Chapter Four: UNIX/Linux File Processing Guide To UNIX Using Linux Third Edition.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Chapter Four: UNIX/Linux File Processing Guide To UNIX Using Linux Third Edition </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 2 Objectives Explain UNIX and Linux file processing Use basic file manipulation commands to create, delete, copy, and move files and directories Employ commands to combine, cut, paste, rearrange, and sort information in files </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 3 Objectives (continued) Create a script file Use the join command to link files using a common field Use the awk command to create a professional- looking report </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 4 UNIX and Linux File Processing Based on the approach that files should be treated as nothing more than character sequences Because you can directly access each character, you can perform a range of editing tasks this offers flexibility in terms of file manipulation </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 5 Reviewing UNIX/Linux File Types Regular files, also known as ordinary files Create information that you maintain and manipulate, and include ASCII and binary files Directories System files for maintaining file system structure </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 6 Reviewing UNIX/Linux File Types (continued) Special files Character special files relate to serial I/O devices Block special files relate to devices such as disks </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 7 Understanding File Structures Files can be structured in many ways depending on the kind of data they store UNIX/Linux store data, such as letters and product records, as flat ASCII files Three kinds of regular files are Unstructured ASCII character Unstructured ASCII records Unstructured ASCII trees </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 8 Understanding File Structures (continued) </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 9 Processing Files UNIX/Linux processes commands by receiving input from a standard input device (e.g. keyboard) and sending it to a standard output device (e.g. monitor) System administrators and programmers refer to standard input as stdin, standard output as stdout When UNIX/Linux detect errors, they send data to standard error (stderr, the monitor) </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 10 Using Input and Error Redirection You can use redirection operators to retrieve input from something other than the standard input device and send output to something other than the standard output device Examples of redirection Redirect the ls command output to a file, instead of to the monitor (or screen) Redirect a program that receives input from the keyboard to receive input from a file instead Redirect error messages to files, instead of to the screen by default </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 11 Manipulating Files When you manipulate files, you work with the files themselves, as well as their contents Create files using output redirection cat command - concatenate text via output redirection without a command - &gt; filename touch command - creates empty files </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 12 Manipulating Files (continued) Delete files when no longer needed rm command - permanently removes a file or an empty directory The -r option of the rm command will remove a directory and everything it contains Copy files as a means of back-up or as a means to assist with new file creation cp command - copies the file(s) specified by the source path to the location specified by the destination path </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 13 Manipulating Files (continued) Move files from directory to directory mv command - removes file from one directory and places it in another Finding a file helps you locate it in the directory structure find command - searches for the file that has the name you specify </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 14 Manipulating Files (continued) Combining files using output redirection cat command - concatenate text of two different files via output redirection paste command - joins text of different files in side by side fashion </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 15 Manipulating Files (continued) The paste command joins text of different files in side by side fashion </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 16 Manipulating Files (continued) Extracting fields of a file using output redirection: the cut command removes specific columns or fields from a file </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 17 Manipulating Files (continued) Sorting the contents of a file sort command - sorts a files contents alphabetically or numerically the sort command offers many options: You can sort the contents of a file and redirect the output to another file Utilizing a sort key provides the option of sorting on a field position within each line </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 18 Manipulating Files (continued) </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 19 Creating Script Files UNIX/Linux users create shell script files to contain commands that can be run sequentially as a set this helps with the issues of command automation and re-use of command actions UNIX/Linux users use the vi editor to create script files, then make the script executable using the chmod command with the x argument </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 20 Creating Script Files (continued) </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 21 Using the join Command on Two Files Sometimes you want to link the information in two files The join command is often used in relational database processing The join command associates information in two different files on the basis of a common field or key in those files </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 22 A Brief Introduction to the Awk Program Awk, a pattern-scanning and processing language helps to produce professional-looking reports Awk provides a powerful programming environment that can perform actions on files that are difficult to duplicate with a combination of other commands </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 23 A Brief Introduction to the Awk Program (continued) Awk checks to see if the input records in specified files satisfy a pattern If so, awk executes a specified action If no pattern is provided, awk applies the action to every record </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 24 Chapter Summary UNIX/Linux supports regular files, directories, and character and block special files File structures depend on data being stored UNIX/Linux receives input from the standard input device (keyboard, stdin) and sends output to the standard output device (monitor, stdout) </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 25 Chapter Summary (continued) touch updates a files time and date stamps and creates empty files rmdir removes empty directories cut extracts specific columns or fields from a file paste combines two or more files sort sorts a files contents </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition 26 Chapter Summary (continued) To automate command processing, include commands in a script file join extracts data from two files sharing a common field and uses this field to join the two files Awk is a pattern-scanning and processing language useful for creating a formatted report with a professional look </li> </ul>