Composition Dispensa

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UNIT 1: COMPOSITION WRITINGFEATURES OF THE MAIN TYPES OF COMPOSITION A composition is an organised piece of writing written for a specific purpose. It is characterised by:

COHERENCE - ideas/points should be arranged in a balanced, logical manner. COHESION - ideas/sentences/paragraphs should be linked togethersatisfactorily. CLARITY - points should be expressed clearly so that they are easily comprehensible to the reader CORRECTNESS - mistakes in grammar and spelling must be avoided

Every composition should have a recognisable INTRODUCTION, DEVELOPMENT (divided into PARAGRAPHS, each dealing with a particular aspect of the topic), CONCLUSION. Compositions can be roughly divided into four main types: 1 DESCRIPTIVE Typical development: from the general to the particular from outside to inside or vice versa different features of a particular thing, place, person contrasting positive and negative aspects 2 NARRATIVE Typical development: setting the scene, place, background, situation, earlier events, descriptive paragraph events in chronological order (what happened first, later, next, as a result, in the end, etc.) anecdotes Main tenses: Simple Past, Past Perfect, Past Continuous 3 ARGUMENTATIVE Typical development: comparing different opinions, pros and cons destroying an argument persuading "selling" a point of view 4 FACTUAL Typical development: comparing past and present cause and effect differences between one place and another increase and decrease trends

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N.B. Most compositions are a mixture of the above types and their features.

A MODEL ESSAY Points to note: o the use of pairs of words and pairs of ideas o contrasting points o how paragraphs / points are linked o adding detail to support a point o use of repetition to reinforce a point o use of generalisation o use of the pronoun you o focusing on what to do rather than what not to do The Successful Interview Introduction To be successful in a job interview (or for that matter in almost any interview situation), you should demonstrate certain personal and professional qualities. You need to create a good image in the limited time available, usually from 30 to 45 minutes. Furthermore, you must make a positive impression which the interviewer will remember while he or she interviews other applicants. At all times, you should present your most attractive qualities during an interview. Paragraph 1 (Dress) TASK: Complete the sentences with the phrases below. Clothes which are too elaborate, It may not be true that On the other hand, On the positive side, The right clothes You should, for example, (1)....................................................................................................... take care to appear well-groomed and modestly dressed, avoiding the extremes of too elaborate or too casual attire. (2)....................................................................................................... clothes may be a good leveller, putting you on a par with other applicants and requiring the interviewer to consider more important qualifications. (3)............................................................................. clothes which are too informal may convey the impression that you are not serious about the job or that you may be casual about your work as well as your dress. (4).......................... .......................................................................... too colourful, or too expensive suggest that you do not understand what behaviour is appropriate for the job or that you are snobbish or frivolous. (5)....................................................................................................... worn at the right time, however, gain the respect of the interviewer and his confidence in your judgement. (6).......................................................................................................

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clothes make the man,' but the first and often lasting impression of you is determined by the clothes you wear. Paragraph 2 (Way of speaking, keywords: clear voice, friendly, pleasant) TASK: Complete the text by adding a, an or the where necessary. Besides (1)....................................... care for (2)....................................... personal appearance, you should pay (3)....................................... close attention to your manner of speaking. Since (4)....................................... speech is (5)....................................... reflection of (6)....................................... personality, you should reflect confidence by speaking in (7)....................................... clear voice, loud enough to be heard without being aggressive or overpowering. Your speech should not call (8)....................................... attention to itself, but it should reveal (9)....................................... individuality and ability of (10)....................................... speaker. Obviously, you must speak without (11)....................................... grammatical or dialect differences for which you might be criticised or which might cause (12)....................................... embarrassment to (13)....................................... employer. Although there are (14)....................................... cultural differences with respect to (15)....................................... formality of (16)....................................... job interview, your speech must show you to be (17)....................................... friendly and pleasant person. Paragraph 3 (What you say, keywords: knowledge, experience, understanding) TASK: Complete the paragraph putting one suitable word in each gap. Speaking without a subject worth talking about will (1)....................................... impress anyone. You should be prepared to talk knowledgeably about the requirements of the position for (2)....................................... you are applying in relation to (3)............................... own professional experiences and interests. Knowing something about the position enables you to (4)....................................... intelligent questions about the work and the requirements for the job. The interviewer can decide from the questions asked (5)....................................... you are genuinely interested or knowledgeable. You can comment (6)....................................... your own training, experience, and other qualifications in relation to the specific tasks of the position. The interviewer can determine whether your background and potential seem to fit the position. The position for which you are applying is not (7)....................................... the safest topic for discussion, it is (8)....................................... the best way to demonstrate your understanding of the requirements of the job and your abilities in meeting these requirements. Paragraph 4 (Attitude to the job, keywords: self-confidence, eagerness, enthusiasm) TASK: Complete the paragraph with nouns from the list. Four are distracters. facilitations/ comments / requests / dressing / enthusiasm / facilities / interest / papers / payment / qualities / questions / salary / excitement Finally, to be really impressive you must convey a sense of self-confidence and (1)................................................. for work. As already indicated, you demonstrate self-confidence by your manner of speech and way of

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(2)................................................. . You further show it by being prepared for the interview with information and (3)................................................. about the position. In addition, the way you enter the room, sit, look at the interviewer, and fill out application forms and other (4)................................................. may express self-confidence. The eagerness with which you discuss the job rather than the (5)................................................. may reveal your enthusiasm for work. You may express it also through your questions and (6)................................................. about working conditions and (7)................................................. . And, of course, your previous experience and success will tell the interviewer about your enthusiasm for work. Both of these (8)................................................. - selfconfidence and enthusiasm for work - are valued highly by all interviewers. Conclusion The appropriately dressed job applicant indicates his sound judgement. His manner of speaking suggests his friendliness and competence. His curiosity and information about the position he is seeking demonstrate his sincerity and potential in the job. He exhibits self-confidence through his knowledge, and he shows his enthusiasm for work. If you display these characteristics, with just a little luck, you will certainly succeed in the typical personnel interview.

PRACTISING LINKING DEVICESEXERCISE 1 Complete the sentences with an appropriate word or phrase. 1. When Joshua saw his grandfather take off his hat, he did ........................................ 2. ........................................ you make a good impression at the interview, you stand a good chance of being offered the job. 3. The summers in this part of Canada are usually warm and dry; ........................................, the winters are very severe. 4. The island can be reached by helicopter, ........................................, you can get there by walking across the sands at low tide. 5. In primitive tribes it is fairly common for men to have more than one wife ........................................ the opposite is not the case. 6. I couldn't get the parrot to talk, ........................................ hard I tried.

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7. ........................................ you look, you can see traces of the damage done by man to the env