Chapter 7: India and China Establish Empires
Essential Questions: How did the Mauryan Empire, the Golden Age, and Asoka affect the development of India?
How did the development of Hinduism and Buddhism affect India?
How did the Han dynasty affect China?
I. Chandragupta Maurya Builds an EmpireA. Chandragupta Unifies North IndiaChandragupta Maurya defeated Seleucus, Alexander the Greats general321 BC- Chandragupta wins, claiming land in Indus River valley= Mauryan Empire Empire stretched 2,000+ miles uniting North India under one ruler- Chandragupta
B. Running the Empiredivided empire into 4 provinces, each headed by a royal princeEach province divided into local districts, officials imposed taxes, enforced lawsAdviser named Kautilya writes a rulers handbook that recommended spying on the people and employing political assassination.
C. Life in the Mauryan Empire Not much known b/c of a lack of recordscapital city very beautiful large army assembled farmers exempt from military serviceheavy taxes to pay for army and building projects
II. Asoka Runs the Empire Asoka, Chandraguptas grandson, took control of Mauryan EmpireAt first ruled much like his grandfather, waging bloody wars to expand his empireBegan to study Buddhism, which taught nonviolence
built large pillars with his new policies of equality, nonviolence, religious toleration written on them He also had roads built that connected the 4 corners of IndiaAfter Asokas death a power struggle beganFor the next 500 years Greeks, Persians, and Asians invaded northern India
III. The Gupta EmpireAfter the 500 years of turmoil, another strong leader arose to form Indias 2nd great empire, the Gupta EmpireFounded by Chandra Gupta (no relation)
A. Chandra Gupta Builds an EmpireChandra Gupta came to power by marrying into an influential royal familyTook the title Great King of Kings in 320 AD Included the city of Magadha and the area north of it, central region of the Ganges River being the power basin.335 AD Guptas son took over- a lover of poetry and music, but had a warlike side too
B. Daily Life in IndiaGupta Empire is 1st period from which historians have information on daily lifeLived in small villagesMerchants, craftsppl clustered in districts, shops street level, homes in rooms aboveFamilies were patriarchal- house hold run by the eldest maleWhole family worked in raising cropsDrought common, had to irrigate crops
Section Two: Religions In IndiaI. A More Popular Form of BuddhismBy 250 BC Buddhism and Hinduism were Indias two main faithsBuddha stressed that each person could reach a state of peace called nirvana.Bodhisattvas-People who wished to achieve enlightenment and become a Buddha themselvesTwo types of Buddhists Mahayana-Offered salvation to all and allowed popular worshipTheravada- Emphasized individual discipline
A. Hindu RebirthHinduism began to change, during this time most practices could only be performed by the priest.Three most important godsBrahma- creator of the worldVishnu- preserver of the worldShiva- destroyer of the worldPeople began to devote themselves to Vishnu or Shiva
II. Flowering of Indian CultureA. Literature and Performing ArtsKalidasa- great Indian poet, wrote ShakuntalaIn Southern India they began to hold writing academies, more than 2,000 poems still existacting groups began to travel through Southern India, women and men participated in these shows
B. Astronomy, Mathematics, and MedicineIndians began to use a calendar based on sun rather than on cycles of the moon7 day week- broke each day into hoursDiscovered earth was round, based on shadow on the moon from a lunar eclipsehad medical guides that classified 1,000 diseases and 500 medicinal plantsKnew how to perform surgery-even performed plastic surgery
MathematicsZero, decimal system invented in IndiaAryabhata- Skilled mathematiciancalculated the value of pi to four decimal places.Estimated the length of a solar year 365.358 days.
III. The Spread of Indian TradeA. Overland Trade, East and WestSilk roads- caravan routes that were used by Asian tradersIndians learned of these routes and became middlemen- made huge profitsRome, Africa, and China were all big traders with India
Silk Road- Trade Routes
p. 196P. 196- Map Skills- answer the questions in your Journal
Section Three: Chinas Dynasties CC- Silk Road
I. The Founding of the Han DynastyGovt fell apart under Qin(chin) Dynasty led to a Civil WarDuring civil war 2 powerful leaders emerged - Xiang Yu and Liu Bang two fought for control of China
Bang was victorious, declared himself emperor of the Han Dynasty, which ruled China for 400 yearsEstablished a centralized govt- adopted Confucian philosophy Lowered taxes and softened harsh punishments
After Liu Bang The Empress LuBang died in 195 BCHis son became emperor in name only- real ruler was Bangs wife, Empress LuAfter her death, loyalist to Liu Bang executed Lus existing family
A Highly Structured GovernmentA. Structures of Han GovtRelied on a complex bureaucracy18 different civil service jobsThis important and efficient element remains in place until 1912
III. Han Technology, Commerce, and CultureA. Technology Revolutionized Chinese LifeInvented paper= helped spread education as paper cheaper than silkTsai Lun credited with creation of paper in 104 A.D.Collar harness made it possible for horse to pull heavier loadsWheel barrel and windmills
Agriculture Versus Commerce
Due to a huge population- farming viewed as most honored occupationInvention of plow, iron tools, collar harness, wheelbarrow and water mill assist farmers.
CommerceCommerce not seen as important (even thought it really was very important) Government had a monopoly (complete control) on mining of salt, forging of iron, minting of coins, and brewing of alcoholGovernment also had a large part of the silk industry
p. 208Complete the Main Ideas questions on a separate sheet of paper. Write the questions.