, is a universal physical constant important in many areas

of physics ( 299,792,458metres /s ).

- -

Another interesting coincidence encoded in the Royal Cubit:

Royal Egyptian Cubit = 0.524 m

pi = 3.1416

3.1416 feet = 0.957 m = 1.8263 RC

2x (0.957 / 0.524 ) = 2x 1.8263 = 3.6526 = 365.26 x 10-2

Number of days in a year: 365.25Another interpretation of the above:

circumference of a a circle with diameter equal 100 feetis

2 x pi x 100 feet = 2 x pi x 1200 =7539.8 =365.74RC

(or 356.25 RC measured in Kings Chamber)

- -

The Missing Capstone TheoryThe pyramidion (capstone) found near the Red Pyramid is nearly 96 cm from the top, measured along

the edge. This (and other capstones found in Egypt) suggests thatEgyptians were not making huge

capstones for their pyramids. Therefore assumption that missing capstone of the Great Pyramid was huge

(30 feet at the base) is wrong. It is very likely that in addition to the missing pyramidion there is a layer of

stones missing as well. Therefore the capstone was much smaller than the missing part of the pyramid.

To maintain perfect slope angle such a capstone would have to have identical proportions as the whole

pyramid: 7:11. If we use the Red Pyramid capstone to estimate possible size of the capstone from the

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Great Pyramid, it seems reasonable to select 2 Royal Cubits (140thof the pyramids height) for its height.

The capstones base in this case would be 3.14286 RC (as the result of keeping the same scale and

proportions as the GP) . This is very close approximation of pi.

The missing capstone of the Great Pyramid was very likely 2 Royal Cubits in height (3.4267 feet =

1.0475 m ) with square base of 3.1428 Royal Cubits (5.4 feet = 1.646 m).

Hebrew Genesis Contains Mathematically Encoded Pictures

Sacred or Secret?

by Andreas G. Szab

The Discovery

In Hebrew all letters are also a number, so that one can obtain the value of a word by

adding these numbers. This procedure is called Gematria.

Originally I wanted to analyze the distributions of such gematric values in the

Hebrew biblical book of Genesis and found therefore a computer-based graphical

method to display them. That method should provide round eye-shaped views through

using a polar coordinate system and so I named the method Hitomi which is

Japanese for the pupil of the eye.

The Hitomi-method worked because I quickly realized that by this

method certain numbers form real pictures:Planetary positions and cycles, star

constellations, astronomical and geometric connections, and mystical

symbols.They represent the Sephiroth of the Kabbalistic Tree of Life.

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Among these things I found the depiction of a

heliocentric system, in which the heavenly bodies Jupiter, Saturn and Sun are positioned like they were at

the Jupiter-Saturn conjunction on September 30th in the year 7 BC. In addition there is also a picture of the

Big Dipper as it stood on that day at 20:30 oclock over Bethlehem.

The Method

All words of the Hebrew Genesis get arranged like this: The Genesis has thrice 511 verses, which are put

onto three concentric wheels with 511 spokes (less spokes in the picture below, cannot draw all). The first

511 verses are put on the spokes of the innermost wheel, the next 511 verses on the same spokes but of

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But with a compass one can make circles, and so I did: Starting from the angular point of the pretended

compass I drew circles through the other dots in that picture and also one through its center. I immediately

realized that these circles (red) should be planetary orbits, and the angular point of the compass should be

the Sun. Well, the orbits do not relate to each other like in reality, but they do relate in the measure of the

golden ratio. This is remarkable though.

By assuming that the dot in the center of the picture should be the Earth we can count that the two

outermost orbits must be those of Jupiter and Saturn. And obviously there these two planets are in a

conjunction when spotted from Earth.

I grabbed some astronomical data and found out that this depicted conjunction was the one on September30. in the year 7 BC. And this picture clearly shows knowledge or at least the theory of the heliocentric solar

system, that must have been familiar to the creators of the Hitomi-pictures.

Now another one of the pictures shows the Big Dipper as it stood on the mentioned day at 20:30 oclock

over Bethlehem just above the horizon directly in the north. This is exactly the time that is given by

theastronomical datafor the mentioned conjunction.

http://www.torakosmos.de/jsc.phphttp://www.torakosmos.de/jsc.phphttp://www.torakosmos.de/jsc.phphttp://www.torakosmos.de/jsc.php
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The conjunction and the Dipper were just two

examples. There are many more results.

