CLASSICAL GREECE BATTLE OF MARATHON • 490 BCE(first Persian invasion of Greece) • Athens (+Platae)

  • View
    0

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of CLASSICAL GREECE BATTLE OF MARATHON • 490 BCE(first Persian invasion of Greece) • Athens...

  • CLASSICAL

    GREECE

    Spolufinancováno ESF a státním rozpočtem ČR, reg. č. projektu CZ.1.07/1.1.00/14.0143 OPVK

  • CLASSICAL GREECE • Greco-Persian /Persian Wars (499 – 449 BC)

    • Peloponnesian War (431 – 404 BC)

    Herodotus, The Histories No 1

    No 2

    Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War

  • PERSIAN WARS

    Greece

    Persian Empire

    Black Sea

    Caspian Sea

    Red SeaThe Nile

    The Halys

    the Indus

    Persian Gulf

  • PERSIAN WARS • 547 BCE - Cyrus the Great conquered Ionia

    • 500/499 – Ionian Revolt started (499-493)

    DARIUS I (THE GREAT)

    • to punish Athens (helped in the Ionian Revolt)

    • to subjugate Greece

    → Persian Wars

    PERSIAN EMPIRE - divided into provinces (satrapies)

    (satraps to govern)

    - new uniform monetary system

    - Aramaic - official language TASK: Why were these reforms so important for the Persian Empire?

  • No 3

  • PERSIAN WARS

    MAIN BATTLES • Battle of Marathon

    • Battle of Thermopylae

    • Battle of Salamis

    • Battle of Plataea

    • Battle of Mycale

  • BATTLE OF MARATHON • 490 BCE (first Persian invasion of Greece)

    • Athens (+Platae) - Miltiades X Persian Empire - Darius

    • decisive Greek victory (about 200 †X 6400†)

    • Pheidippides - Νενικήκαµεν (We were victorious!)

    • 42.195 km – Marathon Run

    Baron Pierre de Coubertin

    No 4

  • BATTLE OF

    THERMOPYLAE• 480 BCE (second Persian invasion of Greece) • Greek city-states (King Leonidas of Sparta)

    X Persian Empire (Xerxes I)

    • Thermopylae ('The Hot Gates') - narrow coastal pass

    • Persian victory – BUT!!! 300

    No 5 No 6

  • BATTLE OF SALAMIS

    • 480 BCE

    • straits between the mainland and Salamis (island near Athens)

    • decisive Greek vistory

    • Oracle at Delphi:

    Salamis will "bring death to women's sons,“

    the Greeks would be saved by a "wooden wall"

    TASK: Delphi Oracle. What is typical for it?

  • PERSIAN WARS • Battle of Plataea (479 BC) - Persians defeated

    • Battle of Mycale (479 BC) – Persians defeated

    • Delian League (478 BC) - Delos – meeting place

    - over 150 poleis (Athens)

    - to fight the Persian Empire

    • 449 BC – Peace of Callias (Callias – Athenian politicain)

    → end of Persian Wars

    (Delian League (winner) and Persian Empire)

  • PELOPONNESIAN WAR • Delian League – prominent position of Athens

    → many poleis against

    → Peloponnesian League (Sparta)

    No 7

  • Περικλης / PERICLES 495 – 429 BC

    • Athenian statesman, strategos (general), orator

    • very popular – many reforms

    • Golden Age of Athens

    • long walls to protect Athens, port Piraeus - strong navy

    • Acropolis, Sofocles, Herodotus, Anaxagoras, etc.

    • 449 BC – Peace of Callias

    • 445 BC – peacy treaty with Sparta

    - Thirty Years′ Peace

    (broken 431)

    • 429 BC – died of plague

    No 8

    No 9

  • ACROPOLIS • UNESCO World heritage site

    • acropolis (akron = edge, polis – city) – city on a hill

    • originally - Mycenaean castle /palace

    • Parthenon – dedicated to maiden Goddess Athena

    No 10

    No 11

  • PELOPONNESIAN WAR • 431 - 421 BC – Archidamian war (Spartan king Archidamian)

    after Pericles – Athens weakened – no strong leader 421 BC – Peace of Nicias (50 years′ peace – broken)

    • ALCIBIADES (450 – 404 BC) - Athenian statesman, orator, general - nephew of Pericles, student of Socrates

