Protestant & Catholic RevolutionsAtlantic system of tradeReligious WarsGlorious revolutionFrance (Louis 14th)Russia (Peter the Great, serfdom)Joint stock companiesEnlightenment names & ideas
**Columbus was sponsored by Isabella & Ferdinand remember Ms. Aragon & Mr. Castille and yes I said that was Mr. Castille because Isabella of Castille was a total boss. Which would be why her reign was called that of the Spanish Kings. Just sayingShe had been sponsoring expeditions to conquer new lands for 15 years before Columbus finally got his financing. He literally got the OK within months of the Spanish final defeat of the Moors in January 1492. She had managed to wrest the Canary Islands from Portugeses grubby expansionism before marrying Ferdinand and she wore the pants in the family until her death in 1504. The sponsorship of Columbus was one of many they sponsored (12 just between 1500 and 1502). But in general, Europeans were going all over the place in both the Atlantic & Pacific oceans looking for ways to get more Asian stuff cheaply. Sound familiar???*This map was produced in Europe in 1482 by Johannes Schnitzer*Martin Luther was essentially a very opinionated monk and minor professor at the brand new university of Wittenberg in a minor province of Germany ruled by a minor prince, Frederick the Wise. When he nailed his opinion paper (or didnt) to the door of the church he was essentially challenging all comers to an intellectual debate about whether the Catholic church was doing the right thing or was becoming a corrupt institution that needed reform.Frederick the Wise put up with this nonsense because the more people talked about the controversy/read the books the more they mentioned his new University at Wittenberg (no publicity is bad publicity is not a new saying). Charles V (a Habsburg) was a recently crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, he was also 19 which meant no one was giving him the respect he wanted. So when he heard about this Luther guy in backwater Prussia dissing the Catholic church and the Pope he really had to do something about it or risk losing control before he really got it in the first place. So Charles, wanting to appear all rulery and stuff decided to bring Luther to trial. The name of a trial was called a diet. A bunch of noblemen would get together in a room, listen to the case, and make a unanimous decision. The diets for Charles were held in the city of Worms. And in one of historys best jokes we get to say diet of worms. Of course, Charles as emperor would tell all the nobles what the verdict should be or hed have to go to war with them and do all sorts of other nasty tricks on them so this was a pretty safe bet. Charles would win because Luther would be executed or recant, ergo silenced and his power would be established among the nobles while showing the whole of Europe what a magnificent, just, defender of the faith he was.So in 1521, one year after Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther and 4 years after posting his 95 thesis Luther shows up at the Diet and smokes em all with his logic and wit. By this time, he has refined his arguments to include the rights of sovereign princes to choose how their tax money gets spent and not just send it all to Rome. Of course a room full of princes is eager to hear this sort of rhetoric and the argument goes nicely for Luther. But hes in a room where people have to listen to Charles, right? Wrong! The unanimous decision was not met, a few voted innocent including Frederick the Wise who didnt want to watch his cash cow burn at the stake. Luther was sent home. But on the way home Frederick kidnapped Luther to save him from Leo or Charles henchmen who were determined to have the last laugh. He hid away in a castle in Germany for a couple of years and translated the bible in German. He also refined his theology to say that reforming the Catholic church was inadequate, what was needed was an entirely new religion. Entre Lutheranism
Sale of indulgence or grants of salvation, for money was wrong. Only faith could gain salvation. Monasticism was wrong. Priests should be able to get marriedPriests should be the leaders of their community, and act as such. *The whole indulgences thing that got Luther so mad in the first place was Leos attempt to make the Medicis even richer! Became pope at the age of 17Had a son who later became Pope Clement II (officially his nephew)Packed the cardinal college with 31 loyal friends and family members to ensure his position and that of his familySpent money like water on food, wine, and women
*John Calvin was a French lawyer who liked Luthers teachings but thought he wasnt strict enough. He got kicked out of France and went to Switzerland where he created something like Puritanism.Protestants started off being anti-indulgences, but then extended their complaints to a myriad of abuses by the church from celibacy to excesses. The root of the problem was that the clergy wasnt living the lifestyle they tried to make the people live and they were abusing their positions. Particularly the Pope. The other issue was Biblical supremacy, the Protestants believed the bible was the final word and where it differed from the teachings of the church, the teachings were wrong.
The Catholic reformation was partially a response to Protestantism and partly because they realized that there was a real need for reform. At the Council of Trent from 1545 to 1563 church leaders decided on new standards for morality and higher education requirements for priests.St. Ignatius Loyola was essentially the crusader for the Council of Trent, he founded the Society of Jesus, and he followers, the Jesuits became first rate theologans and missionaries who could outwit you AND kick your butt at the same time. *Edict of Nantes,French dit De Nantes, law promulgated at Nantes in Brittany on April 13, 1598, by Henry IV of France. It granted a large measure of religious liberty to his Protestant subjects, the Huguenots. The edict upheld Protestants in freedom of conscience and permitted them to hold public worship in many parts of the kingdom, though not in Paris. It granted them full civil rights and established a special court, the Chambre de ldit, composed of both Protestants and Catholics, to deal with disputes arising from the edict. Protestant pastors were to be paid by the state and released from certain obligations; finally, the Protestants could keep the places they were still holding in August 1597 as strongholds, or places de sret, for eight years, the expenses of garrisoning them being met by the king.The edict also restored Catholicism in all areas where Catholic practice had been interrupted; and it made any extension of Protestant worship in France legally impossible.
On Oct. 18, 1685, Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes and deprived the French Protestants of all religious and civil liberties. Within a few years, more than 400,000 Huguenots emigratedto England, Prussia, Holland, and Americadepriving France of its most industrious commercial class.*The printing press was invented by Johannes Guttenberg in 1436 although the ideas were not new. The Chinese had been using movable type to print books for centuries and the first movable type was invented in 1041. But we still like Johannes because his cool invention meant that guys like Luther and Loyola, and even Pope Leo could get their ideas out to the people faster and more efficiently. And ideas are t