The Book

This book is about my totally new and original method to mathematically decode pictures from the

Hebrew Biblical book of Genesis: Planetary positions and cycles, star constellations, astronomical and

mathematical connections, magical artifacts and mystical symbols. It leads the reader on a spectacular

tightrope walk between religion, esoterism and science, and opens to him a fascinating new view on the

Bible. On 72 pages and with 27 illustrations I describe all my findings and techniques in detail. I give

explanations for the meanings of the pictures and their purpose, and answers on related important

questions.

http://www.torakosmos.de/book.phphttp://www.torakosmos.de/book.phphttp://www.torakosmos.de/book.phphttp://www.torakosmos.de/book.php
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Gobekli Tepe: Oldest Monumental Architecture of Planet

Predating Stonehenge by 6,000 years, Turkeys stunning Gobekli Tepe upends the

conventional view of the rise of civilization

Located 35 miles north of Turkeys border with Syria, Gobekli Tepe consists of 20 T-shapedstone towers, carved with drawings of snakes, scorpions, lions, boars, foxes and other

animals.

The amazing thing about them is they date back to 9,500 BC, 5,500 years before the first cities

of Mesopotamia and 7,000 years before the circle of Stonehenge.

Scientists say that back then humans hadnt even discovered pottery or domesticated wheat.

They lived in villages, had no agriculture and only relied on hunting to survive.

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Gbekli Tepe had already been located in a survey in 1964, when the American archaeologist

Peter Benedict mentioned the site as a possible location of stone age activity, but its importance

was not recognised at that time. Excavations have been conducted since 1994 by the German

Archaeological Institute (Istanbul branch) and Sanliurfa Museum, under the direction of the

German archaeologist Klaus Schmidt (University of Heidelberg). The title isnt actually doing

Gobekli Tepe justice since the Turkish archaeological site is 7,000 years older than

Stonehenge.

Gobekli Tepe changes everything archaeologists discovered so far and it is considered the most

important archaeological find in recent history. Klaus Schmidt, the man who first discoveredGobekli Tepe says the carvings might be the first human representation of gods.

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Until excavations began, a complex on this scale was not thought possible for a community so

ancient. The massive sequence of stratification layers suggests several millennia of activity,

perhaps reaching back to the Mesolithic. The oldest occupation layer (stratum III) contains

monolithic pillars linked by coarsely built walls to form circular or oval structures. Gbekli Tepe

has revealed several adjacent rectangular rooms with floors of polished lime, reminiscent of

Roman terrazzo floors.

Thus, the structures not only predate pottery, metallurgy, and the invention of writingor the

wheel; they were built before the so-called Neolithic Revolution, i.e., the beginning of

agriculture and animal husbandry around 9000 BC. But the construction of Gbekli Tepe implies

organisation of an order of complexity not hitherto associated with Paleolithic, PPNA, or PPNB

societies.

At present, Gbekli Tepe raises more questions for archaeology and prehistory than

it answers.We do not know how a force large enough to construct, augment, and maintain such

a substantial complex was mobilized and paid or fed in the conditions of pre-Neolithic society.

We cannot read the pictograms, and do not know for certain what meaning the animal reliefs

had for visitors to the site; the variety of fauna depicted, from lions and boars to birds and

insects, makes any single explanation problematic.

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Predating Stonehenge by 6,000 years, Turkeys stunning Gobekli Tepeupends the conventional

view of the rise of civilization

Now seen as early evidence of prehistoric worship, the hilltop site was previously shunned by researchers asnothing more than a medieval cemetery.

Six miles from Urfa, an ancient city in southeastern Turkey, Klaus Schmidt has made one of the most

startling archaeological discoveries of our time: massive carved stones about 11,000 years old, crafted and

arranged by prehistoric people who had not yet developed metal tools or even pottery. The megaliths

predate Stonehenge by some 6,000 years. The place is called Gobekli Tepe, and Schmidt, a German

archaeologist who has been working here more than a decade, is convinced its the site of the worlds oldest

temple.

Guten Morgen,he says at 5:20 a.m. when his van picks me up at my hotel in Urfa. Thirty minutes later,

the van reaches the foot of a grassy hill and parks next to strands of barbed wire. We follow a knot of

workmen up the hill to rectangular pits shaded by a corrugated steel roofthe main excavation site. In the

pits, standing stones, or pillars, are arranged in circles. Beyond, on the hillside, are four other rings of

partially excavatedpillars. Each ring has a roughly similar layout: in the center are two large stone T-shaped

pillars encircled by slightly smaller stones facing inward. The tallest pillars tower 16 feet and, Schmidt says,

weigh between seven and ten tons. As we walk among them, I see that some are blank, while others are

elaborately carved: foxes, lions, scorpions and vultures abound, twisting and crawling on the pillars broad

sides.

