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COVER PHOTO U.S. MARINE CORPS PHOTO BY ... COVER PHOTO U.S. MARINE CORPS PHOTO BY SGT. ISAAC LAMBERTH 1616 Rhode Island Avenue NW Washington, DC 20036JUNE 2016 Landing Together Pacific

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    1616 Rhode Island Avenue NW

    Washington, DC 20036

    202 887 0200 |

    1616 Rhode Island Avenue NW Washington, DC 20036 202-887-0200 | www.csis.orgv*:+:!:+:! ISBN 978-1-4422-5961-4

    Lanham • Boulder • New York • London

    4501 Forbes Boulevard

    Lanham, MD 20706

    301 459 3366 |


    Landing Together

    project director Kathleen H. Hicks


    Kathleen H. Hicks

    Mark F. Cancian

    Andrew Metrick

    John Schaus

    J U N E 2 0 1 6

    Pacific Amphibious Development and Implications for the U.S. Fleet

    A Report of the


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  • J U N E 2 0 1 6

    Landing Together Pacific Amphibious Development and Implications for the U.S. Fleet


    Kathleen H. Hicks


    Kathleen H. Hicks Mark F. Cancian Andrew Metrick John Schaus



    Lanham • Boulder • New York • London

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  • About CSIS

    For over 50 years, the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) has worked

    to develop solutions to the world’s greatest policy challenges. Today, CSIS scholars are

    providing strategic insights and bipartisan policy solutions to help decisionmakers chart a

    course toward a better world.

    CSIS is a nonprofit organ ization headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Center’s 220 full-

    time staff and large network of affiliated scholars conduct research and analy sis and develop

    policy initiatives that look into the future and anticipate change.

    Founded at the height of the Cold War by David M. Abshire and Admiral Arleigh Burke, CSIS

    was dedicated to finding ways to sustain American prominence and prosperity as a force for

    good in the world. Since 1962, CSIS has become one of the world’s preeminent international

    institutions focused on defense and security; regional stability; and transnational challenges

    ranging from energy and climate to global health and economic integration.

    Thomas J. Pritzker was named chairman of the CSIS Board of Trustees in November 2015.

    Former U.S. deputy secretary of defense John J. Hamre has served as the Center’s president

    and chief executive officer since 2000.

    CSIS does not take specific policy positions; accordingly, all views expressed herein should

    be understood to be solely those of the author(s).

    © 2016 by the Center for Strategic and International Studies. All rights reserved.

    ISBN: 978-1-4422-5961-4 (pb); 978-1-4422-5962-1 (eBook)