    - character? had to leave Athens

    → to Sparta (against Athens) → helped Persia (against Sparta) → to Athens (against Sparta) → murdered

    No 12

  • • 422 BC - Battle of Amphipolis – Macedonia

    Spartan victory; Peace of Nicias

    • 418 BC - Battle of Mantinea – Peloponnese

    (First Battle of Mantineia)

    Spartan victory

    • 405 BC - Battle of Aegospotami – Hellespont

    Spartan victory;

    PELOPONNESIAN WAR

    MAIN BATTLES

  • No 13

  • LYSANDER († 395 BC)

    • Spartan commander • Cyrus the Younger (Persian prince) – money to built

    strong Spartan fleet – to defeat Athens • Battle of Aegospotami - defeated Athens

    → end of Peloponnesian War → Sparta – most powerful polis

    • Athens: Spartan conditions rule of 'Thirty Tyrants‚; oligarchy

    403 BC – democracy restored

  • GREECE AFTER

    PELOPONNESIAN WAR • CORINTHIAN WAR (395 – 387 BC)

    Sparta X Corinth, Athens, Thebes, Persians…

    • THEBAN HEGEMONY (371 – 362 BC)

    371 BC - Battle of Leuctra (Boeotia) - Thebes X Sparta

    - Theban victory

    362 BC – Battle of Mantineia

    (Second Battle of Mantineia)

    - Thebes X Sparta, Athens

    Result: Greek poleis weak → MACEDONIANo 14 No 14

  • CULTURE OF CLASSICAL

    GREECE PHILOSOP

    HY Empedocles

    Anaxagoras

    Protagoras

    Socrates

    Plato

    Aristotle

    HISTORY Herodotus - ′The Father of History′ Thucydides

    Xenophon - Socrates

    THEATRE Aeschylus

    Sophocles

    Euripides

    Aristophanes

    SCULPTURE Myron

    Phidias

    Praxiteles

  • Zdroje No 1: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/be/Herodotos_Met_91.8.jpg/300px-

    Herodotos_Met_91.8.jpg

    No 2: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/Thucydides-bust-cutout_ROM.jpg/160px- Thucydides-bust-cutout_ROM.jpg

    No 3: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3a/Map_Greco-Persian_Wars-en.svg/750px- Map_Greco-Persian_Wars-en.svg.png

    No 4: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Statue_of_Pheidippides_along_the_Marathon_Ro ad.jpg/250px-Statue_of_Pheidippides_along_the_Marathon_Road.jpg

    No 5: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Thermopylae_ancient_coastline_large.jpg/220px- Thermopylae_ancient_coastline_large.jpg

    No 6: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8c/Molon_labe2_edit_crop.jpg/220px- Molon_labe2_edit_crop.jpg

    No 7: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Peloponnesian_war_alliances_431_BC.png/387px -Peloponnesian_war_alliances_431_BC.png

    No 8: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Pericles_Pio-Clementino_Inv269_n4.jpg/399px- Pericles_Pio-Clementino_Inv269_n4.jpg

    No 9: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/68/Pelopennesian_War%2C_Walls_Protecting_the_ City%2C_431_B.C..JPG/400px-Pelopennesian_War%2C_Walls_Protecting_the_City%2C_431_B.C..JPG

    No 10: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3c/Athens_Acropolis.jpg/800px- Athens_Acropolis.jpg

  • No 11: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/da/The_Parthenon_in_Athens.jpg/220px- The_Parthenon_in_Athens.jpg

    No 12: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f2/Bust_Alcibiades_Musei_Capitolini_MC1160.j pg/220px-Bust_Alcibiades_Musei_Capitolini_MC1160.jpg

    No 13: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/Pelopennesian_War%2C_Key_Actions_in_e ach_Phase%2C_431_-_404_B.C..JPG/387px- Pelopennesian_War%2C_Key_Actions_in_each_Phase%2C_431_-_404_B.C..JPG

    No 14: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2d/362BCThebanHegemony.png/637px- 362BCThebanHegemony.png

    Levi, P.: Svět starého Řecka. Knižní klub, Praha 1995.

    Čornej, P.: Dějepis 1 pro gymnázia a střední školy. Pravěk a starověk . SPN, Praha 2009.

    Slovník antické kultury. Svoboda, Praha 1974.