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Schmidt points to the great stone rings, one of them 65 feet across. This is the first human-built

holy place, he says.

From this perch 1,000 feet above the valley, we can see to the horizon in nearly every direction.Schmidt, 53, asks me to imagine what the landscape would have looked like 11,000 years ago,

before centuries of intensive farming and settlement turned it into the nearly featureless brown

expanse it is today.

Prehistoric people would have gazed upon herds of gazelle and other wild animals; gently

flowing rivers, which attracted migrating geese and ducks; fruit and nut trees; and rippling fields

of wild barley and wild wheat varieties such as emmer and einkorn. This area was like aparadise, says Schmidt, a member of the German Archaeological Institute. Indeed, Gobekli

Tepe sits at the northern edge of the Fertile Crescentan arc of mild climate and arable land

from the Persian Gulf to present-day Lebanon, Israel, Jordan and Egyptand would have

attracted hunter-gatherers from Africa and the Levant. And partly because Schmidt has found noevidence that people permanently resided on the summit of Gobekli Tepe itself, he believes this

was a place of worship on an unprecedented scalehumanitys first cathedral on a hill.

With the sun higher in the sky, Schmidt ties a white scarf around his balding head, turban-style,and deftly picks his way down the hill among the relics. In rapid-fire German he explains that he

has mapped the entire summit using ground-penetrating radar and geomagnetic surveys, charting

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where at least 16 other megalith rings remain buried across 22 acres. The one-acre excavation

covers less than 5 percent of the site. He says archaeologists could dig here for another 50 years

and barely scratch the surface.

Gobekli Tepe was first examinedand dismissedby University of Chicago and Istanbul

University anthropologists in the 1960s. As part of a sweeping survey of the region, they visitedthe hill, saw some broken slabs of limestone and assumed the mound was nothing more than anabandoned medieval cemetery. In 1994, Schmidt was working on his own survey of prehistoric

sites in the region. After reading a brief mention of the stone-littered hilltop in the University of

Chicago researchers report, he decided to go there himself. From the moment he first saw it, he

knew the place was extraordinary.

Unlike the stark plateaus nearby, Gobekli Tepe (the name means belly hill in Turkish) has a

gently rounded top that rises 50 feet above the surrounding landscape. To Schmidts eye, the

shape stood out. Only man could have created something like this, he says. It was clear rightaway this was a gigantic Stone Age site. The broken pieces of limestone that earlier surveyors

had mistaken for gravestones suddenly took on a different meaning.

Schmidt returned a year later with five colleagues and they uncovered the first megaliths, a fewburied so close to the surface they were scarred by plows. As the archaeologists dug deeper, they

unearthed pillars arranged in circles. Schmidts team, however, found none of the telltale signs of

a settlement: no cooking hearths, houses or trash pits, and none of the clay fertility figurines thatlitter nearby sites of about the same age. The archaeologists did find evidence of tool use,

including stone hammers and blades. And because those artifacts closely resemble others from

nearby sites previously carbon-dated to about 9000 B.C., Schmidt and co-workers estimate that

Gobekli Tepes stone structures are the same age. Limited carbon dating undertaken by Schmidt

at the site confirms this assessment.The way Schmidt sees it, Gobekli Tepes sloping, rocky ground is a stonecutters dream. Even

without metal chisels or hammers, prehistoric masons wielding flint tools could have chippedaway at softer limestone outcrops, shaping them into pillars on the spot before carrying them a

few hundred yards to the summit and lifting them upright. Then, Schmidt says, once the stone

rings were finished, the ancient builders covered them over with dirt. Eventually, they placed

another ring nearby or on top of the old one. Over centuries, these layers created the hilltop.

Today, Schmidt oversees a team of more than a dozen German archaeologists, 50 local laborers

and a steady stream of enthusiastic students. He typically excavates at the site for two months in

the spring and two in the fall. (Summer temperatures reach 115 degrees, too hot to dig; in the

winter the area is deluged by rain.) In 1995, he bought a traditional Ottoman house with acourtyard in Urfa, a city of nearly a half-million people, to use as a base of operations.

