Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

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Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions. Atoms and the atomic theory Components of the atom The periodic table Molecules and Ions Ionic Formulas Names of Compounds. Atoms and the Atomic Theory. Elements consist of tiny particles called atoms. Atoms retain their identity in reactions. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsAtoms and the atomic theoryComponents of the atomThe periodic tableMolecules and IonsIonic FormulasNames of Compounds</p></li><li><p>*Atoms and the Atomic TheoryElements consist of tiny particles called atoms.Atoms retain their identity in reactions.In a compound, atoms combine in fixed ratios of small whole numbers. ( Water = 2 H, 1 O )</p><p>Key Figures:Rutherford Discovered nucleus [Gold foil experiment] JJ Thompson</p></li><li><p>*</p><p>Thomsons discovery of the electron</p><p>Negatively chargedSmaller than proton (1/2000) 0.005 AMU</p><p>Electrons</p></li><li><p>*Components of Atoms</p><p>Relative massRelative chargeLocationProton1+1NucleusNeutron10NucleusElectron0.0005-1Electron cloud</p></li><li><p>*Atomic Number, Mass NumberAtomic Number = # of protons in nucleus = # of electrons in a neutral atom. (not an ion)Atomic Numberis characteristic of a particular element. (all Hydrogen atoms have 1, Helium 2)</p><p>Mass Number discovery of the nucleus = # of protons + # of neutrons</p></li><li><p>*Isotopes:Atoms of the same element with a different mass number.</p><p>ProtonsNeutronsAtomic NumberNuclear SymbolMass NumberCarbon-1266612Carbon-1468</p></li><li><p>*Isotopes of HydrogenNo neutrons1 neutron2 neutronsdeuteriumtritiumprotium</p></li><li><p>*Nuclear stability(stable isotopes)Small elements (Up to atomic # 20) the stable proton:neutron ratio = 1:1Carbon 12, C-12 is a stable carbon isotope.C-16 is unstable.After element 20Then more neutrons are needed to mute the repulsive force of the protons in the nucleus.For heavy elements Atomic Number =80+ the stable P:N ratio is 1:1.5</p></li><li><p>*GroupsGroupsGroupsperiodsMetalsNon Metals</p></li><li><p>*MoleculesUsually made up of non-metal atomsHeld together by covalent bonds</p></li><li><p>*Types of formulasUsing ethyl (drinking) alcohol as an example:</p><p>Molecular Formula: C2H6OGives # and type of each element</p><p>Structural Formula:Shows how atoms are bonded</p><p>Condensed Structural: CH3CH2OHGives structural hints</p></li><li><p>*IonsFormation of monatomic ionsGain or lose in order to obtain a noble gas electron configuration.</p><p>Lose electrons: (metals)Na Na+ + e-</p><p>Gain electrons: (non-metals)F + e- F </p></li><li><p>*Monatomic ion chargesCations (+)Group 1 +1Group 2 +2Aluminum +3</p><p>Anions (-)Group 17 -1Group 16 -2Nitride-3</p><p>Find their locations on the periodic table and label them with their familiar names.</p></li><li><p>*Monatomic ions of Transition Metalsand POST-transition metalsMany are polyvalenti.e. multiple possible charges.Fe2+, Fe3+Cu+, Cu2+Pb2+, Pb4+Sn2+, Sn4+Key monovalent ions:Silver Ag+Zinc Zn2+</p></li><li><p>*Polyatomic IonsGroup of several atoms acting as an ionic unit.Ex. NO3 - Nitrate</p><p>NH4+ and Hg22+ are the only common polyatomic ions with a positive charge. (Cations)</p></li><li><p>*Determine if the following are ionic or molecularKClNaNO3CO2PBr3CoOCCl4IonicIonicMolecularMolecularIonicMolecularIonic: metal and non metal (or polyatomic ion)</p><p>Molecular: 2 or more non metals</p></li><li><p>*Formulas of CompoundsIonic compounds:Apply principle of electroneutrality.</p><p>CationAnion FormulaNet chargeCa 2+F-CaF2Al3+NO3-Al(NO3)3Na+H2PO4-NaH2PO4Zn2+C2H3O2-Zn(C2H3O2)2</p></li><li><p>*Ionic Compounds dissolved in water: electrolytesElectrolytes can carry a current to complete a circuit.Ionic compounds are electrolytesThey may be strong or weak.</p><p>Molecular compounds are non-electrolytes. They will NOT carry a current to complete a circuit.</p></li><li><p>*Names of compoundsIonic:Join together the names of the 2 ionsNa+ (sodium) Br- (bromide)= NaBr = sodium bromidePolyvalent transition metals include charge in the nameFe3+ (Iron III) O2- (Oxide) = Fe2O3= Iron (III) OxideOxo-anions-ate, -ite, per-, hypo-</p></li><li><p>*Systematic naming of oxo-anions</p><p>NitrogenSulfurChlorineBromineIodineHypo-(least)xxHypochloriteHypo-bromiteHypoiodide-ite(less)NitriteSulfiteChloriteBromiteIodide-ate(more)NitratesulfateChlorateBromateIodatePer-(most)xxperchlorateperbromateperiodate</p></li><li><p>*Practice NamingNa3NCu(NO3)2LiBrO2LiFBeIO4Sodium NitrideCopper (II) NitrateLithium BromiteLithium FluorideBeryllium Periodate</p></li><li><p>*Names of compoundsMolecular:Use greek prefixes to indicate # of atoms1st element: Name + greek # if more than one.2nd element: Greek # prefix + ide version of element name.CO2 = Carbon Dioxide</p></li><li><p>*Greek Number Prefixes 1-10MonoDiTriTetraPentaHexaHeptaOctaNonadeca </p><p>SF6N2O5COSulfur DioxidePCl5Phosphorus TrichlorideH2O</p></li><li><p>*Molecular compounds with common names</p><p>FormulaCommonNameFormulaCommonNameH2OWaterPH3PhosphineH2O2Hydrogen PeroxideAsH3ArsineNH3AmmoniaNONitric OxideN2H4Hydrazine(a rocket fuel)N2ONitrous Oxide(laughing gas)C2H2Acetylene(welding gas)CH4Methane(natural gas)</p></li><li><p>*AcidsCompounds with an H that ionizes in water.HCl, in water is an electrolyte of H+ and Cl- ions.</p><p>Acid namingBinary (2 types of atoms) use the ic suffix</p><p>HCl Hydrochloric acidHIHyrodiodic acidHBrHyrdrobromic acidHFHyrdrofluoric acid</p></li><li><p>*AcidsOxo acids:-ate salt = -ic acidNO3- is nitrate so HNO3 isNitric Acid-ite salt = -ous acidNO2- is nitrite so HNO2 isNitrous AcidHClOHypoclorous AcidHClO2Chlorous AcidHClO3Chloric AcidHClO4Perchloric Acid</p><p>Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*We talked about isotopes when we were establishing the atomic mass of an element. Remember you had to take into account the weighted average (mass) of each isotope to calculate the mass.Here we have 3 isotopes of Hydrogen.Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Plot carbon 12, and carbon 16, which is stable? (C 12)Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Groups are columns also known as families. Name the common familiesAMetals, AEMetals, C, N, O, Halogens, Noble Gases.Periods are across.The transition elements (d block)Main group elements s and p blockChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Writing or written response.Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and IonsChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions*</p></li></ul>

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