COURSE: STM 502RESEARCH METHODOLOGYUNIT VFormats of Res Report, writing thesis/dissertation, research articles, abstracts, literature review, materials and methods, results and discussion, summary and references(1+1)REPORT WRITINGReport writing is an essential skill for professionalsA report aims to inform - clearly and sufficientlyease to read, presented professionally
Report vs EssayBoth Need :-formal styleintroduction, body and conclusionanalytical thinkingcareful proof-reading and neat presentation.Report vs Essay .. Contd..DifferencesReport presents information, not an argumentReport is meant to be scanned quickly by the reader
Report vs Essay .. Diffs..Contd..Report uses numbered headings and sub-headingsReport uses short, concise paragraphsReport uses graphics wherever possible (tables, graphs, illus.)Report may need an abstract
Differ. ContdMay not always need references/bibliographyReport is often followed by recommendationsAnnexure/Appendices added at the end of the reportSections to be included in a ReportTitle pageTable of contentsList of abbreviations and/or glossaryExecutive summary/abstractIntroduction
Sections contdBody (contents depends)ConclusionRecommendationsBibliographyAnnexure/Appendices (that to supplement the Report/Body like Questionnaire/Interview Schedule/Tables/Maps etc)
BodyContents of the Body depends on the purpose/ type of the report- generally are of two types 1.primary res. report2.secondary research rep.Body Contd
Primary ResearchBased on your own observations and experimentsExampleTitle/Subject/Type of Experiment
Need and Strategies for marketing Kerala as a Tourist Destinationreport of which can be published as an article after primary research
Body..ContdPrimary Res..Example Contd.Dynamics of Management Theories Evolved during Information Age in contrast /comparison /relation /continuation with Industrial Agewhich can be taken up for PhD Research and reported as ThesisBody of these two examples varies in length, scope, coverage, etc.
Report ofprimary research would includeLiterature review (what other people have written about this topic) that should lead towards your research questionMethod (summarizes what you did and why)(Use the past tense)
Report ofprimary research. Contd.Findings or results (describes what you discovered, observed, etc, in your observations and experiments)
(Use the past tense)
Report ofprimary research. Contd Discussion (discusses and explains your findings and relates them to previous research)
(Use the present tense to make generalizations)
BodyContd Secondary ResearchBased on reading only Example:-Research Title such as1. Trace the development of Management Principles from Fayol to..2. Evaluate Traditional Fish Farming Practiced in KeralaReport of which can be made by reading many sources of information/ books/ documents that are generally given as mid-course assignmentsBody of the Report of Secondary Research would include Information organized under appropriate topics with sub-headings
Synthesize material from different sources under topic headings
Body of the Report of Secondary Research would include Contd.Analysis/ discussion/ Conclusion of the sources you are reporting
BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION= CITING INFORMATION SOURCESCITATION IS AN IMPOTANT PART OF THE REPORTS Primary, Secondary what ever..IT IS NOT NEW : STYLE DIFFERSVERY IMPORTANT:IPR etc
Citation ContdHAVE TO FOLLOW CERTAIN RULES ADOPTED/ PRESCRIBED BY MANUALS/UNIVERSITIES/INSTITUTIONS/ORGANIZATIONS/ EDITORS FOR ITS RENDERINGExample of citing the source in the body of the textSystem definition is not easy (Vickery and Vickery 1994). But a few who attempted, defined it as a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole, an integrated assembly of interacting elements, to carry out co-operatively a predetermined function (Cleland and King 1969 and 1972) and as a set of parts coordinated to accomplish a set of goals (Churchman 1968).BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATIONCITATIONS IN THE TEXT OF AN ARTICLE POINT TO THE ALPHABETICAL WORKS CITED LIST (BIBLIOGRAPHY) THAT APPEARS AT THE END OF THE PAPERCitation Contd..Broadly, acitationis areferenceto a published or unpublished sourceCitations should provide information that both identifies a source and allows that source to be located and retrieved againCITING REFERENCESRule 1 (ISO 690) :First Element & Date
ExampleSeafood was one of the first food types to be preserved by canning (Bitting , 1937)Examples ContdThe region of Cochin has the capacity to function as the fisheries information hub .(Jayapradeep and Raman Nair 2012a)
An institution specializing in Fisheries Informatics is needed for fisheries development . (Jayapradeep and Raman Nair 2012b)
Citing in Review of Literature SectionRajani et al (2001) estimated the combining ability of six genetically divergent parental strains of..
Korakandy (1998) outlined the biological, economic and social perspectives of developing recreational fisheries .Citing in Review of Literature Section Example ContdThe methodological study for measuring the demand for the value of outdoor recreation was made by Clawson(1959).