On the day I visit, a bespectacled Belgian man sits at one end of a long table in front of a pile ofbones. Joris Peters, an archaeozoologist from the Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich,

specializes in the analysis of animal remains. Since 1998, he has examined more than 100,000

bone fragments from Gobekli Tepe. Peters has often found cut marks and splintered edges onthemsigns that the animals from which they came were butchered and cooked. The bones,

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stored in dozens of plastic crates stacked in a storeroom at the house, are the best clue to how

people who created Gobekli Tepe lived. Peters has identified tens of thousands of gazelle bones,

which make up more than 60 percent of the total, plus those of other wild game such as boar,sheep and red deer. Hes also found bones of a dozen different bird species, including vultures,

cranes, ducks and geese. The first year, we went through 15,000 pieces of animal bone, all of

them wild. It was pretty clear we were dealing with a hunter-gatherer site, Peters says. Itsbeen the same every year since. The abundant remnants of wild game indicate that the people

who lived here had not yet domesticated animals or farmed.

But, Peters and Schmidt say, Gobekli Tepesbuilders were on the verge of a major change inhow they lived, thanks to an environment that held the raw materials for farming. They had wild

sheep, wild grains that could be domesticatedand the people with the potential to do it,

Schmidt says. In fact, research at other sites in the region has shown that within 1,000 years of

Gobekli Tepes construction, settlers had corralled sheep, cattle and pigs. And, at a prehistoricvillage just 20 miles away, geneticists found evidence of the worlds oldest domesticated strains

of wheat; radiocarbon dating indicates agriculture developed there around 10,500 years ago, or

just five centuries after Gobekli Tepes construction.

To Schmidt and others, these new findings suggest a novel theory of civilization. Scholars have

long believed that only after people learned to farm and live in settled communities did they have

the time, organization and resources to construct temples and support complicated social

structures. But Schmidt argues it was the other way around: the extensive, coordinated effort to

build the monoliths literally laid the groundwork for the development of complex societies.

The immensity of the undertaking at Gobekli Tepe reinforces that view. Schmidt says the

monuments could not have been built by ragged bands of hunter-gatherers. To carve, erect and

bury rings of seven-ton stone pillars would have required hundreds of workers, all needing to befed and housed. Hence the eventual emergence of settled communities in the area around 10,000

years ago. This shows sociocultural changes come first, agriculture comes later, says StanfordUniversity archaeologist Ian Hodder, who excavated Catalhoyuk, a prehistoric settlement 300

miles from Gobekli Tepe. You can make a good case this area is the real origin of complex

Neolithic societies.

What was so important to these early people that they gathered to build (and bury) the stone

rings? The gulf that separates us from Gobekli Tepes builders is almost unimaginable. Indeed,

though I stood among the looming megaliths eager to take in their meaning, they didnt speak to

me. They were utterly foreign, placed there by people who saw the world in a way I will never

comprehend. There are no sources to explain what the symbols might mean. Schmidt agrees.Were 6,000 years before the invention of writing here, he says.

Theres more time between Gobekli Tepe and the Sumerian clay tablets [etched in 3300 B.C.]than from Sumer to today, says Gary Rollefson, an archaeologist at Whitman College in Walla

Walla, Washington, who is familiar with Schmidts work. Trying to pick out symbolism from

prehistoric context is an exercise in futility.

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Still, archaeologists have their theoriesevidence, perhaps, of the irresistible human urge to

explain the unexplainable. The surprising lack of evidence that people lived right there,

researchers say, argues against its use as a settlement or even a place where, for instance, clanleaders gathered. Hodder is fascinated that Gobekli Tepes pillar carvings are dominated not by

edible prey like deer and cattle but by menacing creatures such as lions, spiders, snakes and

scorpions. Its a scary, fantastic world of nasty-looking beasts, he muses. While later cultureswere more concerned with farming and fertility, he suggests, perhaps these hunters were trying

to master their fears by building this complex, which is a good distance from where they lived.

Danielle Stordeur, an archaeologist at the National Center for Scientific Research in France,emphasizes the significance of the vulture carvings. Some cultures have long believed the high-

flying carrion birds transported the flesh of the dead up to the heavens. Stordeur has found

similar symbols at sites from the same era as Gobekli Tepe just 50 miles away in Syria. You

can really see its the same culture, she says. All the most important symbols are the same.

For his part, Schmidt is certain the secret is right beneath his feet. Over the years, his team has

found fragments of human bone in the layers of dirt that filled the complex. Deep test pits haveshown that the floors of the rings are made of hardened limestone. Schmidt is betting thatbeneath the floors hell find the structures true purpose: a final resting place for a society of

hunters.