    Center for Strategic & International Studies Rowman & Littlefield

    1616 Rhode Island Ave nue, NW 4501 Forbes Boulevard

    Washington, DC 20036 Lanham, MD 20706

    202-887-0200 | www . csis . org 301 - 459 - 3366 | www . rowman . com

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  • III


    v List of Tables and Figures

    vii Acknowl edgments

    viii Introduction

    ix Executive Summary

    1 CHAPTER 1 | Demand for U.S. Amphibious Forces

    1 Warfighting Requirements

    2 COCOM Presence and Crisis Response Requirements

    10 CHAPTER 2 | Supply of U.S. Amphibious Forces

    10 The Amphibious Fleet: Historical Trends

    13 Force Generation

    15 Force Allocation

    16 The Amphibious Fleet of Today and Tomorrow

    20 Alternative Platforms

    23 Connectors

    24 Bud get Constraints: Effects on Amphibious Capacity

    27 CHAPTER 3 | Pacific Allies and Partners: Amphibious Capabilities and Development

    27 Australia

    31 India

    34 Japan

    38 The Philippines

    41 Republic of Singapore

    43 South Korea

    47 CHAPTER 4 | Assessment of U.S., Ally, and Partner Amphibious Capabilities

    50 Assessing Amphibious Capability

    54 Country Assessments

    70 Implications for the United States

    73 CHAPTER 5 | Meeting the Demands

    73 Options for Pro cess and Orga nizational Adjustments

    77 Options for Force Structure Changes

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  • ContentsIv

    89 CHAPTER 6 | Recommendations

    89 Short Term

    90 Mid- Term to Long Term

    92 Appendix 1. Categories of Amphibious Vessels

    94 Appendix 2. Description of Cost- Analy sis Tool

    95 About the Authors

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  • v

    List of Tables and Figures


    30 3.1. Australian Amphibious Platforms

    33 3.2. Indian Amphibious Platforms

    37 3.3. Japa nese Amphibious Platforms

    40 3.4. Philippine Amphibious Platforms

    42 3.5. Singaporean Amphibious Platforms

    45 3.6. South Korean Amphibious Platforms

    55 4.1. Assessment of USMC ARG/MEU

    57 4.2. Assessment of USMC SP- MAGTF- CR

    58 4.3. Assessment of Australian Amphibious Capability

    60 4.4. Assessment of Indian Amphibious Capability

    62 4.5. Assessment of Japanese Amphibious Capability

    64 4.6. Assessment of Philippine Amphibious Capability

    66 4.7. Assessment of Singaporean Amphibious Capability

    68 4.8. Assessment of Republic of Korea Amphibious Capability

    79 5.1. Options for Force Structure Changes


    4 1.1. Distances between Key Locations in the Asia Pacific

    7 1.2. MEU Crisis Responses in PACOM: 2000–2012

    11 2.1. Amphibious Fleet Hulls and Tonnage: 1975– Pres ent

    12 2.2. Average Displacement per Ship: 1975–2015

    13 2.3. Amphibious Force as a Percentage of Total Fleet: 1975–2015

    17 2.4. Amphibious Ship Presence Relative to COCOM Request: FY2008–2015

    18 2.5. Amphibious Force and Lift Requirement: FY2016–2045

    19 2.6. Amphibious Force as a Percentage of Total Fleet: FY2016–2045

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  • Tables and FiguresvI

    70 4.1. Demand for U.S. Capabilities in Combined Operations— All Assessed Countries

    71 4.2. Demand for U.S. Capabilities in Likely Combined Operations

    78 5.1. Added Capability across the Range of Military Operations— L- Class Options

    78 5.2. Added Capability across the Range of Military Operations— E/T- Class Options

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  • vII

    Acknowl edgments

    This study began under the direction of Dr. Maren Leed, se nior adviser for the Harold Brown Chair

    in Defense Policy Study, and supported by her research team— Jaimie Hoskins, Alvaro Genie,

    Christine Wilkins, and Hyo Sung Joo. When Dr. Leed became special assistant to the chief of naval

    operations, the study lead transitioned to Dr. Kathleen Hicks and the current study team. The

    authors would like to thank Dr. Leed and the Brown Chair team for their significant early contribu-

    tions to this report. Likewise, the authors are grateful for the invaluable research support provided

    by Amber O’Rourke, David Hookey, and Zachary White throughout the course of this study.

    The authors would also like to thank the following people for sharing their time and insights as the

    study unfolded: Col o nel Anthony “Ché” Bolden, Col o nel Peter Farnum, Eric Labs, Grant Newsham,

    Jonathan Geithner, Frank Hoffman, and numerous officials and officers from within the United

    States and in ally or partner nations. This study has been improved by insights from those noted

    here, but the content and recommendations presented— including any mistakes— remain solely

    those of the authors.

    Fi nally, the study team is grateful to Huntington Ingalls Industries (HII), which sponsored this work

    seeing the value in growing general knowledge of amphibious capabilities across the broader

    defense community. The team is deeply appreciative of HII’s re spect for our intellectual in de pen-

    dence at each step along the way.

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  • Introduction

    This study reflects a desire to better understand how investments in amphibious capabilities by

    numerous allies and partners across the Asia- Pacific region would affect the requirements for the

    amphibious forces of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps. The study’s focus on the Asia- Pacific region

    is spurred by the sizable investments that have been made across the region to acquire new

    amphibious capabilities and to improve capabilities that currently exist.

    With that as a starting point, the study had two goals: first, to evaluate the effects of growing

    amphibious capability in the Asia- Pacific region on demand for U.S. amphibious assets, and sec-

    ond, to assess the policy and resource implications of vari ous strategies to meet that demand. This


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