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Chief Scientific Officer Bangladesh Fisheries Research ...cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/jahangir_alam_bangladesh...Bangladesh coastal zone `19 districts out of 64; 11 meet sea or lower

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  • Regional workshop on Community-baSED Integrated Coastal Management: Best Practices and Lessons Learned in the Bay of Bengal, South Asia , BOBLME-FAO/IUCN, 28-29 July 2010, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    B F R IB F R I

    Md. Jahangir AlamChief Scientific Officer

    Bangladesh Fisheries Research InstituteMymensingh 2201, Bangladesh

  • Coastal zoneContinental shelves & adjacent land area up to 100 km inland from the coast

    Transition area where terrestrial & marine environment interact

    Natural resource base supports fisheries, aquaculture & agriculture

    Ecologically dynamic with diversified production system

    BFRIBFRI

  • Bangladesh coastal zone

    19 districts out of 64; 11 meet sea or lower estuary directly

    133 upazilas out of 484; 48 are exposed to coast

    BD CZ covers 32% (47,200 km2) of total land area

    Coastal population is about 40 million (28% of country total)

    BFRIBFRI

  • Bangladesh coastal zoneBFRIBFRI

    710 km long coast

    Eastern region (Pacific type)

    Central region (Active delta): the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna jointly flow through this region

    Western region (Atlantic type)

  • Livelihoods of coastal community has been relying since long on -

    FisheriesNatural trapping-holding-growing fish productionAgricultureSunderbans mangrovesSalt production

    BFRIBFRI

    Lately since 70s, following coastal polderization

    Aquaculture, brackishwater shrimp farming in particular

  • Contribution to national economyBFRIBFRI

    Total fisheries sector 2007-08(3396.38 Cr. Tk.)

    Employment & livelihoods brood hatchery farm transportationprocessing packaging marketing & so on

  • Marine fisheries production (capture)

    0.5 million mt (20% of countrys total) Artisanal boats provides >90%- inshore (

  • Central region: the most dynamic region

    BFRIBFRI

    185 chars and islands

    Detached (21)Attached with the mainland (92)Marine and estuarine (72)located within 2-6 m of tidal surge

    Coastal community and risk3 million live in 185 chars and islandsPeople live seasonally in 35 marine and estuarine islandsfishing

    being the only livelihoodOnly 2 cyclone shelters in 72 islandsOnly 14 islands are protected by embankment

  • Western region: potential aquaculture-agriculture region

    BFRIBFRI

    Khul

    na

    Satk

    hira

    Bage

    rhat

    Gopa

    lgon

    j

    Narai

    l

    Jessore

    ShrimpRice

  • BFRIBFRI

    Coastal vulnerabilityCyclone and storm surgeFloods, drainage congestion and water loggingDrought and salinity intrusionErosionEcosystem degradationClimate change above all exacerbate vulnerabilitiesLivelihood and food security threatenedMore population and less socio-economic development in the exposed zone would cause high risk

  • BFRIBFRI

    Policies pertaining to coastal zoneCoastal Zone Policy 2005Coastal Development Strategy 2006Integrated Coastal Resources Database 2005Priority Investment Programme 2006National Water Management Plan 2004Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper-II 2009-2011National Adaptation Programme of Action 2005Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan 2009Sixth Five Year Plan (2010-2015)Outline Perspective Plan: Vision 2010-2021

    All above policies attach due importance for CZM for eradication of poverty, inequity and deprivation.

    Highly supportive policy environment exists for an integrated coastal development programme.

  • BFRIBFRI

    ICZM initiative in Bangladesh (1986-2010)

    Since ICZM got shape in 1980 and following the Rio Earth Summit 1992

    ESCAP Secretariat and GoB Planning Commission 1986Follow up study by UNDP and Planning Commission 1993GoB Policy Note on ICZM issued Feb 1999Joint Donor Mission (IDA-NEDA-WFP) March 1999Joint Mission (IDA-NEDA) Oct 1999ICZMP Project (2000-2005)- CZPo 2005, CDS 2006, PIP 2005, ICRD 2005 Coastal land zoning for 19 coastal districts being implemented

    ICZM Identification Mission 2009-Suggested revival of ICZM and phased implementation

  • BFRIBFRI

    Funding coastal developmentBangladeshUS$ 1.45 billion during 2005-062009-10

    Bangladesh CC Trust Fund

    US$ 100 million 2009-10US$ 100 million 2010-11

    Multi donor climate resilience Green Trust Fund US$ 110 million

    NGO funding in the coastal zone US$ 145 million 2009-10

    Funding coastal fisheries (11 projects)2007-082011-12 funding: US$ 67 million2010-11 funding: US$ 12.5 million