Perhaps, Schmidt says, the site was a burial ground or the center of a death cult, the dead laid outon the hillside among the stylized gods and spirits of the afterlife. If so, Gobekli Tepes location

was no accident. From here the dead are looking out at the ideal view, Schmidt says as the sun

casts long shadows over the half-buried pillars. Theyre looking out over a hunters dream.

PS2 The lunisolar calendar of Gbekli Tepe

The lunisolar calendar of Gbekli Tepe, versions from Nevali Cori, Halaf, Safadi, Ghassoul, Egypt,

Knossos, Tiryns, and China

Lunisolar calendar of Gbekli Tepe: a year has 12 months of 30 days, plus 5 and occasionally 6 days, while

63 continuous periods of 30 days yield 1,890 days and correspond to 64 lunations

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The begin of the calendar walk was marked by a stone phallus. The calendar walk forms two loops, while the

additional days at the end of the year are represented as space between the pair of central pillars. The

calendar walk is at the same time a representation of the life of a supreme leader: the first pillars mark

youth, the central pillars his apointment as ruler and supreme ruler, the following pillars his adult life, the

final space between the pillars his death, the leaping foxes on the central pillars the guides of his soul

through the Underworld back to daylight A charming Celtic coin shows the sun horse on the early morning

of the summer solstice, under it the snout of a fox peeping out of a hole in the ground the fox that guided

the sun horse through the Underworld and back to daylight

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Cult building II of Nevali Cori shows 12 pillars along the

walls, each representing 30 days, plus a pair of central pillars for the 5 and occasionally 6 additional days.

Cult building III shows thirteen pillars along the wall, each representing 28 days, while the space between

the central pillars represents one and occasionally two additional days, and this time 135 continuous periods

of 28 days yielding 3780 days corresponding to 128 lunations

The lunisolar calendar in the version of Halaf required 6 leap days in 25 years.

Sooner or later the calendar of Gbekli Tepe was combined with an astronomical observatory in a river plain

with a flat horizon, somewhere in Upper Mesopotamia. Imagine a pole or a tree of life in the center of a

circle, on the circumference a dozen poles in the positions of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 oclock, the poles of

3 6 9 12 oclock marking the cardinal directions east south west north. Sighting lines provided by the poles

allow indicate where the sun will raise and set on the mornings and evenings of the equinoxes and solstices

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Click to Enlarge

This calendar observatory became the Asherah sanctuary, from AS AAR RAA meaning upward (as) toward

the one composed of air (aar) and light (raa).

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than the actual value from 1989 AD, namely 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 2.9 seconds. With a little fantasy

you can even see the wedjat eye in the moon:

The Minoan double

axe may be a graphic rendering of the solstices derived from the Asherah sanctuary, as shown in this

drawing, inspired by the carvings on a block at Knossos (see also the chapters on Mallia and Knossos below)

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tree, which the locals regarded as 'sacred'. The bells on his sheep tinkled in thestillness. Then he spotted something. Crouching down, he brushed away the dust, andexposed a strange, large, oblong stone.The man looked left and right: there were similar stone rectangles, peeping from thesands. Calling his dog to heel, the shepherd resolved to inform someone of his finds

when he got back to the village. Maybe the stones were important. They certainly were important. The solitary Kurdish man, on that summer's day in 1994,had made the greatest archaeological discovery in 50 years. Others would say he'dmade the greatest archaeological discoveryever: a site that has revolutionised the waywe look at human history, the origin of religion - and perhaps even the truth behind theGarden of Eden.

The site has been described as 'extraordinary' and 'the most important' site in the world

A few weeks after his discovery, news of the shepherd's find reached museum curatorsin the ancient city of Sanliurfa, ten miles south-west of the stones. They got in touch with the German Archaeological Institute in Istanbul. And so, in late

1994, archaeologist Klaus Schmidt came to the site of Gobekli Tepe (pronounced Go-beckly Tepp-ay) to begin his excavations.

As he puts it: 'As soon as I got there and saw the stones, I knew that if I didn't walkaway immediately I would be here for the rest of my life.'

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The stones seem to represent human forms - some have stylised 'arms', which angledown the sides. Functionally, the site appears to be a temple, or ritual site, like thestone circles of Western Europe.To date, 45 of these stones have been dug out - they are arranged in circles from five toten yards across - but there are indications that much more is to come. Geomagnetic

surveys imply that there are hundreds more standing stones, just waiting to beexcavated.So far, so remarkable. If Gobekli Tepe was simply this, it would already be a dazzlingsite - a Turkish Stonehenge. But several unique factors lift Gobekli Tepe into thearchaeological stratosphere - and the realms of the fantastical.

