COMPENDIUM OF PATENT STATISTICS 2008 - Compendium of Patent Statistics 2 ... about patent data used in the context of ST ... Internationalisation of patenting activity by technology

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  • COMPENDIUM OF PATENT STATISTICS

    2008

  • 2008 Compendium of Patent Statistics

    2

    OECD 2008

    ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    The OECD is a unique forum where the governments of 30 democracies work together to address the economic, social and environmental challenges of globalisation. The OECD is also at the forefront of efforts to understand and to help governments respond to new developments and concerns, such as corporate governance, the information economy and the challenges of an ageing population. The Organisation provides a setting where governments can compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practice and

    work to co-ordinate domestic and international policies.

    The OECD member countries are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Commission of the European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD.

    OECD 2008

  • 2008 Compendium of Patent Statistics

    3 OECD 2008

    FOREWORD

    The OECD Compendium of Patent Statistics 2008 provides a snapshot of the latest available internationally comparable data on patents. The patent indicators presented in this compendium are specifically designed to reflect recent trends in inventive activities across a wide range of OECD member and non-member countries.

    Patent-based statistics reflect the inventive performance of countries, regions and firms, as well as other aspects of the dynamics of the innovation process (e.g. co-operation in innovation or technology paths). Patent indicators, along with other science and technology indicators, thus contribute to our understanding of the innovation system and the factors that support economic growth. For example, using the inventors address, indicators can be developed to monitor the internationalisation of (and international collaboration in) science and

    technology (S&T) activities. Patent indicators are also affected by patent laws and the patenting strategy of firms, and therefore need to be interpreted carefully.

    Statistics reported in this compendium differ from data published in other sources, such as patent office data. This is mainly due to methodology. The OECDs patent indicators are designed to reflect inventive activity, whereas patent data presented in the annual reports of patent offices are intended to reflect their own activity and are primarily for administrative purposes (e.g. budget planning).

    The OECDs work in the area of patents is not limited to the development of patent indicators; efforts are also made to develop methodologies and guidelines for compiling and interpreting patent indicators, and to improve accessibility of such information for users. Within this framework, the OECD will soon publish the 2008 Patent Manual, an in-depth revision of the first edition released in 1994. The new manual aims to provide basic information about patent data used in the context of S&T measurement, construction of indicators of technological activity, and guidelines for the compilation and interpretation of patent indicators in this context.

    The 2008 edition of the OECD Compendium of Patent Statistics is the seventh in an annual series, in a

    continuing effort to provide new or improved patent indicators for international comparisons. Extended use was made of the Worldwide Statistical Patent Database (October 2007) of the European Patent Office (EPO) and REGPAT, a new OECD database on patents by region (May 2008). A series of new indicators was devised to report patenting activities in key technology fields such as nanotechnologies, environmental technologies and patenting by industries. Patenting activity by region is detailed in the first two sections of this document. The electronic version, together with spreadsheets containing the data used in charts and graphs, is available on the OECD patent statistics web site:

    www.oecd.org/sti/ipr-statistics

    The results presented in this compendium reflect the efforts of the OECD, the EPO and the OECD task force on patent statistics to improve the quality and availability of patent statistics for researchers and policy makers. The OECDs patent statistics task force includes representatives from Eurostat, the EPO, the Japan Patent Office (JPO), the US National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). OECD activity on patent statistics benefited notably from strong support from the JPO.

    This edition was prepared by Hlne Dernis of the OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry (DSTI), with contributions from Dominique Guellec and Maria-Pluvia Zuniga-Lara, also of DSTI.

    www.oecd.org/sti/ipr-statistics

  • 2008 Compendium of Patent Statistics

    4

    OECD 2008

    HIGHLIGHTS

    After the surge in patenting in the 1990s, the increase in patent applications slowed at most patent offices in the early 2000s. Both the number of triadic patent families (patents taken at the EPO, the USPTO and the JPO to protect the same invention) and the number of patent applications filed under the Patent Co-operation Treaty (PCT) increased respectively by 3% and 6% a year on average between 2000 and 20051. National patent offices report similar trends, with the notable exception of China, where the number of filings grew at an average pace of 22% a year over the last ten years.

    The United States, Japan and the European Union2 demonstrate similar inventive performance, contributing to almost 90% of total triadic patent families in 2005. Patenting activity is concentrated in a set of countries (e.g. the United States, Japan, Germany, Korea, France and the United Kingdom). However, patenting intensity is skewed: Japan has the highest ratio of patent families per population, whereas the ratio is lower

    than the OECD average for the European Union.

    New indicators on patenting at the regional level show that patenting activity is even more highly concentrated than population in most OECD countries. In the United States, four regions out of 179 contributed to 34% of patents filed under the PCT by US residents in 2003-05 (and 12% of all PCT filings); these regions are located in California and the northeast. Over the same period, Tokyo led in the patenting of Japanese inventions (28%), and ranked as the most active region in PCT filings. The regions of Seoul and Gyeonggi-do in Korea ranked fifth in 2003-05. In the European Union, patenting activity is distributed between France (the Ile de France region), Germany (Stuttgart, Oberbayern), the Netherlands (Noord-Brabant) and the United Kingdom (South East of England).

    Analysing patenting activity at the regional level offers a different perspective, highlighting the technological strength of certain countries. Tokyo and the San Jose/San Francisco region in California are by far the leaders in ICT-related patenting, and the region of Noord-Brabant (in the Netherlands) contributes to the largest share of ICT patents amongst European Union countries. Most nanotechnology patents are due to American or Japanese residents from just a few regions. Seven regions of the United States are in the top ten for biotechnology patenting, along with two Japanese regions and Denmark. Denmark also took the largest number of patents in renewable energy technologies in 2003-05. German regions show their strength in patenting automobile equipment for reducing car emissions.

    Over 2003-05, 4% of all international applications were filed by universities. The proportion of patents owned by universities has increased markedly since the mid-1990s in a large number of countries, notably in Japan and some European countries (such as France, Ireland, Italy, Spain, etc.). The government sector owned less than 2% of all PCT filings. Almost 80% of patents originated from the private sector, and half of these related to high-technology industries in 2003-05.

    Data on international filings show an increase in the level of internationalisation and international collabora-tion in inventive activities. Among patents owned by Luxembourg, Chinese Taipei and Israel, a large majority concerned inventions made abroad. At the opposite end of the scale, Japan and Korea have far fewer inter-nationalised inventive activities. In 2003-05, nearly half of the patent portfolios of Belgium and Switzerland were the result of international co-inventions.

    Trends in patents filed to national/regional or international patent offices reflect to some extent the attractive-ness of countries. Patents are most frequently taken in the country of residence of the inventor (or applicant). Furthermore, patents filed by residents of the United States or the European Union in their own jurisdiction are more likely to be extended to other countries than JPO patents filed by Japanese residents. Chinese inventors tend to file for protection mainly in China; however, an increasing share of inventions protected on the Chinese market is due to foreign residents.

    1. Unless otherwise specified, all data reported in this compendium refer to the priority date (first filing date of a patent application worldwide). Due to delays in the publication of patent documents, although the data refer to priority year 2005, all indicators are based on data available up to mid-2008.

    2. European Union figures refer to the EU27.

  • 2008 Compendium of Patent Statistics

    5 OECD 2008

    TABLE