COMBUSTION ENGINES

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COMBUSTION ENGINES. Activity 1. Read next text and decide whether the statements are true or false. Correct the false sentences. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of COMBUSTION ENGINES

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS DUE TO THE USE OF FOSSIL FUELS

COMBUSTION ENGINES1Activity 1TF1. A cars engine is an internal combustion engine.2. A steam engine is an internal combustion engine.3. A steam engine is an external combustion engine.4. A turbofan (plane engine) is an external combustion engine.

Read next text and decide whether the statements are true or false. Correct the false sentences.

Engines are machines that convert the energy stored in fuel into movement. They release the energy in fuel by combustion, that is, by burning it. This can take place outside the engine (external combustion) or inside the engine (internal combustion).

Correct answers:

TurbofanCar engineSteam engine 2Activity 1. ANSWERSTF1. A cars engine is an internal combustion engine.X2. A steam engine is an internal combustion engine.X3. A steam engine is an external combustion engine.X4. A turbofan (plane engine) is an external combustion engine.XRead next text and decide whether the statements are true or false. Correct the false sentences.

Engines are machines that convert the energy stored in fuel into movement. They release the energy in fuel by combustion, that is, by burning it. This can take place outside the engine (external combustion) or inside the engine (internal combustion).

Correct answers:

2. A steam engine is an external combustion engine.4.A turbofan (plane engine) is an internal combustion engine.

3Activity 2Read the following text and answer the questions: What is an Aeolipile? And how does it work?

A little bit of history:

Which was the first engine?

It is thought that steam engines were invented at about 350 years ago but, the Greek mathematician and engineer Hero of Alexandria worked with air pressure and steam to create rotary motion. Heron (c. 10 70 AD) built the Aeolipile that consists of a sphere on top of a water kettle. A fire below the kettle turns the water into steam forcing the gas to pass through pipes to the sphere. Two L-shaped tubes on opposite sides of the sphere allow the gas to escape, causing a rotation movement. This engine was not used very much in ancient Greece due to economic reasons (slaves did the hard work, and they were cheaper than burning wood) and because there were no practical uses for this device during the Old Greek Times.

Description:An Aeolipile is .An Aeolipile works

Heros Aeolipile

4Activity 3Hypothesising and making predictions.

Look at these sentences about hypothesising:

If I dont study, I will not pass the exam. (Future, certain) (If + verb in present will + verb). We say that if we do one thing, then it is sure that a second event will happen in the future. (We link a present action with a future outcome or result. This hypothetical sentence structure implies greater probability).Example: If a football team win all the matches, this team will win the league.

If I study this unit, I may/might/could pass the exam. (Future, possible) (If + verb in present modal verb (may/might/could) + verb). We say that if we do something, then it is possible that a second event will happen in the future. (In a hypothetical situation we link a present action with a possible future outcome. This hypothetical sentence structure implies less probability of the future outcome than the previous one (sentence 1)). Example: If I get marks of 10 my parents might buy me a motorbike.

If the teacher asked me about this question, I would pass the exam. (Future possible) (If + verb in past would + verb). We talk about possibilities, meaning that, in a hypothetical situation something would happen.Example: If I won the lottery, I would buy a new house.

If I had studied, I would have passed the exam. (Past, speculative) (If + verb in past perfect would + verb in present perfect). We talk about something (a past action) we cant change. If something was done differently in the past, then maybe the outcome would have been differently, but it is just a speculation.Example: If I had known that there was a party last night, I would have come.

5Write 4 sentences, one of each type, according to these situations:

Imagine that you are living in the 23rd century and there arent any oil reserves because in the 21 century all the oil reserves have been used up. What would you say now?

Imagine that the petrol tank in your car is empty and you have to drive from Barcelona to Madrid. You have to put petrol in your car because if not, you won take it (certain). What would you say?

You are imagining with your partner, about what would happen if you had a pilot licence (planes). You both decide that you would like to travel around the world. What would you say?