The Garden of Eden come to life: Is Gobekli Tepe where the story began?

The first is its staggering age. Carbon-dating shows that the complex is at least 12,000years old, maybe even 13,000 years old.That means it was built around 10,000BC. By comparison, Stonehenge was built in

3,000 BC and the pyramids of Giza in 2,500 BC. Gobekli is thus the oldest such site in the world, by a mind-numbing margin. It is so oldthat it predates settled human life. It is pre-pottery, pre-writing, pre-everything. Gobeklihails from a part of human history that is unimaginably distant, right back in our hunter-gatherer past.How did cavemen build something so ambitious? Schmidt speculates that bands ofhunters would have gathered sporadically at the site, through the decades ofconstruction, living in animal-skin tents, slaughtering local game for food.

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The many flint arrowheads found around Gobekli support this thesis; they also supportthe dating of the site.This revelation, that Stone Age hunter-gatherers could have built something likeGobekli, is worldchanging, for it shows that the old hunter-gatherer life, in this region ofTurkey, was far more advanced than we ever conceived - almost unbelievably

sophisticated.

The shepherd who discovered Gobekli Tepe has 'changed everything', said one academic

It's as if the gods came down from heaven and built Gobekli for themselves.This is where we come to the biblical connection, and my own involvement in theGobekli Tepe story.

About three years ago, intrigued by the first scant details of the site, I flew out toGobekli. It was a long, wearying journey, but more than worth it, not least as it wouldlater provide the backdrop for a new novel I have written. Back then, on the day I arrived at the dig, the archaeologists were unearthing mind-blowing artworks. As these sculptures were revealed, I realised that I was among thefirst people to see them since the end of the Ice Age.

And that's when a tantalising possibility arose. Over glasses of black tea, served in tentsright next to the megaliths, Klaus Schmidt told me that, as he put it: 'Gobekli Tepe is notthe Garden of Eden: it is a temple in Eden.' To understand how a respected academic like Schmidt can make such a dizzying claim,you need to know that many scholars view the Eden story as folk-memory, or allegory.Seen in this way, the Eden story, in Genesis, tells us of humanity's innocent andleisured hunter-gatherer past, when we could pluck fruit from the trees, scoop fish fromthe rivers and spend the rest of our days in pleasure.

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But then we 'fell' into the harsher life of farming, with its ceaseless toil and daily grind.And we know primitive farming was harsh, compared to the relative indolence ofhunting, because of the archaeological evidence.

To date, archaeologists have dug 45 stones out of the ruins at Gobekli

When people make the transition from hunter-gathering to settled agriculture, theirskeletons change - they temporarily grow smaller and less healthy as the human bodyadapts to a diet poorer in protein and a more wearisome lifestyle. Likewise, newlydomesticated animals get scrawnier.This begs the question, why adopt farming at all? Many theories have been suggested -from tribal competition, to population pressures, to the extinction of wild animal species.But Schmidt believes that the temple of Gobekli reveals another possible cause. 'To build such a place as this, the hunters must have joined together in numbers. Afterthey finished building, they probably congregated for worship. But then they found thatthey couldn't feed so many people with regular hunting and gathering.'So I think they began cultivating the wild grasses on the hills. Religion motivated peopleto take up farming.'The reason such theories have special weight is that the move to farming first happenedin this same region. These rolling Anatolian plains were the cradle of agriculture. The world's first farmyard pigs were domesticated at Cayonu, just 60 miles away.Sheep, cattle and goats were also first domesticated in eastern Turkey. Worldwide

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wheat species descend from einkorn wheat - first cultivated on the hills near Gobekli.Other domestic cereals - such as rye and oats - also started here.

The stones unearthed by the shepherd turned out to be the flat tops of T -shaped megaliths

But there was a problem for these early farmers, and it wasn't just that they had adopteda tougher, if ultimately more productive, lifestyle. They also experienced an ecologicalcrisis. These days the landscape surrounding the eerie stones of Gobekli is arid andbarren, but it was not always thus. As the carvings on the stones show - and asarchaeological remains reveal - this was once a richly pastoral region. There were herds of game, rivers of fish, and flocks of wildfowl; lush green meadowswere ringed by woods and wild orchards. About 10,000 years ago, the Kurdish desertwas a 'paradisiacal place', as Schmidt puts it. So what destroyed the environment? Theanswer is Man.

