Communist Pigs

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The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of `display rules' was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others' feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of `display rules' was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others' feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of `display rules' was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others' feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of `display rules' was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others' feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of `display rules' was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others' feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of `display rules' was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others' feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of `display rules' was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others' feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess display rule usage in school-age children, as well as any variations related to age and gender. The information gained will have implications for research in child psychology, parenting and teaching, and also illuminate the effects of cultural and gender stereotypes on developing minds. The communication of emotional states between individuals is fundamental to the cohesion of human society. Of all the ways in which emotions are displayed, facial expressions and speech have been the focus of much psychological research, for they are the primary means by which voluntary emotional control can be perceived. It was from observations that the concept of `display rules' was formulated: a set of directives established and enforced by a culture that determine the acceptability of emotional expressions (Ekman & Friesen, 1975). Display rules can be grouped according to their function; the classification method employed by Gnepp & Hess (1986) delineates two major categories: Pro-social rules preserve others' feelings and support social norms (such as saying Thank you after being given a gift), while self-protective rules protect individuals from punishment and embarrassment, and bolster self-esteem (Misailidi, 2007). The objectives of this current study are to assess displ