CHAPTER 9 INDIA (500 b.c.e – 500 c.e.). MAURYAN EMPIRE

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CHAPTER 9INDIA (500 b.c.e 500 c.e.)

MAURYAN EMPIRE

CHANDRAGUPTAFirst empireEfficient govt.Military expansion

PATALIPUTRA18 sq. mi.Largest city

GOVT.Provinces, districtsSecret policeMILITARY700k menExpansion, powerECONOMYMining, manufacturingInfrastructure Foreign tradeState-controlled Promote private investment

ASHOKAGrandsonMost popular rulerBuddhism official religionExpansion

Religious toleration

MAURYAN DECLINEAfter Ashokas deathLogistical issuesLarge empireGUPTA (320-500)Reunite IndiaCultural renaissance

GUPTA Politically, economically same as MauryanSmaller land, bureaucracyReligious tolerationHinduism favoredbrahmans

ART/LITERATURELove of lifeLovers embracing, musicians, dancers

Golden age of lit.Religious, philosophical, dramaPoetry, adventuresThieves, courtesans, beastsKama Sutra

SCIENCELearning stimulusBuddhist university (Nalanda)Foreigners

1-9, zeroInfluences

Math, astronomyCube roots, sines, factors

MEDICINEHospitals freeAnimals Sterilized woundsCesarean operationsPlastic surgery Known diseases, treatments:Jaundice, abcess, tumor, diarrhea, fever

Leprosy treatmentUnknown to west for centuries

BUDDHISMIndia Challenge HinduismNonviolenceMajor religion: AsiaSiddhartha GuatamaMonasticism

BELIEFSEnd rebirth: NirvanaMoral conduct and meditationSorrow everywhere4 NOBLE TRUTHSSuffering dominatesWhy? We can rid of sufferingFollow 8 fold path to Nirvana

JAINISMChallenged HinduismIndia, 5th century B.C.Mahavira

BELIEFSAhimsa: nonviolenceAll things jiva (soul)No meat and wineHindu beliefsKarma Moksa

Different path to pursue MoksaBELIEFSUltimate goal: Renounce worldWandering monk, nun

BELIEFSNo meat and wineFastingFive virtues:Non-violenceTruthDo not stealChastityWorldly things

JAINISMDrastic beliefs