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Борис Черваков Инженер-консультант Основы построения сетей на базе технологий спектрального уплотнения

Cisco - основы WDM

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  • -

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 2

    xWDM?

    , , OSNR

    (EDFA), , FEC

    PMD, FWM, SPM, XPM

    DWDM-

    / /

    : OADM / ROADM

  • xWDM?

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 4

    Wavelength Division Multiplexing

    WDM-

    TX

    TX

    TX

    TX

    RX

    RX

    RX

    RX

    WDM

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5

    , , :

    850 , 1310 , 1550 , 1625

    -

    850 1310 1550 1625

    l

    C =x l

    : l()

    : ()

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6

    ITU-T

    ()

    () 1528.77 1578.23

    0.4

    1552.52

    193.1

    196.2 190.1

    50

    = = () =

    O E S C L U l()

    12

    60

    13

    60

    14

    60

    15

    30

    15

    65

    16

    25

    16

    75

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 7

    DWDM CWDM

    Dense WDM Coarse WDM

    Long Haul, Metro Metro

    88- 8-

    l 0.4 20

    3000 80

    1528 1562 1270 1610

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 8

    ()

    ()

    ,

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    Bit Error Ratio (BER)

    BER

    , BER, BER

    BER

    DWDM- BER=1012

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    =

    2-3

    , ,

    ,

    (BER)

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 11

    -

    = -2

    = -28

    =

    -2 -28

    = 26

    -2 (-28) = 26

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14

    (Core) ,

    (Cladding) .

    (Coating)

    250

    :

    125

    8

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 15

    n2

    n1

    n2

    n1

    (1)

    (MMF):

    50 62,5

    (SMF):

    8

    WDM-

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    SMF (NDSF) G.652

    >90%

    DSF G.653

    NZDSF G.655 -20

    -15

    -10

    -5

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    1350 1390 1430 1470 1510 1550 1590 1630

    DS NZDS+ NZDS- SMF

    (

    /

    *

    )

    ()

    (2)

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    1310

    OK 1550

    OK DWDM ( )

    CWDM (>8 )

    Extended Band

    (G.652.C)

    OK 1310

    1550

    DWDM (C + L Bands)

    NZDSF

    (G.655)

    OK 1310

    1550

    DWDM (C-Band)

    DSF

    (G.653)

    1310

    OK 1550

    OK DWDM ( )

    SMF

    (G.652)

    (3)

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    , , .

    ()

    OSNR

    OSNR

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    (/)

    (CD)

    ()

    / (OSNR)

    800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600

    Wavelength (nm)

    0.2

    0.5

    2.0

    Loss (dB/km)

    L-b

    an

    d:1

    565

    1625n

    m

    C-b

    an

    d:1

    5301565n

    m

    S-b

    an

    d:1

    4601530n

    m

    800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600

    Wavelength (nm)

    0.2

    0.5

    2.0

    Loss (dB/km)

    L-b

    an

    d:1

    565

    1625n

    m

    C-b

    an

    d:1

    5301565n

    m

    S-b

    an

    d:1

    4601530n

    m

    Time Slot

    10Gb/s

    2.5Gb/s Fiber

    Fiber

    Time Slot

    10Gb/s

    2.5Gb/s Fiber

    Fiber

    S+N

    N

    S+N

    N

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 21

    ()

    ()

    ()

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 22

    :

    850 nm

    1310 nm

    1550 nm

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 23

    800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600

    OH-

    ()

    0.2 dB/Km

    0.5 dB/Km

    (

    /

    )

    S-band:14601530

    L-band:15651625

    C-band:15301565

    Hydroxyl ion absorption is the absorption in optical fibers of electromagnetic waves,

    due to the presence of trapped hydroxyl ions remaining from water as a contaminant.

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 24

    (Microbends)

    (Macrobends)

    /

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 25

    T T

    P P

    :

    () = 10log10 (P /P)

    : (/) = 10log10 (P/P)/L

    : P () = 10log10(P / 1 )

    P P

    L ()

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    P P

    P/P

    : Gain = 10log10 P/P

    : P/P = 2; Gain = 10log10 2 = 3

    : Gain = 17 , P/P = 1017/10

    = 50

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 27

    EDFA-

    Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA)

    :

    C-band: 1530 1565 L-band: 1605 1625

    30

    +27 , 500

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 28

    980- 1480-

    WDM

    EDFA-

    ,

    , 980 1480

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 29

    980

    ~1u

    1550

    Energy = h*

    + =

    1550

    EDFA-

    , . ,

    Energy = h*

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 30

    Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 2

    , , (ISI),

    / (/*)

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 31

    (DCF)

    O-E-O

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 32

    , (D>0), ,

    (D

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 33

    (DCF), ,

    (2)

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    [/*]

    [/]

    (3)

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 35

    / OSNR (1)

    OSNR,

    OSNR ()

    OSNR

    ()

    ()

    OSNR = -----------------

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    / OSNR (2)

    EDFA-. C (ASE)

