MATERIAL FOR ANNUAL REPORT OF
GRID OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT 4.1Organizational Structure in Grid Operation and ManagementCentral Government has established Regional Power Committee (RPC) in each region in accordance with provisions of Electricity Act, 2003 to facilitate integrated operation of the power system in that region. The real time operation of the power system is looked after by the Regional Load Despatch Centres (RLDCs) set up in the five Regions and on the national level by National Load Despatch Centre (NLDC). The Regional Power Committee is a conglomerate of all the players partaking in grid operation, i.e. Regional Load Despatch Centre, generating companies, transmission utilities, distribution utilities, power traders, etc. Its Secretariat is manned by the officers of Central Electricity Authority (CEA). Regional Power Committee operates through a number of Sub-Committees, viz. Operation Sub Committee, Commercial Sub Committee, Protection Sub Committee, System Studies Sub Committee and Technical Coordination Sub Committee. The Operation Sub Committee meets every month to review the grid operation in the previous month and plan grid operation for the next month. The Commercial Sub Committee discusses all commercial related issues viz. energy accounting related matters, matters pertaining to SEMs, settlement of dues, etc. The Protection Sub Committee discusses and finalises protection schemes including protection coordination. The System Studies Sub Committee meets periodically for the purpose of System Studies. The Technical Coordination Sub Committee (TCC) meets before the Regional Power Committee for putting up matters for decision in the Regional Power Committee. The RPCs play an important role in planning grid operation, since they are responsible for protection coordination, outage planning of generating units and transmission system, planning reactive compensation etc. Member (GO&D), CEA is also Member of the Regional Power Committees and guides the Committees to arrive at amicable solutions in case of disputes between Members of the Committees through unbiased decisions. To evolve a common approach to issues related to reliability and security of the grid, National Power Committee (NPC) has been established vide Ministry of Power (MoP) order dated 25th March, 2013.CEA monitors the power supply position in the country, prepares the all-India monthly power supply position, coordinates all matters of grid operation and management between the five Regions, coordinates enquiry of grid disturbances, recommends to the Ministry of Power the quantum of allocation from Central Generating Stations and also coordinates the implementation of the allocation through the Regional Power Committees. The anticipated Power Supply Position for the next year known as Load Generation Balance Report is also prepared every year.
4.2Power Supply Position
The Central Electricity Authority brings out the All India Power Supply Position on a monthly basis, both in terms of energy and peak giving the requirement, availability and shortage in Million Units (MUs) as well as in percentage and the peak demand, peak met and peak shortage both in terms of Mega Watt (MW) and percentage. The total energy requirement in the country during 2013-14 was 10, 02,257 Million Units (MUs) as against 9, 95,557 MUs during the previous year, registering an increase of 0.7 %. The total energy availability in the country during 2013-14 was 9, 59,829 MUs as against 9, 08,652 MUs during the previous year, registering an increase of 5.6 %. The energy shortage during the year 2013-14, therefore, reduced from 86,905 MUs to 42,428 MUs with percentage shortage reduction from 8.7 % to 4.2 %, as compared to previous year. The peak demand during the year 2013-14 was 135,918 Mega Watt (MW) as against 135,453 MW during the previous year, registering slight increase of 0.3 %. The peak demand met during 2013-14 was 129,815 MW as against 123,294 MW during the previous year, registering an increase of 5.3%. The peak shortage thereby reduced from 12,159 MW to 6,103 MW. An overview of power supply position in terms of energy and peak demand for the period from 1997-98 to 2013-14 is presented in Exhibit-I and Exhibit-II respectively. The State/ Region-wise power supply position during the year 2013-14 is enclosed at Annexure-4A.
4.3Optimum Utilization of available Generating Capacity Inter Regional Exchanges of Power. Since 31st December, 2013, all the regional grids in India are operating in synchronism catering the peak load of about 1,30,000 MW in the country. The integrated all India electricity grid would provide optimum utilisation of resources in the country. The diversity of load in different parts of the country provides an opportunity to manage load generation balance with optimum utilisation of generation resources. The inter-state/ inter-regional transfer of power through various market mechanisms is of vital importance in maximisation of the benefit of diversity of load in the country. The inter-regional transfer of power takes place through Long term PPAs with allocation by MoP/ CEA, Long- Term Access and Medium and Short- Term Open Access (LTA/MOTA/STOA) from surplus region to power deficit region. 4.3.1 Open AccessOpen Access is a key provision in the Electricity Act, 2003 for utilisation of power available in surplus areas by needy states/utilities in deficit areas, besides bringing about competition and enhanced efficiency. The LTA/MTOA/ STOA transactions take place through traders, bilateral arrangements and transactions effected through power exchanges. The inter-regional energy exchanges, which included the long-term, medium term and short-term open access transactions, were 78,241 MU during the year 2013-14, as compared to 63,236 MU during the previous year, showing a growth of 23.73%. The inter-regional exchanges helped a number of States / utilities in all the Regions to bridge the gap between demand and supply of power. From the data, it is observed that Western & Eastern regions are main exporting regions and Northern & Southern regions are main importing regions. Details of Inter-regional exchanges of energy among different Regions during 2012-13 and 2013-14 are given in Table I. Table I
