Clun Castle Conservation Management Plan - Report

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Prepared by Headland Archaeology for English Heritage, Nov 2012


<p>CCCS10</p> <p>Clun Castle, Clun, ShropshireConservation Plan for English Heritage</p> <p>November 2012</p> <p>Clun Castle, Clun, ShropshireConservation Plan for English Heritage</p> <p>November 2012</p> <p>HA Job no.: CCCS10 HAS no.: 917 NGR: SO 29837 80941 Local authority: Shropshire Project Manager Authors Research Assistant Graphics Approved by Andy Boucher Luke Craddock-Bennett, Richard K Morriss, Andy Boucher &amp; Hilary Smith Lise Brekmoe Julia Bastek Andy Boucher Project Manager</p> <p>Headland Archaeology (UK) LtdMidlands &amp; West Headland Archaeology Unit 1, Premier Business Park, Faraday Road Hereford HR4 9NZ 01432 364 901</p> <p></p> <p>Headland Archaeology (UK) Ltd</p> <p>Clun Castle, Clun, Shropshire CCCS10</p> <p>Contents1.INTRODUCTION TO THE PLAN 2. CLUN: ITS SETTING &amp; OUTLINE HISTORY2 2 3 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 12 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 20 20 20 20 21</p> <p>3.THE CASTLE 4.THE STANDING BUILDINGS 4.1The Great Tower 4.2Perimeter Wall and Bastions 4.3The South-East Fragment 4.4The North-East Fragments 5.THE MAJOR EARTHWORKS 5.1The Motte 5.2The South Bailey 5.3The East Bailey 5.4The Pleasance 6.ARCHAEOLOGY AND HISTORIC BULDING RECORDING 7.ECOLOGY 7.1 Methodology7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4 7.2.5 7.2.6 7.2.7 Habitat types Shropshire Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) species Protected mammal species Other mammals Birds Amphibians and Reptiles Invertebrates</p> <p>7.2Results</p> <p>7.3Summary of significant nature conservation features 8.ASSESSMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE 8.1Evidential value8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.1.4 8.2.1 8.2.2 The standing structures Buried remains Documentary archives Ecological assets Associative Illustrative</p> <p>8.2Historical value</p> <p>8.3Aesthetic value 8.4 Communal value8.4.1 8.4.2 Commemorative and symbolic Social</p> <p>9.ASSESSMENT OF VULNERABILITY AND CONSERVATION NEEDS 9.1Summary of works to date 9.2 Current vulnerabilities9.2.1 9.2.2 9.2.3 Standing structures Earthworks Associated assets</p> <p>21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 29 57</p> <p>10.ASSESSMENT OF MANAGEMENT NEEDS 10.1 Marketing 10.2 Visitor information 10.3 Working with the community 10.4 Maintenance checks 11. CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE SITE 11.1Policies11.1.1 Evidential policies 11.1.2 Historical policies 11.1.3 Aesthetic policies 11.1.4 Communal policies</p> <p>12.SUMMARY LIST OF POLICIES 12.1Evidential 12.2Historical 12.3Aesthetic 12.4 Communal 13.RECOMMENDATIONS 13.1 Conservation 13.2Assessment of areas of erosion 13.3 Consider ways in which the grassland can be managed 13.4 Managing the Pleasance 13.5Improving access 13.6Improving publicity, presentation and interpretation 13.7Improved understanding 13.8 Centralisation of archives 14.REFERENCES 15.List of consultees 16. Gazetteer</p> <p>17.Appendices Appendix 1English Heritage internal documents Appendix 2Archives and sources</p> <p>57 57</p> <p>Headland Archaeology (UK) Ltd</p> <p>Clun Castle, Clun, Shropshire CCCS10</p> <p>List of illustrationsIllus 1 Illus 2 Illus 3 Illus 4 Illus 5 Illus 6 Illus 7 Illus 8 Illus 9Site location Clun Castle from the north-east (2004) Engraving by Samuel and Nathaniel Buck - 1731 Roque map of 1752 Baughs map of 1808 First Edition Ordnance Survey map - c.1820 Ordnance Survey map - 1883 Watercolour by Rev. Edward Williams 1791 Plan showing the layout of elements of the Castle The Great Tower c.1900 Interior of the Great Tower (1993) The Great Tower, interior of the northern elevation (1993) The Perimeter Wall and Bastions, eastern elevation (1993) North-eastern fragments (1993) The Motte and Great Tower, eastern elevation (1993) The South Bailey, looking south from the south-east fragment (1993) The Pleasance, looking west from the perimeter walls (2010) Grading of deposits within the Great Tower (1993) Archaeological recording of the Great Tower (1991) Staircase and floor of the Great Tower revealed during excavation (1990) Location map Ecology Clun Castle and The Pleasance (1950)</p> <p>x 2 3 5 5 5 6 7 8 9 9 9 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 16 18 19 21 22 23</p> <p>Illus 11</p> <p>Illus 10</p> <p>Illus 12 Illus 13 Illus 14</p> <p>Illus 15 Illus 16</p> <p>Illus 17</p> <p>Illus 20 Illus 18 Illus 19</p> <p>Illus 21</p> <p>Illus 22</p> <p>Illus 2325 Illus 26 Illus 27</p> <p>Elevation drawings of the Great Tower interior. City of Hereford Archaeology Unit, 1990 Repair of the wall tops (1992) Soft capping on the Great Tower Desire-lines, February 2011</p> <p>Illus 28a &amp; 28b</p> <p>Headland Archaeology (UK) Ltd</p> <p>Clun Castle, Clun, Shropshire CCCS10</p> <p>List of tablesTable 1 Table 2English Heritage archaeological work at Clun Castle Artistic impressions of the castle</p> <p>14 20</p> <p>Clun Castle Shropshire</p> <p>Site</p> <p>0</p> <p>100km329800 3300008</p> <p>A4 88</p> <p>281000</p> <p>F a ir F ieldA4 88</p> <p>422</p> <p>3</p> <p>B