Chapter 1 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions.

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  • Chapter 1 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions

  • Description

    Psychologists describe behavior using case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation

  • DescriptionCase Studyobservation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principalsIs language uniquely human?

  • DescriptionSurveytechnique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of peopleusually by questioning a representative, random sample of peopleFalse Consensus Effecttendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

  • DescriptionPopulationall the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a studyRandom Samplea sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

  • Description

  • DescriptionIf marbles of two colors are mixed well in the large jar, the fastest way to know their ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller one and count them

  • DescriptionNaturalistic Observationobserving and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

  • CorrelationCorrelation Coefficienta statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other

    Correlation coefficientIndicates directionof relationship(positive or negative)Indicates strengthof relationship(0.00 to 1.00)r = +.37

  • CorrelationScatterplota graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variablesthe slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationshipthe amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlationlittle scatter indicates high correlationalso called a scattergram or scatter diagram

  • CorrelationScatterplots, showing patterns of correlations

  • Correlation

  • CorrelationScatterplot of Height and Temperament55 60 65 70 75 80 85

  • CorrelationThree Possible Cause-Effect Relationships(1)Low self-esteemDepression(2)DepressionLow self-esteemLow self-esteemDepression(3)Distressing eventsor biologicalpredispositioncould causecould causecould causeororand

  • Illusory CorrelationIllusory Correlationthe perception of a relationship where none exists

  • Two Random SequencesYour chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960.


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