    , OSNR

    OSNR O-E-O

    OSNR,

    EDFA

    (OSNR) (OSNR)

    NF

    Pin

    (OSNR)out = 1

    1 + h*f*B*NF

    (OSNR)in Pin

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37

    /

    G.709 Forwarding Error Correction (FEC)

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 38

    / G.709 Forwarding Error Correction (1)

    G.709 Forwarding Error Correction (FEC)

    FEC ,

    38

    25

    40

    80

    1 7 8 14

    15

    16

    17

    38

    24

    1

    2

    3

    4

    OPU k Payload

    OP

    Uk O

    H

    OPUk Optical Channel Payload Unit

    ODUk

    ODUk Optical Channel Data Unit

    Client Signal

    Mapped in

    OPUk Payload

    Client Signal

    OTUk

    FEC

    OTUk OH

    OTUk Optical Channel Transport Unit

    Alignm

    Alignment

    k Indicatesthe Order:

    1 2.5G

    2 10G

    3 40G

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 39

    / G.709 Forwarding Error Correction (2)

    , , ,

    1011 1

    1000 1

    1001 1

    0100 1

    1100 0

    1011 1

    1000 1

    1011 1

    0100 1

    1100 0

    1 =

    0 =

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 40

    / G.709 Forwarding Error Correction (3)

    FEC OSNR

    G.709 FEC OSNR 6.2 (BER 10-15)

    FEC OSNR 8.4

    4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

    BE

    R

    15

    14

    13

    12

    11

    10

    9

    8

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    0

    OSNR ()

    EFEC = 8.4 dB

    FEC = 6.2 dB

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 41

    / (1) 20-

    ,

    ,

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 42

    / (2)

    100

    ~48

    ,

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

    ()

    DWDM

    DWDM

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 43

    0

    5

    25

    30

    2.5G

    0

    28

    1600 /

    OSNR 21

    SMF-28

    120

    0.25

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 44

    0

    20

    25

    9

    +5

    EDFA

    9

    +5

    11

    6

    2.5G

    0

    28

    1600 /

    OSNR 21

    SMF-28

    120

    0.25

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 45

    EDFA

    9

    +5

    11

    6

    2.5G

    0

    28

    1600 /

    OSNR 21

    SMF-28

    120

    0.25

    16.7 /*

    0 /

    334 /

    1670 /

    2004 /

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 46

    DCF

    1950 /

    10

    +0 334 /

    20 1670 /

    9 dBm

    + 5 0 /

    25 2004 /

    35 54 /

    EDFA

    9

    +5

    11

    6

    2.5G

    0

    28

    1600 /

    OSNR 21

    SMF-28

    120

    0.25

    16.7 /*

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 47

    +0 334 /

    20 1670 /

    9

    25 2004 /

    15 54 /

    EDFA 2

    35

    15

    20

    6

    OSNR

    16.9 dB

    + 5 0 /

    OSNR

    DCF

    1950 /

    10

    2.5G

    0

    28

    1600 /

    OSNR 21

    SMF-28

    120

    0.25

    16.7 /*

    OSNR

    35 54 /

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 48

    +0 334 /

    20 1670 /

    9

    25 2004 /

    15 54 /

    EDFA 2

    35

    15

    20

    6

    OSNR

    16.9 dB

    + 5 0 /

    OSNR

    DCF

    1950 /

    10

    2.5G

    0

    28

    1600 /

    OSNR 21

    SMF-28

    120

    0.25

    16.7 /*

    RAMAN

    5

    0

    OSNR

    21.9 dB

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 49

    +0 334 /

    20 1670 /

    9

    25 2004 /

    15 54 /

    EDFA 2

    35

    15

    20

    6

    OSNR

    16.9 dB

    + 5 0 /

    OSNR FEC

    DCF

    1950 /

    10

    2.5G

    0

    28

    1600 /

    OSNR (E-FEC) 12

    SMF-28

    120

    0.25

    16.7 /*

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 51

    (PMD)

    (FWM)

    - (SPM, XPM)

    Wavelength (nm)

    -5

    -10

    -15

    -20

    -25

    -30

    -35

    -40

    1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548

    Po

    wer

    (dB

    m)

    Wavelength (nm)

    -5

    -10

    -15

    -20

    -25

    -30

    -35

    -40

    1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548

    Wavelength (nm)

    -5

    -10

    -15

    -20

    -25

    -30

    -35

    -40

    1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548

    Po

    wer

    (dB

    m)

    nx

    nyEx

    Ey

    Pulse As it Enters the Fiber

    Spreaded Pulse As

    it Leaves the Fiber

    nx

    nyEx

    Ey

    Pulse As it Enters the Fiber

    Spreaded Pulse As

    it Leaves the Fiber

    Power SP

    M D

    isto

    rtio

    n

    Power SP

    M D

    isto

    rtio

    n

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 52

    nx

    ny

    X Y. - , . .

