COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT: STATUS OF BANGLADESH
Mishkat MarziyaM.S. 2010-2011Dept. of Geography & EnvironmentUniversity of DhakaE-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT: STATUS OF BANGLADESH
COASTAL ZONECoast is the zone of interaction between land and sea where both land & oceanic processes works. It is most dynamic, resourceful and disaster prone zone of any country. Coastal zone always include floodplains, mangroves, marshes, and fringing coral reefs.
COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENTCoastal zone management involves managing coastal areas to balance environmental, economic, human health, and human activities.CoastalManagement integrates the biological, physical, and policy sciences to plan and executesustainable solutionsfor environmental challenges where land meets water.
INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENTICZM is a process for the management of the coast using an integrated approach, regarding all aspects of the coastal zone, including geographical and political boundaries, in an attempt to achieve sustainability.It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary and iterative process to promote sustainable management of coastal zones. It covers the full cycle of information collection, planning (in its broadest sense), decision making, management and monitoring of implementation.
THE COASTAL ZONE OF BANGLADESHBangladesh has a difficult coastline with many rivers and distributaries and complex ecology which is affected by natural hazards like cyclones, coastal flooding, tidal surges, salinity and the like phenomenon. The coastline is of 734 km involving coastal and island communities of about 50 million people, nearly about one-third of the total population of Bangladesh.
The coastal areas of Bangladesh has been classified into two broad categories viz. interior coast and exterior coast.
THE COASTAL ZONE OF BANGLADESHDepending on the geomorphological features, coastal zones of Bangladesh can broadly be divided into the following three regions:The Eastern Region: Morphologically the eastern coastline of Bangladesh started from the big Feni river to Badar Mokam (southern tip of the mainland) along Chittagong can be classified as a Pacific Type" coast running parallel to the young (Tertiary) folded hill ranges.
The Central Region: This region begins from the Tebegins from the Tetulia river to the big Feni river estuary including the mouth of the Meghna river upto the confluence of the Padma (Ganges-Brahmaputra) and the Meghna river near Chadpur.
THE COASTAL ZONE OF BANGLADESH
The Western Region: The western region covers the coastline westward from the Tetulia River to the international boundary (India) located at the Hariabangha River. The region is mostly covered with dense mangrove forests with deeply scoured tidal channels of the tidal plain overlapping abandoned Ganges delta.
THE COASTAL ZONE OF BANGLADESH
WHY COASTAL ZONE IS NEEDED TO BE MANAGED?The coast of Bangladesh is prone to natural disasters like cyclone, storm surge and flood. The combination of natural and man-made hazards, such as erosion, high arsenic content in ground water, water logging, earthquake, water and soil salinity, various forms of pollution, risks from climate change, etc, have adversely affected lives and livelihoods in the coastal zone and slowed down the pace of social and economic developments in this region. Due to lack of appropriate guidelines for natural resource conservation and utilization, land use conflicts occur and the coastal zone turned into areas of major conflicts.
Moreover the local communities have been haphazardly utilizing these resources, resulting in complete destruction of some of them (e.g. Chakaria Sundarban mangrove forest), some being over-utilized (e.g. coastal shrimp farming, natural fish stock) while some other resources remain under-utilized (e.g. molluscs, seaweeds). Increasing population, competition for limited resources, natural and man-made hazards, lack of economic opportunities, important ecological hot spots, etc, calls for distinctive coastal management.
WHY COASTAL ZONE IS NEEDED TO BE MANAGED?
STATUS OF ICZM IN BANGLADESH
SCOPE ICZM IN BANGLADESHManagement of Coastal PeopleManagement of Coastal ResourcesManagement of Coastal EconomyManagement of Coastal EnvironmentSustainable Management of all above issues
Coastal Management IssuesPopulation GrowthInfrastructureDemand/Supply AnalysisAnalysis of OpportunityAnalysis of Challenges
ICZM KEY TO COASTAL DEVELOPMENT IN BANGLADESHThe goals of ICZM are:Economic GrowthPoverty Reduction & Social DevelopmentAchieving the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).Reduction of povertyDevelopment of sustainable livelihoods and the integration of the coastal zone into national processes can take place.
