Communist Manifesto Communist Manifesto “ A spectre is haunting Europe.......” all prior history - “ the history of class struggles’ ancient, medieval,

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Text of Communist Manifesto Communist Manifesto “ A spectre is haunting Europe.......” all prior history...

  • Communist Manifesto

    A spectre is haunting Europe.......all prior history - the history of class strugglesancient, medieval, modern reveal class strugglestruggle now focused on two antagonistic classes - bourgeoisie and proletariansbourgeoisie - product of revolutions in commerce, industry, global expansion of markets

  • BourgeoisieBourgeoisie has destroyed all earlier feudal relations - only cash nexus remains; brutal exploitationfamily, religion, law - all reflect exchange valuesconstant change in modes of production characteristic of bourgeois eraworld market created - globalization today?remake world in bourgeois image

  • Bourgeoisie and Propertyconcentration of property, means of production in hands of bourgeoisienew productive forces unleashed by Industrial Revolution undermined feudal political economyexcess in production, threat to bourgeoisie - solution: destroy productive forces; new marketsdevelopment of bourgeois dominated world gives rise to proletarians

  • Proletarianslaborers who sell themselves piece-meal - a commodity; an appendage of the machineincreasing exploitation of proletarian - diminishing wages; ever more miserable conditionslower middle class sucked down into proletariatstruggle begins against bourgeoisie - trade unions are formed

  • Proletarians - New Classproletarian legislative gains; enlightened elements of bourgeoisie join proletariat in their struggleproletariat now defined as a truly revolutionary classproletarian has been stripped of property, family, nationality. Law, morality, religion appear simply as bourgeois prejudicesproletarians now represent vast majority - revolution inevitable; bourgeoisie overthrown

  • Proletarians and Communistsbourgeoisie produce their own grave-diggerscommunists represent the international proletariatcommunists most advanced segment of the working class; their aim: seize political powercommunists desire to abolish bourgeois propertycapital is a collective product and must become a social power

  • Communism and Societycommunism abolishes the system where labor exists simply to increase capital - now labor widens and enriches the existence of laborerhuman person regains his/her sense of individuality - end to alienationlabor no longer subjugated to capitalbourgeois notions of law, culture, marriage, family, education, replaced by new communist mode of social relations

  • Communism and NationalityThe working men have no countryhostility between nations will cease as a consequence of proletarian victorymans consciousness changes with every change in the conditions of his material existenceideology reflects the dominance of the ruling classcommunism abolishes all eternal truths - radical rupture with traditional ideas

  • New Communist Worldall instruments of production centralized in Stateproperty, banks, land, transportation, factories,education - free for allworking class abolishes its own supremacy as a classstate will wither away

  • Reactionary Socialismfeudal socialism and petty bourgeois socialism rejected by Marx and Engelsbourgeois socialism - reformist. Socialism without revolution. a bourgeoisie without a proletariatMarx also rejects utopian socialism as represented by Saint-Simon, Fourier, and Owen - yet, critical elements shape consciousness of working classcommunists form alliances with progressive groups. Germany - bourgeois then proletarian revolution