As we began farming, we changed the landscape and the climate. When the trees werechopped down, the soil leached away; all that ploughing and reaping left the landeroded and bare. What was once an agreeable oasis became a land of stress, toil anddiminishing returns.

And so, paradise was lost. Adam the hunter was forced out of his glorious Eden, 'to tillthe earth from whence he was taken' - as the Bible puts it.

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Of course, these theories might be dismissed as speculations. Yet there is plenty ofhistorical evidence to show that the writers of the Bible, when talking of Eden, were,indeed, describing this corner of Kurdish Turkey.

Archaeologist Klaus Schmidt poses next to some of the carvings at Gebekli

In the Book of Genesis, it is indicated that Eden is west of Assyria. Sure enough, this iswhere Gobekli is sited.Likewise, biblical Eden is by four rivers, including the Tigris and Euphrates. And Gobeklilies between both of these.In ancient Assyrian texts, there is mention of a 'Beth Eden' - a house of Eden. Thisminor kingdom was 50 miles from Gobekli Tepe.

Another book in the Old Testament talks of 'the children of Eden which were inThelasar', a town in northern Syria, near Gobekli.The very word 'Eden' comes from the Sumerian for 'plain'; Gobekli lies on the plains ofHarran.Thus, when you put it all together, the evidence is persuasive. Gobekli Tepe is, indeed,a 'temple in Eden', built by our leisured and fortunate ancestors - people who had timeto cultivate art, architecture and complex ritual, before the traumas of agriculture ruinedtheir lifestyle, and devastated their paradise.It's a stunning and seductive idea. Yet it has a sinister epilogue. Because the loss ofparadise seems to have had a strange and darkening effect on the human mind.

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Many of Gobekli's standing stones are inscribed with 'bizarre and delicate' images, like this reptile

A few years ago, archaeologists at nearby Cayonu unearthed a hoard of human skulls.They were found under an altar-like slab, stained with human blood.No one is sure, but this may be the earliest evidence for human sacrifice: one of themost inexplicable of human behaviours and one that could have evolved only in the faceof terrible societal stress.Experts may argue over the evidence at Cayonu. But what no one denies is that humansacrifice took place in this region, spreading to Palestine, Canaan and Israel.

Archaeological evidence suggests that victims were killed in huge death pits, childrenwere buried alive in jars, others roasted in vast bronze bowls.These are almost incomprehensible acts, unless you understand that the people hadlearned to fear their gods, having been cast out of paradise. So they sought to propitiatethe angry heavens.This savagery may, indeed, hold the key to one final, bewildering mystery. Theastonishing stones and friezes of Gobekli Tepe are preserved intact for a bizarrereason.Long ago, the site was deliberately and systematically buried in a feat of labour every bitas remarkable as the stone carvings.

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The stones of Gobekli Tepe are trying to speak to us from across the centuries - a warning we should heed

Around 8,000 BC, the creators of Gobekli turned on their achievement and entombed

their glorious temple under thousands of tons of earth, creating the artificial hills onwhich that Kurdish shepherd walked in 1994.No one knows why Gobekli was buried. Maybe it was interred as a kind of penance: asacrifice to the angry gods, who had cast the hunters out of paradise. Perhaps it was forshame at the violence and bloodshed that the stone-worship had helped provoke.Whatever the answer, the parallels with our own era are stark. As we contemplate anew age of ecological turbulence, maybe the silent, sombre, 12,000-year-old stones ofGobekli Tepe are trying to speak to us, to warn us, as they stare across the first Edenwe destroyed.

What is the Study of Edenics?In the Beginning, Before There Was The Word

Note: In the several years since this document was written, continuing research has led us to the

use of the term Edenic as the earliest language and Edenics as the study of that language.

The term Edenic is less cumbersome than proto-Hebrew, pre-Hebrew or proto-Semitic. Many

people seem defensive about terms such as Proto-Semitic, or Proto-Hebrew and especially

that B wordBiblical. If use of Edenic can allow readers to examine the evidence calmly and

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of Hebrew. And no secular linguist dares to investigate the veracity of linguistic claims made by

that jumble of myths called the Bible.

Even as linguistics slouches painfully toward the Tower of Babel (and most do place the

geographical motherland of Proto-world language in the Near East, the location of the Tower of

Babel), geneticists have been on the trail of Adam and Eve. Newsweek of Jan. 11, 1988 andDiscover Magazine of August, 1990 had cover stories on the discovery of Eve in

mitochondrial DNA. DNA research indicated that all the diversity within the human family came

from one original common ancestor. (Finding an Adam is not presentlypossible.) The majority

of scientists still uphold the racist monkey business of Darwin, and so the work of avant garde

linguists and geneticists continues to be debated. Like those who condemned the heresy of

Copernicus, these religious fanatics of scientific atheism will soon be objects of derision.

