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<ul><li> 1. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.1Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements3.1Elements and Symbols </li></ul><p> 2. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.2Elements arepure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary laboratory processesthe building blocks of mattergold carbon aluminumElements 3. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.3Sources of Some Element NamesSome elements arenamed for planets,mythological figures,minerals, colors,scientists, and places. 4. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.4A symbolrepresents the name of an elementconsists of 1 or 2 lettersstarts with a capital letterExamples:1-Letter Symbols 2-Letter SymbolsC carbon Co cobaltN nitrogen Ca calciumF fluorine Al aluminumO oxygen Mg magnesiumSymbols of Elements 5. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.5Some symbols are derived from Latin names, as shownbelow.Cu, copper (cuprum) Au, gold (aurum)Fe, iron (ferrum) Ag, silver (argentum)Symbols from Latin Names 6. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.6Physical Properties of ElementsThe physical properties of an elementare observed or measured without changing its identityinclude the following:shapecolorodortastedensitymelting pointboiling point 7. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.7Physical Properties of ElementsSome physical properties of copper are:Color Red-orangeLuster Very shinyMelting point 1083 CBoiling point 2567 CConductionof electricity ExcellentConductionof heat Excellent 8. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.8Select the correct symbol for each of the following:A. Calcium1) C 2) Ca 3) CAB. Sulfur1) S 2) Sl 3) SuC. Iron1) Ir 2) FE 3) FeLearning Check 9. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.9Select the correct symbol for each of the following:A. Calcium2) CaB. Sulfur1) SC. Iron3) FeSolution 10. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.10Select the correct name for each symbol.A. N1) neon 2) nitrogen 3) nickelB. P1) potassium 2) phlogiston 3) phosphorusC. Ag1) silver 2) agean 3) goldLearning Check 11. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.11Select the correct name for each symbol.A. N2) nitrogenB. P3) phosphorusC. Ag1) silverSolution 12. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.12Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements3.2 The Periodic Table 13. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.13Groups and PeriodsOn the periodic tableGroups contain elements with similar properties and are arranged in vertical columns.Periods are the horizontal rows of elements. 14. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.14Groups and Periods (continued) 15. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.15Periodic Table 16. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.16Group NumbersGroup NumbersUse numbers 118 to identify the columns from left to right.Use the letter A for the representative elements (1A to 8A) and the letter B for the transition elements. 17. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.17Representative ElementsSeveral groups of representative elements are known by common names. 18. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.18Alkali MetalsGroup 1A(1), the alkali metals, includes lithium, sodium, and potassium. 19. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.19HalogensGroup 7A(17), the halogens, includes chlorine, bromine, and iodine. 20. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.20Identify the element described by the following:A. Group 7A(17), Period 41) Br 2) Cl 3) MnB. Group 2A(2), Period 31) beryllium 2) magnesium 3) boronC. Group 5A(15), Period 21) phosphorus 2) arsenic 3) nitrogenLearning Check 21. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.21A. Group 7A (17), Period 41) BrB. Group 2A (2), Period 32) magnesiumC. Group 5A(15), Period 23) nitrogenSolution 22. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.22Metals, Nonmetals, and MetalloidsThe heavy zigzag lineseparates metals andnonmetals. Metals are located tothe left. Nonmetals are locatedto the right. Metalloids are locatedalong the heavy zigzagline between the metalsand nonmetals. 23. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.23Metalsare shiny and ductileare good conductors of heat and electricityNonmetalsare dull, brittle, and poor conductors of heat and electricityare good insulatorsMetalloidsare better conductors than nonmetals, but not as good as metalsare used as semiconductors and insulatorsProperties of Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids 24. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.24Comparing a Metal, Metalloid, and Nonmetal 25. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.25Identify each of the following elements as 1) metal, 2) nonmetal, or 3) metalloid.A. sodium ____B. chlorine ____C. silicon ____D. iron ____E. carbon ____Learning Check 26. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.26Identify each of the following elements as 1) metal, 2) nonmetal, or 3) metalloid.A. sodium 1 metalB. chlorine 2 nonmetalC. silicon 3 metalloidD. iron 1 metalE. carbon 2 nonmetalSolution 27. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.27Match the elements to the description.A. Metals in Group 4A(14)1) Sn, Pb 2) C, Si 3) C, Si, Ge, SnB. Nonmetals in Group 5A(15)1) As, Sb, Bi 2) N, P 3) N, P, As, SbC. Metalloids in Group 4A(14)1) C, Si, Ge, 2) Si, Ge 3) Si, Ge, Sn, PbLearning Check 28. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.28Match the elements to the description.A. Metals in Group 4A (14)1) Sn, PbB. Nonmetals in Group 5A(15)2) N, PC. Metalloids in Group 4A(14)2) Si, GeSolution 29. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.29Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements3.3 The Atom 30. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.30Daltons Atomic TheoryAtomsare tiny particles of matterof an element are similar to each other but are different from atoms of other elementsof two or more different elements combine to form compoundsare rearranged to form new combinations in a chemical reaction 31. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.31Subatomic ParticlesAtoms contain subatomic particles.Protons have a positive (+) charge.Electrons have a negative () charge.Like charges repel, and unlikecharges attract.Neutrons are neutral. 32. