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Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton 1

Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton 1. Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Consists of limbs and limb girdles to provide movement 1.Pectoral girdle: 4 bones

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Text of Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton 1. Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Consists of limbs and limb...

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  • Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton 1
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  • Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Consists of limbs and limb girdles to provide movement 1.Pectoral girdle: 4 bones 2.Upper limbs: 60 bones 3.Pelvic girdle: 2 bones 4.Lower limbs: 60 bones 2
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  • Upper limbs Carpal tunnel syndrome Carpals arranged in two rows of four bones Creates a U shape enclosed by the flexor retinaculum (ligament) All tendons, vessels, and nerves of the hand must pass through channels between bones and ligaments (no extra space) Any inflammation = pressure on nerves leading to pain 4
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  • The Appendicular Skeleton Allows us to move and manipulate objects Includes all bones besides axial skeleton: the limbs the supportive girdles 5
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  • The bones of the pectoral girdle, their functions, and features. 6
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  • The Pectoral Girdle Figure 82a 7
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  • The Pectoral Girdle Also called the shoulder girdle Connects the arms to the body Positions the shoulders Provides a base for arm movement 8
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  • The Pectoral Girdle Consists of: 2 clavicles 2 scapulae Connects with the axial skeleton only at the manubrium 9
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  • The Clavicles Figure 82b, c 10
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  • The Clavicles Also called collarbones Long, S-shaped bones Originate at the manubrium (sternal end) Articulate with the scapulae (acromial end) Costal Tuberosity: Attachment for the costoclavicular ligament which articulates with the cartilage of the ribs Conoid Tubercle: Attachment for the conoid ligament which articulates with the coracoid process of the scapula 11
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  • The Scapulae Also called shoulder blades Broad, flat triangles Articulate with arm and collarbone 12
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  • The Scapula Anterior surface: the subscapular fossa attachment for the subscapularis muscle Function to rotate the head of the humerus medially (internal rotation) Function to draw the humerus forward and downward when the arm is raised humerus Figure 83a 13
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  • Structures of the Scapula Posterior surface Supraspinous fossa Origin for the supraspinatus muscle, which abducts (toward midline) the arm at the shoulder Origin for the infraspinatus muscle, which adducts that arm Figure 83c 14
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  • Why would a broken clavicle affect the mobility of the scapula? A.Muscles attach the clavicle to the scapula. B.Clavicle is attached to the sternum which is attached to the scapula. C.Clavicle attaches the scapula to the humerus. D.Clavicle attaches the scapula to the sternum. 15
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  • The bones of the upper limbs, their functions, and features. 16
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  • The Upper Limbs Arms, forearms, wrists, and hands Note: arm (brachium) = 1 bone, the humerus 17
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  • The Humerus Also called the arm The long, upper armbone Greater tuberosity Attachment for suprasinatus and infrapinatus Lesser tuberosity Attachment for tendon of subscapularus Figure 84 18
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  • The Humerus Epicondyle Attachment for ligaments of the elbow-joint Lateral: tendon of supinator muscle Medial: tendon of flexor muscles of the forearm Olecranon fossa Receives process for the extension of the forearm Coronoid fossa Receives the coronoid process of the ulna during flexion (joint angle decreases) of the forearm Figure 84 19
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  • The Forearm Also called the antebrachium Consists of 2 long bones: ulna (medial) radius (lateral) Radial Tuberosity Insertion of bicep brachii Ulnar Tuberosity Insertion of brachialis Styloid Process Muscle attachment for ulna or radius Figure 85 20
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  • The rounded projections on either side of the elbow are parts of which bone? A.humerus B.ulna C.radius D.both A and B 21
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  • Which bone of the forearm is lateral in the anatomical position? A.ulna B.radius C.scaphoid D.depends on hand position 22
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  • The Wrist Figure 86 23
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  • Bill accidentally fractures his first distal phalanx with a hammer. Which finger is broken? A.thumb B.small finger C.ring finger D.index finger 24
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  • The bones of the pelvic girdle, their functions, and features. 25
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  • The Pelvic Girdle Made up of 2 hipbones (ossa coxae) Strong to bear body weight, stress of movement Part of the pelvis 26
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  • Pelvic Girdle 2 os coxae Note: pelvis (no anatomical) = pelvic girdle (2 os coxae) + sacrum + coccyx 27
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  • The Pelvic Girdle Figure 87 28
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  • The Pelvis Figure 88 29
