Construction of Clear Sentences and Paragraphs Teacher – Shahed Rahman.

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Construction of Clear Sentences and Paragraphs Teacher Shahed Rahman Slide 2 RULES !! CARE IN SENTENCE DESIGN CARE IN SENTENCE DESIGN 1.Using Short Sentences 2.Limiting Sentence Content 3.Economizing on Words 4.Determining Emphasis in Sentence Design 5.Giving the Sentences Unity 6.Arranging Sentences for Clarity CARE IN PARAGRAPH DESIGN CARE IN PARAGRAPH DESIGN 1.Giving Paragraphs Unity 2.Keeping Paragraphs Short 3.Making Good Use of Topic Sentences 4.Leaving out Unnecessary Details 5.Giving the Paragraphs Movement Slide 3 Adaptation Sentence should be adapted to readers less able to understand Use the simpler sentence structures for people who are less able to understand complex Use the more complex structures when appropriate You should aim a little below the level of your reader Simplification is best for all reader Simplification is best for all reader Slide 4 Using Short Sentences Readers are busy Readers are busy &gt; Writing efficient you saving their time Short sentences communicate better because of mind limitations Short means 16 - 18 words for middle level readers. But the excessive use of short words in also bad. Slide 5 Limiting Sentence Content Limiting content is one way to make short sentences Selecting thought units and making separate sentences Dont - when thoughts are closely related you want to deemphasize on the content Avoid overdoing this suggestion. Remember too many short sentences give a choppy effect Slide 6 Economizing on Words Another way to shorten sentences is through word economy Seek shorter ways of saying things Some suggestions: Cluttering Phrases Surplus Words Roundabout Constructions Unnecessary Repetition of Words or Idea Slide 7 Cluttering Phrases Avoid cluttering phrases Substitutes shorter expressions Example Now At the present time &gt;&gt; Now Meanwhile In the mean time &gt;&gt; Meanwhile Soon In the near future &gt;&gt; Soon By On the basis of &gt;&gt; By Slide 8 Surplus Words Eliminate Surplus Words Eliminate words that add nothing to sentence meaning We often use meaningless words as a matter of habit that are of the executive type Example He ordered a desks that are of the executive type ----- He ordered executive type desks There are four rules There are four rules that should be observed Four Rules should be observed Slide 9 Roundabout Constructions Avoid round about ways of saying things You can say direct or the same ground in a roundabout way. Direct always communicates better came in contact withhe criticized everyone he met. Example He criticized everyone he came in contact with &gt;&gt; he criticized everyone he met. can be observed to be decreasing The department budget decreases each year The department budget can be observed to be decreasing each new year Unnecessary Repetition of Words or Ideas Repeat words only for effect and emphasis that that He stated that he believes that we are responsible &gt;&gt; He stated that he believes we are responsible together morning We must assemble together at 10:30 am in the morning &gt;&gt; We must assemble at 10:30 am Slide 11 Determining Emphasis in Sentence Design ( Importance You should give every item its due emphasis ( Importance ) Short sentences emphasize contents Long sentences de-emphasize contents Determining emphasis is a matter of good judgment Example ( Equal Emphasis ) The company lost money last year. The loss occurred in spite of record sales. ( Equal Emphasis ) (Emphasis on the lost money) Although the company enjoyed the record sales last year, it lost money. (Emphasis on the lost money) ( Emphasis on the record sales ) The company enjoyed record sales last year, although it lost money. ( Emphasis on the record sales ) Slide 12 Giving the Sentence Unity All parts of a sentence should concern one thought Good sentence have unity Three causes of unity error Unrelated ideas Unrelated ideas Excessive details Excessive details illogical Constructions illogical Constructions Slide 13 Unrelated Ideas Placing unrelated ideas in one sentence violates unity Its not grammatically wrong You can avoid this error by Putting unrelated ideas in separate sentences Subordinating an ideas Adding word Adding word that shows relationship Mr Jordan is sales manager, and he has a degree in law Mr Jordan is our sales manager. He has a law degree. ( Separate ) Mr Jordan, Our sales manager, has a law degree ( Subordinating ) Slide 14 Excessive Detail Excessive details is another cause of lack of unity If the details important put it in a separate sentence This mean again using short sentence Slide 15 illogical Constructions Illogical construction can rob a sentence of unity ActivePassive Active and Passive voice in the same sentence can violate unity -First we cut prices, and then quality was reduced &gt;&gt;&gt; First we cut prices and then we reduced quality Slide 16 Arranging Sentences for Clarity Clear writing requires that you follow the established rules of grammar These rules are based on custom and logical relationships These rules are based on custom and logical relationships proof reading Do a proof reading Slide 17 CARE IN PARAGRAPH DESIGN Give the paragraphs Unity Give the paragraphs Unity (unity ) The contents of a paragraph should concern one topic or idea (unity ) But unity can vary in breadth. Paragraphs unity concern a narrow topic Keeping Paragraphs short Generally paragraphs should be short Short paragraphs show organization better than long ones Most readers prefer to read short paragraphs eight lines About eight lines is a good average length But length can vary with need Slide 18 CARE IN PARAGRAPH DESIGN Making Good Use of Topic Sentences Making Good Use of Topic Sentences Topic sentences can help make good paragraphs Not every paragraphs must have a topic Placement of the topic sentence depends on the writers plan Leaving out Unnecessary Detail Leaving out Unnecessary Detail In writing paragraphs, leave out unnecessary information matter of judgment But deciding what to include is a matter of judgment Slide 19 CARE IN PARAGRAPH DESIGN Giving the Paragraphs Movement Giving the Paragraphs Movement Good writing has movement Movement Movement is the writing quality that takes the reader towards the goal with a logical step without side trips and backward shifts. The progress is steadily forward Slide 20 Next Week Midterm Exam Please go through with the first three chapters. Make sure you read all the contents of the chapter </p>


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