    PMD , CD

    PMD (10 / )

    Ex

    Ey

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 53

    , ,

    (FWM)

    l1 l2 l3

    f113 f112

    f123

    f213

    f223 f132

    f312

    f221 f332

    f321

    f231

    f331

    Input Power = +4 dBm/ch 5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    ()

    1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548

    (

    )

    : CD

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 54

    (SPM)

    , , . , .

    SPM + Dispersion < 0 SPM + Dispersion > 0

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 55

    - (XPM)

    XPM

    ,

    XPM , ,

    XPM

    XPM

    XPM c XPM

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 56

    2.5 /

    FEC

  • DWDM-

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 58

    DWDM-

    ,

    ,

    - (OADM)

    OADM (R-OADM)

    , ,

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 59

    O-E-O

    850, 1310, 1550 15xx.xx

    Tx

    Rx

    G.709

    DWDM-

    ITU-T

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 60

    ITU-T

    O-E-O

    850, 1310, 1550 nm 15xx.xx

    Tx

    Rx

    G.709

    DWDM-

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 61

    1

    2

    3

    N

    N

    1

    2

    3

    N

    DWDM-

    1, 2, .N

    DWDM-

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 62

    1 drop

    1Ch OADM

    1 add

    DWDM- -

    Rx Tx

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    ROADM

    West

    ROADM

    East

    R-OADM

    Line

    West Line

    East

    Add/Drop

    West Add/Drop

    East

    R-OADM ( /) /

    , R-OADM 2- , /

    DWDM- OADM (R-OADM)

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    l3

    80/20

    80/20

    l1 l3

    (Pass-through/Add/Block)

    DWDM

    DWDM

    l1

    drop block block drop

    drop block block drop

    Add

    Pass

    Add

    Pass

    Pass

    Pass

    Add

    Add

    (Pass-through/Add/Block)

    l1 l3

    DWDM- R-OADM

    l1

    l1

    l3

    l1

    l3

    l3

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 65

    2-Degree R-OADM (R-OADM 2- )

    /

    Multi-Degree R-OADM (R-OADM )

    /

    (Mesh)

    RO

    AD

    M

    (West)

    RO

    AD

    M

    (East)

    PP-MESH

    ROADM

    (Side B)

    DWDM- 2-Degree Multi-Degree R-OADM

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 66

    A

    B

    C

    D PP-MESH-4 WXC

    MUX

    DMX

    B

    P

    WX

    C

    MU

    X

    DM

    X

    B

    P

    WXC

    MUX

    DMX

    P

    B

    WX

    C

    MU

    X

    DM

    X

    P

    B

    DWDM- 4-Degree R-OADM

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    DWDM- 4-Degree Broadcast & Select

    WXC

    MUX

    DMX

    B

    P

    A

    B

    C

    D PP-MESH-4

    1D 2D 3D 4D 80D ...

    1A 2A 3A 4A 80A ...

    1C 2C 3C 4C 80C ...

    1 2 3 4 80 ...

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 68

    DWDM- 8-Degree R-OADM

    A

    B

    C

    D

    E

    F

    G

    H

    8-Degree

    Patch Panel WXC

    MUX

    DMX

    B

    P

    WX

    C

    MU

    X

    DM

    X

    B

    P

    WXC

    MUX

    DMX

    P

    B

    WX

    C

    MU

    X

    DM

    X

    P

    B

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 69

    . West, .

    DCU

    AMP-C

    AMP-C

    ROADM

    AMP-C

    DCU

    AMP-C

    ROADM

    West East

    Directional DWDM

    DCU

    AMP-C

    AMP-C

    ROADM

    AMP-C

    DCU

    AMP-C

    West East

    Omni-Directional DWDM

    DWDM- Omni-Directional R-OADM

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 70

    DCU

    AMP-C

    AMP-C

    ROADM

    AMP-C

    DCU

    AMP-C

    ROADM

    West East

    Color-Specific DWDM

    DCU

    AMP-C

    AMP-C

    ROADM

    AMP-C

    DCU

    AMP-C

    West East

    Colorless DWDM

    DCU

    AMP-C

    AMP-C

    ROADM

    AMP-C

    DCU

    AMP-C

    West East

    Omni-Directional & Colorless

    DWDM- Colorless R-OADM

    , . 1 1, 2 2

    Colorless

    , Colorless/Omni-Directional

    , DWDM-

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 71

    (EDFA)

    (VOA)

    (DCM/DCU)

    DWDM- EDFA, VOA, DCU

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    VOA

    EDFA

    DCM

    VOA

    EDFA

    EDFA

    VOA

    EDFA

    DCU

    VOA

    OSC OSC

    OSC OSC

    DWDM-

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 73

    EDFA Terminal Terminal OADM

    (Linear)

    Hub

    OADM

    EDFA

    (Open Ring)

    EDFA

    (Ring)

    Amplified OADM

    OADM

    ROADM

    Multidegree

    ROADMs

    (Mesh)

    ROADM

    DWDM

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 74

  • 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 75