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Center for Diesel Research Next Generation Fuels and Vehicles

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Size distribution measurementsDavid Kittelson
Minnesota Department of Commerce
Biofuels
Hydrogen (low grade, must be converted to work)
Center for Diesel Research
Biogas (plant and animal waste)
Long term
Butanol (beet sugar, cellulose,..)
Fischer-Tropsch liquids
Dimethyl Ether
Ethanol
Works well in standard automotive engines in blends up to 20%, any blend to E85 works in flexible fuel engines
Potential efficiency gains in dedicated E85 engines
Recent emission concerns
Fungible
Biogas
Requires engine modifications for gaseous fuel
Mainly used in stationary engines but sold in service stations in Sweden
Some power reduction
Center for Diesel Research
Renewable Fuels for Engines
Compatible with most engines in blends up to 20%
Reduced CO, HC, and PM emissions
Oxidative stability
Reduced emissions
Dimethyl Ether (DME)
LP gas
Center for Diesel Research
Ethanol
E10 (10% ethanol, 90% gasoline) is well established and works well in modern vehicles
Minnesota already produces enough ethanol for statewide E20
E20 has been mandated for Minnesota in 2013 but must be demonstrated to be suitable for current and future vehicles
Programs here and in Mankato examines many E20 issues
Cold starting, driveability
Emissions
E85 and any other blend works well in flexible fuel vehicles (FFV)
Gaseous emission similar to gasoline although some studies suggest increased emissions
Lower particle emissions
Slight increase in engine efficiency but 15 to 25% fuel consumption penalty due to lower energy content of fuel
Energy balance is a concern
Current corn based ethanol is only 20% renewable, 80% fossil
Cellulosic ethanol much better, roughly 80% renewable, 20% fossil
Cellulosic ethanol could be made from corn stover, prairie grass, etc.
Center for Diesel Research
Biodiesel may also be made from animal fat, restaurant grease, canola, rapeseed, palm, etc.
Center for Diesel Research
Little fuel consumption penalty
Reduced emissions of HC, CO, and air toxics
NOx emissions vary
Sharply decreased soot emissions but increased volatile particle emissions
Minnesota law mandates most diesel fuels are B2, but the state currently produces enough biodiesel to replace 8% of diesel fuel
Most manufacturers don’t recommend use of blends higher than B5 to B20
Solvency
Quality control and filter plugging still issues
Energy balance for soy based biodiesel about 50% renewable, 50% fossil
New feedstocks being considered
Center for Diesel Research
Nontoxic
DME is a gas at ambient conditions and unlike MTBE is not a groundwater pollution threat
Uses
Aerosol propellant in the cosmetic industry to replace CFC propellants
Diesel fuel
High efficiency
Propane replacement
May be produced from natural gas or biomass including wood waste, corn stover, prairie grass
Center for Diesel Research
”Well-to-wheel” analysis (Volvo study)
Courtesy - Anders Röj, Volvo Technology Corporation, Fuels and Lubricants
These figure include production, transport, and end use. Ethanol figures are based on European practice from wood or wheat
Center for Diesel Research
Hybrid vehicles (energy storage and second propulsion system)
Electric hybrid
Electric motor/generator
Hydraulic hybrid
Hydraulic motor/pump
Plug in hybrid
Battery storage to allow electric only range of 10 to 60 miles
Larger electric motor, smaller engine
Batteries are limiting technology
Hybrids offer largest benefit for around town driving – 25-70%
Diesel engines – 30% fuel saving at same performance level
Center for Diesel Research
Electricity as a transportation energy carrier – the plug in hybrid
The efficiency of delivery of renewable energy to the wheels is 3 – 4 times higher for electricity than for hydrogen
The plug in hybrid avoids most of the range and battery problems associated with conventional electric vehicles
What is a plug in hybrid?
Electric hybrid with larger battery and facility to plug in and charge from utility power
A plug in with an all electric range of 40 miles could do 80% of all of the daily trips made by a typical driver on electricity alone
This could lead to reductions in petroleum use of the same order – about 80%
Many aftermarket conversion kits are available but the only current prototype from a large company is the Daimler-Chrysler Sprinter van with an electric only range of about 18 miles and fuel savings of up to 50%
Toyota and GM have both announced plans for plug in hybrids
Batteries are the key limiting technology
Center for Diesel Research
Hybrid systems – some examples
Honda Insight, Civic
Allison transit buses
Toyota Prius
Ford Escape
DARPA HMMWV
Parallel hydraulic hybrid – up to 35% fuel saving
EPA / Eaton / International collaboration developed new UPS (50) . FedEx (75) delivery vans
Eaton / Peterbilt – refuse trucks
EPA / Eaton UPS delivery van
Center for Diesel Research
Conclusions
Corn based ethanol and soy based biodiesel are the are the primary renewable fuels used in the US today
Energy balance an issue
Competition between food and fuel
Cellulosic ethanol and biodiesel based on other oil seeds and algae offer future promise
DME offers future promise as a second generation biomass to liquid diesel fuel that could be produced from many different feedstocks
The plug-in hybrid offers potential for dramatic reductions in petroleum use
Center for Diesel Research
Center for Diesel Research
Biodiesel Blends and Emissions
Data from USEPA 2002
Center for Diesel Research
Black liquor to engine fuels - Ideal use of low grade biomass
Courtesy - Anders Röj, Volvo Technology Corporation, Fuels and Lubricants
Center for Diesel Research
Finland 50% transportation fuels
Sweden 30% transportation fuels
Adding a small booster plant to existing Minnesota mill
7 million gallons per year DME – enough for about 700 urban buses (MSP metro fleet ~ 900)
Or 7 million gallons per year methanol – enough to supply all the methanol needed by all Minnesota’s biodiesel plants (6.3 million gallons) with some left over
Estimated cost $2.20-2.30 / gallon gasoline equivalent with no subsidies
Chemrec are talking to mill owners in the MN / WI region about building such a plant. They are carrying out a conceptual study for one of them.
Center for Diesel Research
DME/Methanol Production Potential
Using not just pulp mills but all readily available biomass sources
NREL estimates that Minnesota has available biomass streams the could produce the equivalent of 100-200% current gasoline use via gasification
This would require a number of large gasification plants but could be a very long term sustainable solution
It is likely that different states will have a different mix of long term renewable energy solutions. We will no longer have monolithic petroleum
A likely path to DME introduction will be initial use as a propane replacement followed by gradual introduction of DME vehicles
Production of “green methanol” for use in biodiesel production and for fuel cells may also play a role
Center for Diesel Research
Hybrid configurations
A parallel hybrid uses power from an IC engine and an electric motor to drive the wheels
A series hybrid uses power from the IC engine to drive a generator that supplies electricity for the electric motor to drive the wheels
Plug-In hybrids use larger batteries to extend the range of the car minimizing the uses of the IC engine
A series hybrid designs optimize engine performance but reduce vehicle performance
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B2
B5
B10
B20
B100
”Well-to-wheel”analysis(Volvo study)
Volvo Technology Corporation, Fuelsand Lubricants
Future Fuels for Commercial Vehicles
Black liquor to engine fuels -Ideal use of low grade biomass
Pulp Mill
100 lbs. of soybean oil
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