Citing References ContdRule 2 (ISO 690) : Numerical referencing
ExampleCitation analysis is used as an indicator of the impact, influence or quality of a scholarly work 8
Rule you may FollowRule 1* for Citation, unless stated by the Editor/ University/ Institute*Rule 1= First Element & DateEg : (Surname of Author, Year)(Bitting, 1937)
Purpose/Importance of Citation1.to upholdintellectual honesty (avoidingplagiarism)so that you dont violate/infringe Copy Right /IPR Laws2. to attribute prior works/ ideas/ theories/ principles to the correct/ original sources
Purposes/Importance..contd3.to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way, and to help the reader to gauge the strength and validity of the material the author has used(Means=Citing the authentic sources of information increase the authenticity, validity, authority of your report/arguments)REFERENCESREFERENCES IDENTIFY AND CREDIT THE SOURCES USED IN THE PAPER AND ALLOW OTHERS TO ACCESS AND RETRIEVE THAT MATERIAL
Therefore, References should contain all the entities to access that document - any time by any user, any reader
ReferencingExamples (of which cited above) Rule 1: First Element & DateBitting, A.W. 1937. The canning of fish. In: Appertizing or the Art of Canning-its history and development. Ed. Hall, H.P. California: Trade Pressroom. 1989, pp 784-852.Referencing: Examples. Contd..Cit: (Jayapradeep and Raman Nair, 2012a)Ref: Jayapradeep, M and Raman Nair, R. 2012a. Survey of Aquatic and Fisheries Information System capacity in the region of Cochin, Kerala. SRELS Journal of Information Management: 49 (5), (Oct 2012), p 74.Cit: (Jayapradeep and Raman Nair, 2012b)Ref: Jayapradeep, M and Raman Nair, R. 2012b. Need for Knowledge Management in Fisheries Sector: An area of cooperation among SAARC countries. In: Trends and Developments in Library and Information Science. Eds . Rishi Tiwari et al. New Delhi: Zenith Pub. 2012, pp 133-144.ReferencingExamples( Of that cited in Lit. Rev.)Cit: (Rajani et al, 2001)
Ref: Rajani, M.K. et al. 2001. Effect of Azotobacter and Azospirillum on the growth and yield of sesamum. Madras Agricultural Journal: 71(4),(Jan 2001),pp 26-29.Referencing Examples ContdRule 2: Numerical Reference cited in the textCit: .scholarly work8Ref: 8.Garfield , E. 1964. Science Citation Index- A new dimension in indexing. Science: 144 (3619).(Apr1998), pp 649-654.
Citation is the combination of:-1.the in-body citation and
the bibliographic entry as References
(ie., bibliographic entries by themselves are not Citation)
Citation Contd.3. To render it, one has to adopt /subscribe to any one of the accepted citation style/system4.syntactic conventions of such style/system are widely known and easily interpreted by readers
CITATION STYLE MANUALSSome of the generally accepted citations systems are: Oxford, Harvard, Chicago, MLA, APA etc. They are called Style manualsSTYLE MANUAL IS A SET OF STANDARDS FOR THE WRITING AND DESIGN OF DOCUMENTS, EITHER FOR GENERAL USE OR FOR A SPECIFIC PUBLICATION, ORGANIZATION OR FIELD
Citation systems Contd..Each of these citation systems has its respective advantages and disadvantages relative to the trade-offs of being informative Styles are chosen relative to the needs of the type of publication being craftedSTYLE MANUALSMLA (Modern Language Assoc)Style ManualALA (American Lib Assoc)Chicago University Style ManualOxford Harvard Vancouver APA (American Psychological Assoc)ASA (American Sociological Association)Style Manuals ContdAMA (American Medical Assoc) IEEE (Inst. Of Elect& Electro. Eng)MHRA(Modern Humanities Res Assoc)OSCOLA (Oxford Std for Citation of Legal Authority) TURABIAN MICROSOFT
ISO 690(Citation Standards)ENTITIES OF A REFERENCE ENTRY AUTHOR.DATE.TITLE.SOURCE.(Place: Publisher. Year, Inclusive Pages.)
REFERENCINGBasic Format- always uniform and standardized
But its rendering differsaccording to the sources viz. book, edited book, journal, proceedings, e-journal, web, CD-ROM, Digital Archives/ Repositories, ETDs etcRendering of the First Element:ExamplesOne AuthorModi, NarendraTwo Authors Gandhi, M.K. and Nehru, J.N.Three Authors Putin, V., Gandhi, M.K.and Nehru, J.N.More than three authors Putin, Vladimir et al.Rendering First Element.. ContdCorporate Author eg: Government of India
No Author eg: Pearsons Guide to Test of Reasoning
Monograph (book)Basic Format: Author (s). Date. Title, Edition Statement if any. Place: Pub. Yr, Incl page.
Cit: (Churchman, 1996)Ref Entry:Churchman, C. West. 1996. The Systems Approach, 2 ed. New York: Delacorte Press. 1996, p.29.Cit: (Mauch and Birch, 1998)Ref Entry:Mauch, E. James and Birch, W. Jack. 1998. Guide to the successful Thesis and Dissertation. New York: Marcel Dekker. 1998, p 331.Edited /Compiled BookBasic FormatChapter Author. Date. Chapter Title. In: Book Title. Ed. Editor Name. Place: Publisher. Year, Inclusive pages.Cit: (Turner and Gibson, 1980)Ref:Turner, G.L. and Gibson, A.H. 1980. Measurement of nitrogen fixation by direct means. In: Methods for Evaluating Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Eds. Bergersen, F.J. and Charles, M.K. New York: John Wiley. 1980, pp 111-118.Edited /Compiled Book Contd..Cit: (Jayapradeep and Raman Nair, 2012)
Ref: Jayapradeep, M and Raman Nair, R. 2012. Need for Knowledge Management in Fisheries Sector-An area of cooperation among SAARC countries In: Trends and Developments in Library and Information Science. Eds. Rishi Tiwari et al. New Delhi: Zenith Pub. 2012, pp 133-144.