Inter-Sectoral Policy Linkages: For ICZM following policies has been reviewed:National Environment Policy (1992).National Tourism Policy (1992).National Forest Policy (1994).National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation (1998).National Fisheries Policy (1998).National Agricultural Policy (1999).Industrial Policy (1999).National Water Policy (1999).Draft National Land Use Policy (1999).Draft National Wetlands Policy (1998).All of these policies have clear implications for coastal development, but in most cases do not have specific sections on coastal areas and often fail to capture the distinctive combinations of vulnerabilities and opportunities that characterize the coast.ICZM KEY TO COASTAL DEVELOPMENT IN BANGLADESH
Coastal Planning ToolsAdministrativePolicy and LegislationCoastal Zoning Regulation an EnforcementSocialCustomary PracticeCommunity Based ManagementCapacity buildingTechnical EIARisk and Hazard ManagementResource Analysis: Demand/SupplyEconomic Analysis
Engineering Measures of ICZMProtection from StormProtection from Shoreline ErosionProtection of Coastal Water (Pollution/Salinity)Protection of Biodiversity
The ICZM process consists of three main components:A coastal zone policy;A coastal development strategy; andA priority investment programmeICZM KEY TO COASTAL DEVELOPMENT IN BANGLADESH
COASTAL ZONE POLICY (CZPo), (2005)The specific objectives of the Coastal Zone Policy are sharply focused on pro-poor growth with due considerations to environmental management and equity, as spelt out below:Economic growth.Meeting basis needs and creating livelihood opportunities for coastal communities.Reduction of vulnerabilities and enhancement of coping capacities.Equitable distribution of resources and economic benefits across social strata.Empowerment of coastal communities.Womens advancement and promotion of gender equality.Sustainable management of natural resources.Preservation and enhancement of critical ecosystems.
COASTAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (CDS), (2006)The CDS is the linking pin between the CZPo and concrete interventions. It prepares for coordinated priority actions and arrangements for their implementation through selecting strategic priorities and setting targets.The CDS is a targeted process and the targeting is identified with respect to:Regions (islands and chars, exposed coastal zone or districts; high tsunami risk area; South-West region);Disadvantaged groups (erosion victims, women and children, fisher and small farmers);Issues (shrimp culture, land zoning; groundwater management, climate change); andOpportunities (tourism, renewable energy, marine fisheries)
COASTAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (CDS), (2006)Nine strategic priorities, evolved through a consultation process, guides interventions and investments in the coastal zone:ensuring fresh and safe water availabilitysafety from man-made and natural hazardsoptimizing use of coastal landspromoting economic growthsustainable management of natural resourcesimproving livelihood conditions of people; especially womenenvironmental conservationempowerment through knowledge managementcreating an enabling institutional environment
PRIORITY INVESTMENT PROGRAM (PIP), (2004)The priority areas of investment program are:Mitigation of natural disasters, safety and protection.Environment management protection and regeneration of the environment.Water resources management.Rural livelihoods and sustainable economic opportunities for coastal communities.Productive economic activities and focused development of tourism and fisheries sector.Infrastructure development.Social development including health and nutrition, education, and water and sanitation.
KEY ACHIEVEMENTS OF COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENTHolistic definition of coastal zone provides guidelines for protection of water bodies and acquisition of land for non-productive use.Introduction of the concept of zoning as management.Coastal Embankment Rehabilitation Project (CERP) was launched after the cyclone of April 1991. CERP fostered the concept of polder management involving other stakeholders including the local community. Polders are now a natural feature of the coastal hydro-morphological setting. Now 123 coastal polders have >5000km of embankments.
KEY ACHIEVEMENTS OF COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENTThe Forest Department started coastal afforestation in 1966. Vast areas in newly accreted chars and islands were put under mangrove plantation with the help of the local people. Forest belt along the coast, Coastal Green Belt, has been instrumental in protecting life and property in coastal areas from cyclone and storm surges. Peoples participation in planning is ensured by this type of project.Institutionalization of integrated coastal management has been attempted in recent years through a number of initiatives. The Char Development & Settlement Project (CDSP), on-going since 1994, may be mentioned in this respect. As many as six GoB agencies are partners of CDSP. Together they have been able