In 1992 the oldest human skeletons ever found with the hyoid (throat) bone for speech were

excavated in the Mt. Carmel caves near Haifa in northern Israel. Until older remains are found

elsewhere, the burden of proof is on the scientific community to demonstrate that the first humanspeakers were NOT Proto-Semitic or Hebrew speakers. In Mozesons research on Hebrew,

however, it is the physics and chemistry of Hebrew that speaks for its primacy rather than any

anthropological artifacts.

In The Word, only the most current etymological research is employed to link English words

with their Hebrew counterparts. For example, the Indo-European root for SPARROW is sper (a

generic term for birds). The non-borrowed counterpart in Hebrew is TSiPoR (the generic term

for birds). It is argued that two unrelated languages can have a word with similar sounds in

similar sequence purely by coincidence. The fallacy with this point is that the odds are millions

to one against the two words meaning the exact same thing. Once several hundred commonterms are arrayed, the odds of coincidence soar to the billions to one, and the denial must be

equated to a leap of faith.

Most word links do not involve pairs as obvious as TsiPoR and SPARROW. Only the most

conservative rules of linguistic change are used, such as metathesis (root letters changing

sequence), Grimms Laws shifts (such as German V becoming English B) and nasalization

(adding N or M to a root), to link the two vocabularies. Essays documenting these common

changes of the Hebrew/Edenic root are elsewhere at this site. Fairly obvious parallels between

English and Hebrew do not number in the dozens, but in the hundreds. Aside from dramatic

history or theology, this research allows for easier foreign language acquisition. It is far moreeffective to teach Hebrew to English speakers when LaBHaN (white) is paired with ALBINO or

HaLaL (space) is positioned near HOLE and HOLLOW.

The bulk of the research does not involve word pairs with fairly exact correspondence of sound

and sense. The work is literally radical in that one has to first isolate the roots of the proposed

twin words separated at birth since Babel. Edenic (Proto-Semitic or Ancient Hebrew roots plus

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non-Biblical roots recovered from other Semitic languages) demonstrates that language in its

uncorrupted state is a natural science, much like physics or chemistry and created by the same

Mind. Despite what we learned in school, language is NOT the result of the evolved grunting of

cavemen who evolved from separate herds of apes. On the contrary, understood correctly, word

roots are as perfect a value as are numbers. Just as there is a positive and negative number in

math or matter and antimatter in physics, Edenic roots can also be charged with negative ions or

carry the meaning of their antonyms. (Another proof of non-human engineering.) Let us quickly

observe an example of Edenics organic, modular 2-letter root system where sound-alike

synonym and antonyms are observable.

There is a HL/Het-Lamed root letters of health words. On the positive side there is HeLooTS,

vigor, (source of HEALTH, HALE, German heil, HEALTHY and HELLO). On the negative

side there is HaLaSH , weak, (source of ILL, AILment, melanCHOLY,etc.). To note the modular

structure of 2-letter roots, see, for instance, that PR/Pey-Resh + RK/Resh-Het combine to make

up the PeRaKH or flower. The PR sub-root is found in PeRi or PeRoT , fruit, singular or plural

(source of words like FRuiT, aPRIcot, PeaR, BeRRy, etc.). In botany we know that every fruit is

a flower first. The second sub-root within the term for flower is RK. RayaKH means smell,

fragrance, and is the source of English ReeK (once a positive smell). There is no better system in

the universe to indicate a flower than by combing the botanical fruit element with that of

fragrance. In other terms, PR +RK = PeRaKH (flower).

Heres an example of two-letter roots taking on a stronger prefix letter to offer three similar

words that go up the piano scale of intensity. BL, Bet-Lamed means intertwined, balled up like

the words of the world being BaLaL (confused) since Babel. Loosely folding over two strands

makes a braid or pleat called a GaBHeL. Five letters up is Het, and a HeBHeL is a string. The

intertwining got tighter and stronger. Going up from letter #8 to #20 is KHaf. The strands are so

strongly intertwined that KHaBHeL means CABLE. Yes, CABLE does come from KheBHeL.

Exposing the sub-roots in the architectonics of Edenics is one of many aspects of this field that is

too vast to be completed in our generation.