eryldene</p> <p>12</p> <p>The Pleasance Castle remainsB owling G reen C as tle G a te</p> <p>C lun</p> <p>V a le</p> <p>Ho</p> <p>EN</p> <p>Tel E x</p> <p>CG</p> <p>Hous e</p> <p>F IE</p> <p>4ET</p> <p>E S TR LD 88 A4</p> <p>P</p> <p>14</p> <p>C as tle C otta ge C as tle Moa t R ecrea tion G round B roo s ideR iv eBU FF AL</p> <p>S tone Wa lls</p> <p>O</p> <p>280800</p> <p>10</p> <p>LA NE</p> <p>8</p> <p>r C lu</p> <p>n</p> <p>KeyPC C ar P a rk</p> <p>C lun B ridge</p> <p>scheduled monument area land under guardianship8 B 436Dea nru ind sh</p> <p>P a rk C otta ge</p> <p>LB PO</p> <p>A 488</p> <p>Reproduced using 2011 OS 1:50,000 Landranger Series no. 137. Ordnance Survey Crown copyright 2012. All rights reserved. Licence no. AL 100013329</p> <p>Scale 1:2,000 @ A4</p> <p>N</p> <p>0</p> <p>100m</p> <p>Illus 1Location map Site location</p> <p>Headland Archaeology (UK) Ltd</p> <p>Clun Castle, Clun, Shropshire CCCS10</p> <p>Clun Castle, Clun, ShropshireConservation Plan for English Heritage</p> <p>Clun Castle is a motte and bailey castle established in the late 11th century on the Shropshire border with Wales. The site is valued by both its local community and the nation as a whole, and might be described as rural, remote and even romantic. Its location in the Marches embodies a landscape that has experienced times of conflict as well as more affluent periods since it was established. The property is unstaffed and open to the public all year round. Major consolidation of the standing masonry was carried out in 19911992 and the standing elements of the castle remain in relatively good condition. A programme of consultation with various stakeholders has identified issues for consideration in the future conservation of the site. The earthworks suffer from human and natural erosion caused by vehicular access on the site, desire-lines caused by members of the public, and riverbank erosion. The Pleasance, a medieval water garden surviving as a series of earthworks on the west bank of the River Clun has suffered the effects of ploughing. Clun Castle is set aside from many other similar sites across Britain by a number of attributes. It is relatively untouched (both by archaeologists and antiquarians); it contains well preserved earthworks, masonry structures survive in places; it shares a clear relationship with surrounding topographic features such as the River Clun and low lying ground to the north; it also possesses a strong geographical link with the village. All these aspects combine to create a monument that is easily interpretable, accessible, and has the potential to be visually striking. The purpose of this Conservation Plan for Clun Castle is to set out a vision for its future management and to provide guidance on risks, opportunities and planning. As with all heritage assets there are both future threats and opportunities that need to be managed. Through the conservation planning process key priorities relating to the site have been drawn up and these broadly encompass: The continued and improved conservation of the monument. The way in which the monument is presented, including appearance and setting. Improving accessibility and community use of the monument.</p> <p>The vision for the future of this monument, which stands in one of the countrys more remote historical places, will ensure the ongoing conservation of the evidential and historic features of the site alongside the management of its aesthetic and communal values. This will involve: ensuring that the general management of the site can be undertaken in cost effective ways that are in keeping with its rural aspect; managing the natural processes of erosion (such as the evolving river bank); ensuring that public events can be held in harmony with the long term survival of its vulnerable but clearly defined physical form; and achieving a much wider public knowledge of its existence alongside improved access, orientation and interpretation.</p> <p>1</p> <p>1.</p> <p>INTRODUCTION TO THE PLAN</p> <p>English Heritage identified a need for a detailed conservation plan of Clun Castle. The monument which belongs to the Duke of Norfolk was taken into guardianship in 1991 and a programme of repairs and renovation was undertaken on the site. Clun Castle is a motte and bailey castle believed to have been established in the late 11th century. The standing masonry structures including a square keep, perimeter wall and bastions are likely to date to the late 13th or early 14th century. The assets in the guardianship of English Heritage include the earthwork and masonry remains of Clun Castle and low lying land to the north and south of the monument. The land to the north of the monument (adjacent to the confluence of the River Clun and River Unk) and the South Meadow are not within the Scheduled Area. A series of medieval water management features (The Pleasance) associated with the castle is located on the west bank of the River Clun adjacent to the castle. These features are part of the Scheduled Monument but are not in the guardianship of English Heritage. The site is managed by the Historic Properties Department of English Heritage and is open to the public free of charge.