    Support to Sustainable Management of the Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem Project (BFRI) (1/09/200831/08/2013)

    Total cost: US$ 0.71 million, 2010-11 budget: US$ 62,000 `

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    Current status of community based coastal fisheries & ecosystem management

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    Besides CCFM development -

    Bangladesh has potential of coastal aquaculture development for livelihood improvement

    Opportunity of community involvement

    Resource availability and integration

  • Economic gainEconomic gain Food securityFood security ConservationConservation

    Shrimp

    Fish

    Crab

    Rice

    Shrimp

    Fish

    Crab

    Rice

    Shrimp

    Fish

    Crab

    Rice

    BFRIBFRI

  • Two crop

    One crop

    Ricc-fish-Shrimp

    SeedFertilizerPesticide

    Fish-shrimp-prawn

    WildCulture

    Stock management

    Feed

    Seed

    Semi-intensive

    Imroved extensive

    Feed

    SeedCulture

    Fattening

    Seed

    CrabFishRice Shrimp

    Underground Upstream in-flowMarine in-flow Rainfall

    Water sources(sluice-gate operation)

    Total production

    Freshwater quantity & quality

    Saline/brackish water quality & quantity (chemical & organic pollution, acidity, salinity, temp., etc.)

    Soil quality

  • Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

    Wet seasonDry season

    Gher preparation

    Water depth- 60-80 cm Single stocking: @ 3-5/m Yield: 350-550 kg/ha NR: 0.75-1.00 lakh/ha

    (1:1.9)

    Golda GIFT

    5,000-10,000/ha at 1:1 ratio

    Yield: Rice: 4-5 t/ha. Fish: 200-250 kg/ha Prawn: 70-90 kg/ha

    Seedling

    BagdaRice

    Improved riceImproved rice--shrimp systemshrimp system

    HYVs: BR 23/40/41

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  • Increased rice yield

    Additional crop of fish/prawn

    Maximizeland-water

    use for Increased food

    production &income

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  • BFRIBFRI

    Risk of reduced rice yield is there in case of prolonged water logging in ghers with higher depth

    Integrated effort is required for improving water supply system in coastal polders

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    HYV rice can also be grown in dry season by adopting innovative water management approach

    Non-saline river water & rainfall can be conserved for improving productivity and livelihood

    Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov

    HYV Rice HYV Rice

    From river

    From reservoir

    Seedling

    Rainfall

    Seedling

    Improved riceImproved rice--rice systemrice system

  • BFRIBFRI

    Item Traditional cropping

    Modified cropping

    Rice yield (t/ha) 2.0-2.5 8.0-9.0Production cost (Tk/ha)

    5000 25000

    Profit (Tk/ha) 15000-20000 32500-37500

    Improved riceImproved rice--rice systemrice system

  • BFRIBFRI

    Rice BRRIdhan 41: 4.8 t/ha Fish: Carp: 600 kg/ha; bagda: 40 kg/ha;

    galda:65kg/ha

    Net benefit: Rice - Tk. 27,000/ha (1:1.8)Aquaculture Tk. 36,000/ha (1:1.4)

    BRRIdhan 47 has shown a great promise production in integration with shrimp (bagda), prawn (Golda) and carps (ruhu, catla & mrigal)

    Dry season riceDry season rice--aquaculture systemaquaculture system

  • Integrated mud crab fattening-fish culture

    Increased income Improved nutrition

    Fattening duration: 7-12 days

    Fattening duration: 14-18 days

    9-10 kg/dec/180 days

    [email protected]

    2/[email protected]/m2

    [email protected]

    1/m2

    Maximum resource utilization

  • Waterlogged saline areas can potentially be utilized by growing GIFT in pens and crab fattening

    BRAC has undertaken some aquaculture rehabilitation programme, at different AILA affected areas with BFRI technology and technical advice

    ImplicationsImplications..an adaptation success ..an adaptation success

    Crab fatteningGIFT culture

  • Integrated hydoponic agricultureIntegrated hydoponic agriculture--aquacultureaquaculture

    Introduce hydroponic agriculture, non-saline and/or salinity tolerant vegetables

    Integrate fish culture in pen encircling the hydroponic bed area periphytonic advantage

  • BFRIBFRI

    RecommendationsRecommendations

    Study strength and weaknesses of post ECFC projects in the light of lessons learned from post CBFM projects in freshwater inland areas.

    Institutionalization of CBFM approach in coastal areas Provision of endowment fund for sustainable operation of

    CBOs. Government should pay immediate attention to implement

    strategies and action plans outlined under coastal and marine fisheries sub-strategies.

    Need political will for coastal and marine fisheries, as has been visible for hilsa fisheries resources management.