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.32Rutherfords Gold-Foil ExperimentIn Rutherfords gold-foil experiment, positivelycharged particleswere aimed at atoms of goldmostly went straight through the atomswere deflected only occasionallyConclusion:There must be a small, dense, positively chargednucleus in the atom that deflects positive particlesthat come close. 33. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.33Rutherfords Gold-Foil Experiment (continued) 34. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.34Structure of the AtomAn atom consistsof a nucleus that contains protons and neutronsof electrons in a large, empty space around the nucleus 35. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.35Atomic Mass ScaleOn the atomic mass scale for subatomic particles:1 atomic mass unit (amu) is defined as 1/12 of the mass of the carbon-12 atom.A proton has a mass of about 1 (1.007) amu.A neutron has a mass of about 1 (1.008) amu.An electron has a very small mass, 0.000549 amu. 36. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.36Particles in the Atom 37. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.37Learning CheckIdentify each statement as describing a(n) 1) proton, 2) neutron, or 3) electron.A. __ found outside the nucleusB. __ has a positive chargeC. __ is neutralD. __ found in the nucleus 38. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.38SolutionIdentify each statement as describing a(n) 1) proton, 2) neutron, or 3) electron.A. 3 found outside the nucleusB. 1 has a positive chargeC. 2 is neutralD. 1, 2 found in the nucleus 39. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.39Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements3.4 Atomic Number and Mass Number 40. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.40The atomic numberis specific for each elementis the same for all atoms of an elementis equal to the number of protons in an atomappears above the symbol of an elementAtomic Number11NaAtomic NumberSymbol 41. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.41Examples of atomic number and number of protons:Hydrogen has atomic number 1; every H atom has one proton.Carbon has atomic number 6; every C atom has six protons.Copper has atomic number 29; every Cu atom has 29 protons.Gold has atomic number 79; every Au atom has 79 protons.Atomic Number and Protons 42. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.42State the number of protons in each.A. A nitrogen atom1) 5 protons 2) 7 protons 3) 14 protonsB. A sulfur atom1) 32 protons 2) 16 protons 3) 6 protonsC. A barium atom1) 137 protons 2) 81 protons 3) 56 protonsLearning Check 43. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.43State the number of protons in each.A. A nitrogen atom2) atomic number 7; 7 protonsB. A sulfur atom2) atomic number 16; 16 protonsC. A barium atom,3) atomic number 56; 56 protonsSolution 44. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.44An atomof an element is electrically neutral; the net charge of an atom is zerohas an equal number of protons and electrons.number of protons = number of electronsof aluminum has 13 protons and 13 electrons; the net charge is zero13 protons (13+) + 13 electrons (13) = 0Number of Electrons in an Atom 45. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.45Mass NumberThe mass numberrepresents the number of particles in the nucleus.is equal to thenumber of protons + number of neutrons 46. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.46Atomic Models 47. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.47An atom of zinc has a mass number of 65.A. How many protons are in this zinc atom?1) 30 2) 35 3) 65B. How many neutrons are in the zinc atom?1) 30 2) 35 3) 65C. What is the mass number of a zinc atom that has37 neutrons?1) 37 2) 65 3) 67Learning Check 48. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.48An atom of zinc has a mass number of 65.A. How many protons are in this zinc atom?1) 30 (atomic number 30)B. How many neutrons are in the zinc atom?2) 35 (65 30 = 35)C. What is the mass number of a zinc atom that has 37 neutrons?3) 67 (30 + 37 = 67)Solution 49. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.49An atom has 14 protons and 20 neutrons.A. Its atomic number is1) 14 2) 20 3) 34B. Its atomic number is1) 14 2) 20 3) 34C. The element is1) Si 2) Ca 3) SeLearning Check 50. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.50Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements3.5 Isotopes and Atomic Mass 51. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.51Isotopesare atoms of the same element that have different mass numbershave the same number of protons but different numbers of neutronsIsotopes 52. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.52A nuclear symbolrepresents a particular atom of an elementgives the mass number in the upper left corner and the atomic number in the lower left cornerExample: An atom of sodium with atomic number 11 and a mass number 23 has the following atomic symbol:mass numberatomic numberNuclear Symbol2311Na 53. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.53For an atom, the nuclear symbol gives the number ofprotons (p+)neutrons (n)electrons (e)8 p+ 15 p+ 30 p+8 n 16 n 35 n8 e 15 e 30 eNuclear Symbols168O3115P6530Zn 54. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.54Naturally occurring carbon consists of three isotopes, C-12, C-13, and C-14. State the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of the following.protons ______ ______ ______neutrons ______ ______ ______electrons ______ ______ ______Learning Check126C136C146C 55. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.55protons 6 p+ 6 p+ 6 p+neutrons 6 n 7 n 8 nelectrons 6 e 6 e 6 eSolution126C136C146C 56. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.56Write the nuclear symbols for atoms with the following subatomic particles:A. 8p+, 8n, 8e ___________B. 17p+, 20n, 17e ___________C. 47p+, 60n, 47e ___________Learning Check 57. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.57A. 8p+, 8n, 8eB. 17p+, 20n, 17eC. 47p+, 60n, 47eSolution168O3717Cl10747Ag 58. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.58Learning Check1. Which of the following pairs are isotopes of the same element?2. In which of the following pairs do both atoms have8 neutrons?A.B.C.126X157X126Z146Z157Z168Z 59. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.59Solution1. BBoth nuclear symbols represent isotopes of carbon with six protons each, but one has 6 neutrons and the other has 8.2. CAn atom of nitrogen (atomic number 7) and an atom of oxygen (atomic number 8) each have 8 neutrons. 60. General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.60Isoto...</p>

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