Imagine that you want to buy a new bicycle but you cant find the bicycle that you have chosen in any of the stores. Suddenly you see a new big sport shop. Maybe the bicycle is in this new shop. What would you say?6PREDICTINGI predict that will happen will happenIf happens, (then) will happenWhen happens, (then) will happenBecause happen, then will happenThis means that will happen will not happen, unless happens will not happen, if does not happenHYPOTHESISINGIf happens, will happen (future, certain)If happens, may/might/could happen (future, possible)If happened, would happen (future, possible)If had happened, would have happened (past, speculative, real events in the past)Unless happens, will not happenIf does not happen, will not happenAssuming happened, would happenWrite a composition (100 words)

Imagine our world if the Ancient Greeks had started to use the steam engine to build engines, cars, etc. How would our world be nowadays? How would our history have changed? What would have happened to our environment? What would have happened to fossil fuels? Do you think it would be possible to live on other planets? ...

You have to use hypothetical sentences. Look at activity 3 and the HELP below. You can use the HELP GENERAL GRAMMAR, as well.You can start the composition with the sentence:

If the Ancient Greeks had started to use the steam engines, I think nowadays the world would HELP: HYPOTHESISING AND MAKING PREDICTIONS.

After that, draw the imagined world (Activity 5)7Activity 6(Work in pairs) Read the text and underline key words with different colours: for instance steam engines in blue, steam turbines in red, piston engines in green, spark-ignition engines in black, compression-ignition engines in pencil, rotary engines, Wankel engine and gas turbines and jet engines with other colours, etc.8Activity 7(Work in pairs). Answer the following questions about the texts that appear in activity 1 and in activity 6. You can use the HELP below (next page):

What is an engine?Where were fossil fuels burned in a steam engine?What was the steam produced in a steam engine used for?Where was the steam engine used?Which is the general use of steam turbines?Why is the engine designed by Otto called a four-stroke engine?Who is thought to have invented the two-stroke engine?Write three differences between the Otto engine and the Diesel engine.Name two rotary engines.How does a gas turbine work?

9DEFINING..is (a)arewas/wereplacepersonthing, conceptdeviceinstrument, tool(where)(who)(which)(that)..RELATION CAUSE-EFFECT. GIVING REASONSas a resultbecausefor example, for instancesothat is whysuch asCOMPARING AND CONTRASTING (For differences)in contrastcompared with/in comparison with is different from (in that )on the one hand/on the other handhowever/otherwise differs from in respects: (firstly, secondly, finally,)from a different point of view/perspective10Activity 8Petrol car External combustion engines Compression-ignition engines Some motorbikesCombustion engines Steam engine Wankel engine Aircrafts Water Diesel carsSmoke Some Mazda cars Internal combustion engines Steam turbines Rotary enginesFour-stroke engine Steam train Piston engine (Reciprocating engine) Gas turbines & jet engines (G.T & Jet)Spark-ignition engines Electric train Two-stroke engine Electric power stations11Activity 8. ANSWERSCOMBUSTION ENGINESINTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINESEXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINESSTEAM TURBINESSTEAM ENGINEPISTON ENGINESSPARK-IGNITION ENGINESCOMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINESWANKEL ENGINE4-STROKE ENGINE2-STROKE ENGINESTEAM TRAINELECTRIC POWER STATIONSPETROL CARSOME MOTORBIKESDIESEL CARSSOME MAZDA CARSAIRCRAFTSROTARY ENGINESGT & JET12Activity 9(Work in pairs) Running dictation

We are going to talk about different steam engines used for the last 350 years. With your partner you have to decide who wants to write and who wants to dictate. Follow the instructions given by the teacher.

Student that has to dictate: Look around the classroom for the letter that matches your sheet (A, B, C or D). Read the information, memorise it, go quickly to your partner, and dictate the information that appears in your sheet. You are not allowed to move the sheet or to say out loud the information. You have to pay special attention to the words in bold.

Student that has to write: Write down all the information dictated by your partner.You have 20 minutes to finish the activity.INSTRUCTIONSWork in pairs.Assigned a letter A, B, C or D to each group.Each group must have a runner/reader and a writer.A different steam engine will be assigned to each group.First, the runner has to go around the room to find his or her steam engine.Second, the runner has to read the sentences committing them to memory. Students are not allowed to touch the paper, take the paper ba

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