</p> <p>This plan has been produced on the basis of the English Heritage publication Conservation Principles, Policies and Guidance for the sustainable management of the historic environment and following a detailed brief provided by English Heritage at the outset of the project. The scope of the plan is: to describe the setting and outline history of the castle; to provide a detailed understanding of the history of the castle; to describe the castle, its immediate environs and its archaeological and ecological assets; to identify the significance of the heritage asset; to produce policies for the asset and recommendations for action.</p> <p>The plan is based on the results of a broad documentary study of the site, site visits and consultation with twelve pre-selected stakeholders.</p> <p>2.</p> <p>CLUN: ITS SETTING &amp; OUTLINE HISTORY</p> <p>The small town of Clun lies in the valley of the river of that name in the south-western corner of Shropshire, close to the Welsh border</p> <p>Illus 2Clun Castle from the north-east (2004)Reproduced by permission of National Monuments Record Ref: S027/80/ 55</p> <p>2</p> <p>Headland Archaeology (UK) Ltd</p> <p>Clun Castle, Clun, Shropshire CCCS10</p> <p>Illus 3Engraving by Samuel and Nathaniel Buck - 1731Reproduced by permission of Shropshire Archives Ref: PR/3/64</p> <p>but on the eastern side of Offas Dyke. This area was part of the fluctuating borderland between England and Wales until shortly after the unification of the two countries in 1536. The earliest reference to the town appears in 1002 in the will of Wulfric who died aet Clune.1 Before the conquest it was a profitable place held by Edric, a free man probably Edric Silvaticus. The available evidence suggests that the early settlement was on the south bank, around the site of the present church. Silvaticus, probably the Wild Edric of local tradition, led a rebellion against the Normans after the Conquest. In the aftermath of reprisals and perhaps Welsh attacks as well, the value of Clun dropped from 25 to just 3 and it was given to the Norman, Picot de Say who held it at the time of the Domesday Survey in 1086. By that time its value was beginning to recover. Of particular interest is the mention of a Molinum serviens Curiae, usually thought to refer to a mill serving the manorial hall or court.2 However, there was a fulling mill just to the north of the present castle, out of use by the early-19th century, of which virtually nothing is known. There is no specific mention of a castle at Clun and it seems likely that both the manorial hall and the mill were of Saxon origin. There is also no mention of a church in the Domesday Book, but this need not be seen as conclusive evidence that one did not exist. Indeed, some writers have considered there to have been in Clun the mother church of a large Saxon parish, possibly the successor of a Celtic one.3 The present church lies on the high ground to the south of the river1 2 3 Bowcock, EW 1923 Shropshire Placenames. Shrewsbury. pp75-76 Eyton, RW 1864 Antiquities of Shropshire, ii, 227; Thorn, F &amp; Thorn, C (eds) 1986 Domesday Book: Shropshire, pp.420. Anderson, JC 1864 Shropshire: Its Early History &amp; Antiquities, p.465.</p> <p>and was heavily restored in 1877. Several accounts of it before that time considered that parts of the nave were of pre-Conquest date.4 The fact that the church is still on the south side of the river and not in the later planted settlement to the north is evidently significant. The rigid street pattern of the main part of the town appears to be associated with the castle at its western end and is in distinct contrast to the looser, nucleated, plan around the church. It is likely that the settlement around the church represents the site of Saxon Clun, with the later medieval town being laid out on the opposite side of the river next to the post-Conquest castle. The fairly regular burgage-like plots on either side of Church Street, the road leading up from the river bridge towards the church, could, perhaps, represent an intermediate phase of development or a link between the two added in association with the development of the planned medieval settlement.</p> <p>3.</p> <p>THE CASTLE</p> <p>The first mention of a castle at Clun is not until 1140 but, given the strategic importance of the site in guarding the Clun valley, and in providing a base for Norman penetration through it, it is likely that a castle was established in the late-11th century by Picot de Say. Picot, real name Robert, was one of the chief vassals of Roger de Montgomery and held 27 manors in 1086. Still alive in the 1090s, and calling himself the Baron of Clun, he was succeeded by his son, Henry de Say, who died in or around 1130.54 5 Hulbert, C 1837 The History and Description of the County of Salop, p.271. Sanders, IJ 1960 English Baronies, pp.1123.</p> <p>3</p> <p>It is likely that this first castle was a simple variation of the standard motte-and-bailey type, making use of the natural bank of high ground in a wide meander of the River Clun just below its confluence with the much smaller River Unk. By the early 12th century the manors of Clun and Obley were taken out of the old hundred of Purslow and became the separate Hon...</p>