Construction Safety Handbook

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    Construction

    SafetyHandbook

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    Construction Saety Handbook

    PERSONAL INFORMATION

    All reasonably practicable steps in accordance to sae and soundpractices must be taken to ensure workplace health, saety and

    welare o all personnel during every phase o construction.

    Name:

    Designation:

    Company:

    Contact No:

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    All rights reserved. This publication is not or commercial purposes.It is intended or the use o the Land Transport Authoritys ofcers

    and its Contractors. No part o this publication may be reproduced

    or transmitted in any orm or by any means, in part or whole, without

    the prior written permission o the Land Transport Authority.

    Copyright September 2012

    Land Transport Authority, Singapore

    Published by Land Transport Authority

    Enquires can be directed to LTA Safety Division

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    Construction Saety Handbook

    CONTENTS

    IntroductionConstruction Safety Indicators

    Risk Management

    Behavioural Based Safety (BBS)

    Confined Space

    Electrical InstallationsExcavations

    Fire Safety

    First Aid

    Hazardous Substances

    Housekeeping

    Ladders

    Lifting Operations

    Lockout Procedure

    Machinery Guarding

    Scaffolding

    Tunnelling

    Working At Height

    Works Train Operation

    Personal Protective Equipment

    References

    13

    5

    13

    17

    3343

    55

    67

    71

    77

    89

    93

    121

    127

    133

    149

    157

    163

    173

    183

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    Construction Saety Handbook

    Some o the subsidiary regulations o WSH Act which are applicableto the construction industry are as ollows :

    WSH (General Provisions) (Amendments) Regulations 2011

    WSH (Construction) Regulations 2007

    WSH (Incident Reporting) Regulations 2006

    WSH (First Aid) (Amendment) Regulations 2011

    WSH (Medical Examinations) Regulations 2011

    WSH (Risk Management) Regulations 2006

    WSH (Explosives Powered Tools) Regulations 2009

    WSH (Conned Spaces) Regulations 2009

    WSH (Operations o Cranes) Regulations 2011

    WSH (Scaold) Regulations 2011

    This revised Construction Saety Handbook aims to provide project

    teams, contractors and consultants a better understanding and

    emphasis o the updated WSH regulations, LTAs Saety & Health

    requirements and encourage sae work practices in construction

    sites.

    INTRODUCTION

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    Accident Frequency Rate (AFR) :

    Accident Severity Rate (ASR) :

    X 1,000,000

    X 1,000,000

    No o MOM Reportable Accident

    Manhours Worked

    No o Mandays lost due to

    MOM Reportable Accident

    Manhours Worked

    CONSTRUCTION SAFETY INDICATORS

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    This page is intended to be let blank.

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    Risk

    Management

    Construction Saety Handbook

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    RISK MANAGEMENT

    WSH (Risk Management) Reg. 4 :The employer, sel-employed person and principal shall take all

    reasonably practicable steps to eliminate any oreseeable risk

    to any person who may be aected by his undertaking in the

    workplace.

    Where it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate the risk, theemployer, sel-employed person or principal shall implement :

    a) such reasonably practicable measures to minimise the risk; and

    b) such sae work procedures to control the risk.

    The measures may include all or any o the ollowing :

    a) substitution;

    b) engineering Control;

    c) administrative Control;

    d) provision and use o suitable personal protective equipment.

    Note: Elimination o hazards should take frst priority while use o PPEshould be the last line o deence.

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    HIERARCHY OF RISK CONTROL

    RISK MANAGEMENT

    1. Elimination

    2. Substitution

    3. Engineering

    Control

    4. Administrative

    Control

    5. PPE

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    RISK MANAGEMENT

    Step 3:Risk Control

    Step 2:Risk

    Evaluation

    Step 1:

    HazardIdentifcation

    Formulate control measures

    according to the Hierarchy o

    Controls

    Analyse and evaluate residual

    risks

    Evaluate the risk levels o the

    workplace hazards

    Prioritise the hazards to becontrolled

    Identiy hazards

    Identiy potential accidents orincidents

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    RISK MANAGEMENT

    WSH (Risk Management) Reg. 2 :A hazard means anything with the potential to cause bodily

    injury, and includes any physical, chemical, biological, mechanical,

    electrical or ergonomic hazard.