Handbooks/Guides/ManualsCit: ( Atherton, Ed,1977)Ref:Atherton, P. (Ed). 1977. Handbook of Information Systems and Services. Paris: UNESCO. 1977, p188.
Cit: (Bernus, Mertins and Schmidt, Eds,2006)Ref: Bernus, P., Mertins, K., and Schmidt, G. (Eds). 2006. Handbook on Architectures of Information Systems, 2 ed. London: Springer. 2006, p 543.
Official MethodsBasic Format: Official Document. Yr. Method No. Title. In: Cit: (AOAC, 1998)Ref: AOAC. 1998. Method 934.06. Moisture in dried fruits. In: Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 16 ed. Maryland: AOAC International. 1998, p 790.PROCEEDINGS Basic FormatAuthor of the article. Date. Title of the article. In: Title of the Proceedings . Ed. Place of Pub: Pub. Year, pp Cit: (Girish Kumar and Jayapradeep, 2013)Ref:Girish Kumar,T and Jayapradeep, M. 2013. Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) initiatives to provide open access to public funded research in India. In: Proceedings of the National Conference of Agricultural Librarians and User Community-2012, 16-17 Mar 2012. Eds. Veeranjaneyalu et al. Hyderabad: ANGRAU. 2013, pp 48-65.Thesis/DissertationBasic FormatAuthor. Date. Title. Name of Degree of Thesis/Dissertation. Dept/School. Name of the University, HQs Location of the Uty, Total Pages.Cit: (Jayapradeep, 2014)Ref:Jayapradeep, M. 2014. Fisheries Information Resources and Services in India: An Evaluation Study. PhD Thesis. Dept of Library and Information Science. Karpagam University, Coimbatore, p 450.Journal Article Basic Format: Author(s). Date. Title of the article. Title of the Journal. Vol(Iss).(Month/Yr), Inclusive pages.Cit: (Jayapradeep and Raman Nair, 2012)Ref:Jayapradeep, M. and Raman Nair, R. 2012. Survey of Aquatic and Fisheries Information System capacity in the region of Cochin, Kerala. SRELS Journal of Information Management. 49 (5). (Oct 2012), pp 120-138.
ExamplescontdMagazineCit: (Reddy, 2014)Ref:Reddy, G.P.R.S. Corporate India. Kottayam: The Week-News Magazine. 28 (8).(15 Aug 2014), pp 21-25.ExamplescontdNewspaper (News, Article, Editorial)Cit: (The Times of India, Date)Ref:The Times of India.16 Aug 2014. Independence Day celebrated in Delhi-News. Kochi: The Times of India (Daily), p1.Mehta, N. and Majumdar, B. 19 Sep 2014. Soft Power, Hard Battles. Kochi: The Times of India (Daily). p10.The Times of India. 19 Sep 2014. Dragon tango-Editorial. Kochi: The Times of India (Daily), p10.
Government DocumentsIf no writer, cite the govt. agency issued the document
Cit: (Government of India, 2014)Ref: Government of India. 2014. Economic review 2012-13. New Delhi: Planning Commission. 2014, pp 210-212.Tech Bull/ReportsBasic Format- Author. Date. Title. Bull No. if any. Place of pub: Publisher. Year, pp.
Cit: (CIBA, 2002)If Abbr used, Ref Entry also in Abbr, Fully Expanded as Publisher.Ref:CIBA. 2002. Traditional system of brackishwater aquaculture of Kerala. CIBA Bulletin No. 14. Chennai: Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture. 2002, pp 17-20.CD-ROMBasic Format- Source Title. Chapter Title.[ Media]. Version if any. Place of Pub: Pub, Year.Cit: (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2014)Ref:Encyclopaedia Britannica. Fish. [CD-ROM] Ver. 2.0.London:Helen Hemingwy Benton, 2014.ONLINE SOURCESShould include the medium of publication (Web/Online), complete address and the date the content was accessed so as to serve the purpose of CitationReference to Online works require more information than references to print sourcesCurrently few standards govern referencing of online publications
One Author Web SourceCit: (Vinkler, 2012)Ref:Vinkler, P. 2012. Bibliometric analysis of publication activity of a scientific research institute. [Online]. Available at http://uhdspace.uhasselt.be/dspace/handle/1942/869. (Accessed on 18 Aug 2014)Corporate Web SourceCit: (FAO, 2013)Ref:FAO. 2013. Statistics. Capture production 1950-2011. Rome: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department.[Online]. Available at http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/en (Accessed on 11 Aug 2014)
Corporate/Govt Web SourcesContdGovernment of Kerala....