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  • The Pelvis Consists of 2 ossa coxae, the sacrum, and the coccyx Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae Obturator Foramen Opening for nerves and muscles to pass through Acetabulum Head of the femur meets with the pelvis; hip-joint Ischial Tuberosity Point of insertion for the semimembranosus, head of biceps femoris, and semitendinosus 30
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  • Which three bones make up the os coxae? A.ilium, ischium, and femur B.ilium, ischium, and pubis C.ilium, acetabulum, and pubis D.ilium, femur, and pubis 31
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  • When you are seated, which part of the pelvis bears your bodys weight? A.obturator foramen B.posterior inferior iliac spines C.ischial tuberosities D.pubic tubercle 32
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  • Divisions of the Pelvis Figure 89 33
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  • Divisions of the Pelvis True pelvis: encloses pelvic cavity 2 regions: Pelvic brim: encloses pelvic inlet Perineum region: perineal muscles support organs of pelvic cavity False pelvis: blades of ilium above arcuate line 34
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  • The structural and functional differences between the male and female pelvis. 35
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  • Comparing the Male and Female Pelvis Female pelvis: Smoother and lighter less prominent muscle and ligament attachments 36
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  • Pelvis Modifications for Childbearing Enlarged pelvic outlet Broad pubic angle (> 100) Less curvature of sacrum and coccyx Wide, circular pelvic inlet Broad, low pelvis 37
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  • How is the pelvis of females adapted for childbearing? A.narrow pubic angle B.greater curvature on sacrum C.broad, low pelvis D.oval pelvic inlet 38
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  • The bones of the lower limbs, their functions, and features. 39
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  • The Lower Limbs Functions: weight bearing motion Note: leg = lower leg; thigh = upper leg 40
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  • Bones of the Lower Limbs Femur (thigh) Patella (kneecap) Tibia and fibula (leg) Tarsals (ankle) Metatarsals (foot) Phalanges (toes) 41
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  • The Femur The longest, heaviest bone Figure 811 42
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  • Femur Trochanters Greater and lesser trochanters tendon attachments Shaft: attaches hip muscles Epicondyle: Lateral and Medial epicondyle Attachments for ligaments of the knee joint 43
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  • The Patella Figure 812 44
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  • The Patella Also called the kneecap A sesamoid bone Formed within tendon of quadriceps femoris Base attaches quadriceps femoris Apex attaches patellar ligament 45
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  • The Tibia Figure 813 46
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  • The Tibia Also called the shinbone Supports body weight Larger than fibula Medial to fibula Tibial Tuberosity Attachment for the ligamentum patellae 47
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  • The Fibula Attaches muscles of feet and toes Smaller than tibia Lateral to tibia 48
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  • The fibula neither participates in the knee join nor bears weight. When it is fractured, however, walking becomes difficult. Why? A.Fibula helps stabilize the ankle joint. B.Fibula attaches many leg muscles. C.Both A and B. D.None of the above. 49
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  • The Ankle Also called the tarsus: consists of 7 tarsal bones Talus: carries weight from tibia across trochlea Calcaneus (heel bone): transfers weight from talus to ground attaches Achilles tendon Figure 814a 50
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  • Feet: Arches Arches transfer weight from 1 part of the foot to another Figure 814b 51
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  • While jumping off the back steps at his house, 10-year-old Joey lands on his right heel and breaks his foot. Which foot bone is most likely broken? A.talus B.calcaneus C.navicular bone D.first metatarsal bone 52
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  • Which foot bone transmits the weight of the body from the tibia toward the toes? A.calcaneus B.navicular bone C.cuboid bone D.talus 53
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  • Which foot bone transmits the weight of the body from the tibia toward the toes? A.calcaneus B.navicular bone C.cuboid bone D.talus 54
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  • KEY CONCEPT Pectoral girdle is highly mobile, stabilized primarily by muscles Pelvic girdle is more massive, stronger, and less mobile 55
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  • The skeleton reveals significant information about an individual. 56
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  • Studying the Skeleton Reveals characteristics: muscle strength and mass (bone ridges, bone mass) medical history (condition of teeth, healed fractures) sex and age (bone measurements and fusion) body size 57
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  • The skeletal differences between males and females. 58
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  • Male and Female Skeletons Table 81 59
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  • How aging affects the skeletal system. 60
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  • Age-Related Skeletal Changes Table 82 61
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  • SUMMARY Components of the: appendicular skeleton pectoral girdle, and relationship to axial skeleton upper limbs, and relationship to pectoral girdle Components of the: pelvic girdle, and relationship to axial skeleton lower limbs, and relationship to pelvic girdle Differences between male and female pelvises Individual skeletal variations Effects of aging 62