    A risk means the likelihood that a hazard will cause a specic

    bodily injury to any person.

    LTA General Specifcation :

    The Contractor shall identiy all saety critical activities using the

    risk matrix (please reer to next 2 pages) and ensure that a method

    statement is prepared or each activity and accepted by the

    Engineer beore commencement o such activities.

    Likelihood Rating Description

    Frequent I Likely to occur 12 times or more per year

    Probable II Likely to occur 4 times per year

    Occasional III Likely to occur once a year

    Remote IV Likely to occur once in 5 year project period

    Improbable V Unlikely, but may exceptionally occur

    Accident Frequency (LTA General Specifcation)

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    Consequences Rating DescriptionCatastrophic I Single or Multiple loss o lie rom injury or

    occupational disease, immediately or delayed;and/ or

    Loss o whole production or greater than 3days and/ or

    Total loss in excess o $1 million

    Critical II Reportable major injury1, occupational

    disease1 or dangerous occurrence; and/ or Damaged to works or plants causing delayso up to 3 days; and/ or

    Total loss in excess o $250,000 but up to $1million

    Marginal III Reportable injury2, occupational disease2;and/ or

    Damage to works or plants causing delays o

    up to 1 day; and/ or,Total loss in excess o $25,000 but up to$250,000

    Negligible IV Minor injury3, no lost time or person involvedreturns to work during the shit atertreatment; and/ or

    Damage to works or plants does not causesignicant delays; and/ or

    Total loss o up to $25,000

    RISK MANAGEMENT

    Note: (*) I more than one o the descriptions occurs, the severity ratingwould be increased to the next higher level. Applicable to item numbers2 and 3 only.1 For man-days lost greater than 7 days2 For man-days lost greater than 4 to 7 days3 For man-days lost greater than 1 to 3 days

    Accident Severity (LTA General Specifcation)

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    Risk Index Description Defnition

    A Intolerable Risk shall be reduced by whatever

    means possible.

    B Undesirable Risk shall only be accepted i urtherrisk reduction is not practicable.

    C Tolerable Risk shall be accepted subject todemonstration that the level o risk isas low as reasonably practicable.

    D Acceptable Risk is acceptable.

    RISK MANAGEMENT

    Risk CategoryAccident Severity Category

    I II III IV

    Catastrophic Critical Marginal Negligible

    Accident

    Frequency

    Category

    I Frequent A A A B

    II Probable A A B C

    III Occasional A B C C

    IV Remote B C C D

    V Improbable C C D D

    Risk Index Matrix (LTA General Specifcation)

    Defnition o Risk Index (LTA General Specifcation)

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    Sa

    etyandHealthHazard

    Log(LTAGeneralSpecif

    cation)

    F:Frequency(I=Frequent,II=Pro

    bable,III=Occasional,IV=Remote,V=Improbable)

    S:Severity(I=Catastrophic,II=Critical,III=Margial,IV=Negligible)

    R:RiskIndex(A=Intolerable,B=U

    ndesirable,C=Tolerable,D=Acceptable)

    RISK MANAGEMENT

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    BEHAVIOURAL BASED SAFETY (BBS)

    LTA General Specifcation :The Contractor shall implement a BBS programme based on the

    training provided by the Engineer. The BBS programme shall be

    approved by the Engineer beore implementation.

    The BBS programme shall include :

    a) conducting a Saety Culture Survey through questionnaires.

    The Contractor shall ensure that the Saety Culture Survey is

    conducted eectively and interpreters s