Chp 6 SEQ Compilation

  • View
    1.011

  • Download
    3

Embed Size (px)

Text of Chp 6 SEQ Compilation

1CHAPTER 6: MANAGING PEACE AND SECURITY: DETERRENCE AND DIPLOMACY

QUESTION 1: The following are reasons conflicts occur among countries. Conflict over border territory Conflict over scarce resources Conflict over ideological differences Which of these is a more likely reason to explain the outbreak of conflict among countries? Explain your answer. MP1: how GF1 is linked to outbreak of conflict Example and elaboration

Competition over border territory is an important cause of conflict among countries. A country will claim control over a certain land if it is important to its defence and national pride. If one country tries to extend control by taking over territories which another country sees as rightfully theirs and hence as a matter of pride, will do something to protest, conflict will result. For example, the border line between India and China was not clear because most of it lies in the inaccessible Himalayas. China did not agree to the border line drawn by the British when they ruled India. When India became independent in 1947, China and India disputed over Aksai Chin Plateau and the North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA), the 2 border territories that extends furthest into China and so important for Chinas defence. China contested Indias presence in these areas, for example when it built a road on the Aksai Chin plateau. The Indian government protested but China argued that the border had not been fixed. However, India protested that China had violated Indias territorial rights and that the boundaries had been clearly defined by the British. In 1959, fighting broke out in these regions and in 1962, war broke out between them. It is a matter of national pride for India not to allow China to challenge her control over territories that she believes as legally hers. Not to defend these territories would threaten Indias sovereignty as it could invite claims for more territories later.

Remind marker you have logically linked GF1 to outbreak of conflict

MP2: how GF2 is linked to outbreak of conflict Example and elaboration

Competition over scarce natural resources between countries is also an important cause of conflict between countries because they are unevenly distributed. Countries with less may use force to get more resource. It becomes more important when the resource is necessary for survival and economic growth; a country may use force to gain more or to prevent another country from claiming the Remind marker that you have same resource. For example, Iceland and Britain disputed over fishing logically linked grounds in the 1970s. Iceland did not have many natural resources and GF2 to outbreak of conflict depended on its fishing industry for its survival. Fresh fish and fish products make up about 79% of Icelands total export. In the early 1970s the supply of fish around Iceland decreased by a third because fishermen from other European countries, especially from Britain, were overfishing around Iceland. MP3: how GF3 is linked to After failing to get the United Nations to intervene, Iceland extended the outbreak of zone of control of its fishing grounds from 50 nautical miles to 200 nautical conflict miles beyond its shore. Britain did not recognize Icelands extended area and continued fishing there. This resulted in frequent collisions between Britains frigates protecting British fishing trawlers and Icelands Coast Example and elaboration Guards. In February 1976, Iceland broke off diplomatic ties with Britain. The conflict was caused by Icelands unilateral action of extending control over a bigger fishing ground and using its coastguards to physically prevent British fishing vessels from fishing there. These were all

2motivated by Icelands wish to ensure her economic survival. Conflicts are also caused by different ideology. A good example is the rivalry between democracy and communism. Each side felt that their way of life and values that are important to them are being threatened by the political ideology of the other side. So each side Remind marker that you have does all it could to spread its own ideological beliefs and at the logically linked same time to stop the other side from expanding. Thus, conflict GF1 to outbreak of conflict results. An example is the conflict between North and South Korea. After th World War II, Korea was divided into 2 halves at the 38 parallel. The northern part came to be controlled by the USSR and adopted a communist system. The southern part came under the USA and the UN and adopted a democratic system. The governments of the two Koreas each claimed the right to rule the whole Korean Peninsula. In June 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea because it wanted the whole Korean Peninsula to be under communism. The USA and its allies, supported by the UN, defended South Korea because they did not want communism to spread to South Korea. They pushed the North Korean forces back to the 38 th parallel. However, the US-led UN troops went on to invade North Korea in the hope of establishing democracy there. By 1951, the US-led troops had reached the Yalu River at the border between North Korea and China. Fearing that the war would spill over into China and not wanting communism to end in North Korea, China joined the war and helped North Korea to push the UN troops back into South Korea. The UN troops counter-attacked and drove the Chinese army back to the 38th Parallel. Thus the invasion of South Korea by North Korea because of ideological differences quickly became a bigger conflict involving the USA and its Western allies on one side, and North Korea and China on the other side, because each side suspects that the other side wanted to forcefully impose their own ideology on the loser and they believe that they would suffer greatly under the new political system. FINAL STAND (OPTIONAL) MANY WAYS TO WEIGH THE FACTORS. THREE ARE OFFERED BELOW: All the reasons are equally likely to cause conflict as they are related to national interests and all countries want to protect their national interests. Control over scarce resources is in a countrys national interest if it is important to a countrys economic survival as in the case of fish for Iceland. Control of border territories is important for both India and Chinas national interest as they have to do with national pride and defence. Even political ideology is related to national interest. For example, the USSR believed that it was in its national interest to surround itself with as many communist countries as possible. This explains why it set up a communist government in N Korea. It also explains why North Korea attacked S Korea and also why China helped N Korea to push the US-led troops back. Similarly it also explains why the US and the Western allies intervened to prevent the communist take-over of S Korea. Both sides felt that the ideology of the other side was a threat to their national interest because it would drastically change their way of life. No matter what the factor is, as long as it is related to national interests, it will cause conflict to break out between countries because all countries will want to protect their national interests.MP4 (WEIGH) Elaboration to support MP4

MP5 (WEIGH) Elaboration to support MP5

3Difference in political ideology is the most important cause of conflict because the impact is more serious. The rivalry between the 2 superpowers, the USA and USSR, became exported to other parts of the world, e.g. to Korea and Vietnam. The rest of the world felt the strain and tension. There was military buildup, spies and espionage activities, and the invention of more deadly weapons of mass destruction like guided missiles and nuclear weapons. Although no actual war broke out between the USA and USSR, the whole world lived in fear because the possibility of a nuclear war because greater because of their rivalry. This is unlike the other causes where the conflict and war were more or less confined to a specific geographical region. The Korean War, which broke out mainly because of different ideologies was a large scale war involving not just the two Koreas but also USA and its allies, China and the UN. Although communism has MP6 (WEIGH) collapsed in the USSR and the Cold War has ended, the two Koreas remain divided, Korean families remain separated, and the relationship between Elaboration to North and South Korea remains tense. Technically, the Korean War has not support MP5 ended; fighting stopped only because of a UN- brokered ceasefire. However, apart from the unique case of Korea, today, the rivalry between communism and capitalism/democracy is not that important because of the collapse of communism in the USSR and the willingness of communist countries like China to adopt a more open economy and to live harmoniously with the rest of the world. The world does not see communism as a serious threat anymore. Whether or not these factors will result in war depends on how each country manages the conflict. Any one of these factors can lead to war. And any one of these factors can be easy or difficult to solve, depending on how the countries manage the conflict. The border conflict between India and China led to war when China refused to go to the negotiating table and took unilateral action to establish its claims; the war ended quickly because both sides decided to discuss the issue peacefully but the territorial conflict remains unresolved until today. In the case of Britain vs Iceland, it did not lead to war but there were clashes between Icelands coastguards and British frigates accompanying British fishing boats. The conflict was resolved because there was compromise and accommodation by both sides when they signed an agreement in 1976. Thus a war was averted. Similarly, the conflict caused by different ideological systems also need not necessarily lead to war because although the real rivalry was between the USA and the