Inter-Regional Exchanges for the year 2012-13 and 2013-14 (Figs. in MU)
Source: NLDC4.3.2 Allocation of unallocated PowerGovt. of India (GOI) has set up Central Generating Stations (CGS) through GOI Undertakings, viz. NTPC Ltd., NHPC Ltd, SJVNL Ltd., Neyveli Lignite Corp. (NLC) Nuclear Power Corporation (NPC) etc. Except for few stations dedicated to the respective home states, output of CGSs is allocated to various states. Normally, 85% power is allocated as firm allocation (including home state share). This allocation is normally fixed and changes only when a beneficiary State surrenders its share or in case of regulation of power due to non-payment of dues. The allocation of remaining 15% unallocated power of CGSs, kept at the disposal of Central Government, is revised from time to time, generally keeping in view factors like emergent and seasonal nature of the requirement, relative power supply position, utilization of existing generation and other power sources, operational and payment performance of the States/UTs of the region.CEA keeps a close watch on the power supply position and recommends to the Ministry of Power revision in the quantum of allocation from the unallocated quota when considered necessary. CEA also coordinates implementation of the allocation done by Ministry of Power through the Regional Power Committees.Details of the state-wise allocation in the country as on 31.03.2014 are given in Table II.Table-II Details of total share of the states from central generating stations (As on 31.03.2014)
S.No.Region / StateFirm power Unallocated (UA) PowerTotal MW share from CGSTotal MW share from CGS as % of CGS in the country
Firm Share from CGS (MW)Unallocated power from regional pool (MW)% of the regional pool of unallocated power% of the national pool of unallocated powerAllocation from other Region / Bhutan (MW)Total allocation of unallocated power (MW)
5Jammu & Kashmir149414.75.011842219162.9
16Daman & Diu 1837.52.301393220.5
17Dadar Nagar Haveli28934.710.406419301.4
20HWP of DAE00.80.2014140.0
33West Bengal 14659.51.1188315482.3
Excludes capacity of central sector units which have been commissioned but yet to be declared under commercial operation.
Note :1. Firm share includes capacity of dedicated CS stations, merchant power (50 MW in ER and 25 MW in NER) and capacity allocated / diverted from other stations located within / outside the region.
2. Above allocation is for evening peak hours only. Allocation during off-peak hours may vary.
3. Grand Total power does not include power allocated to Bangladesh. Total Power allocated to Bangladesh = 250 MW (100 MW each from NR and WR unallocated power and 50 MW from ER NTPC stations' unallocated power.
4.4Operation of Regional Grids:4.4.1Northern Regional Grid The Northern Region has an installed capacity of 69810.30 MW as on 31-03-2015 consisting of 45187.75 MW thermal, 17066.78 MW hydro, 1620.00 MW nuclear and 5935.77 MW from renewable energy sources. The Northern Grid faced an energy shortage of 6.3% and a peaking shortage of 8.3% during the year 2014-15 as compared to energy and peak shortages of 6.0% and 6.9% respectively during previous year. The net import of energy by the Northern Region was 25344 MU during the year 2014-15. Power was transferred from Eastern Region to Northern Region over HVDC back-to-back station at Sasaram, Muzaffarpur-Gorahkpur 400 kV D/C line with TCSC, Patna Balia 400 kV D/C line, Biharshariff Balia 400 kV D/C line, Barh-Balia 400 kV D/C line, Sasaram-Fatehpur 765 kV S/C line, Gaya-Balia 765 kV S/C line and Dehri-Sahupuri 220 kV S/C line. Northern Region is also connected to Western Region through Agra Gwalior 765 kV line 1&2, Kankroli-Zerda 400kV D/C Line, Kota-Ujjain 220 kV D/C line, Auraiya-Malanpur 220 kV D/C line and HVDC back to back link at Vindhyachal, and intraconnected with the lines such as 765 kV Meerut Agra, Fatehpur- Agra line-II, Meerut - Bhiwani line, Lucknow - Bareilly line, 400 kV Paricha - Mainpuri 2nd Ckt. Line, 220 kV Parichha-Jhansi lines.
With the commissioning of transmission lines such as 765 kV Bina Gwalior-Agra line (3rd Ckt), LILO of 2nd Ckt of 400 KV Lucknow - Bareliiy line (PG) at Shahjahanpur, 400 KV Koldam Ludhiana line, 220 KV Lalitpur TPS Jhansi line etc. lines in the year 2014-15, the stability of the combined grid has improved and also this has facilitated enhanced flow of power from the surplus areas to deficit areas.4.4.2Western Regional GridThe Western Grid has an installed capacity of 87388.99 MW (as on 31-03-2014) consisting of 68,176.30 MW thermal, 7,447.5 MW hydro, 1,840 MW nuclear and 9,925.19 MW from renewable energy sources. The Western Grid faced an energy shortage of 1.0% and a peaking shortage of 2.4% during the year 2013-14 as compared to energy and peak shortages of 3.3% and 1.5% respectively during the previous year . There was net export of 26,604 MU from Western Region during 2013-14. Power was transferred from Western region to Northern region through 220 kV Auraiya-Malanpur, 220 kV Kota/Morak-Badod, 765 kV Agra-Gwalior D/C ,400 kV Zerda- Kankroli, 400 kV Zerda-Bhinmal. The EastWest corridor is linked through 220 kV T/c Budhipadar-Korba, 400 kV D/C Rourkela-Raipur with series compensation, 400 kV D/C Ranchi-Sipat with series compensation and 400 kV D/C Rourkela-Raipur (2nd ) without series compensation. The Southern region is connected through 765 kV Raichur-Sholapur S/C line and Chandrapur HVDC back to back.4.4.3 Southern Regional GridThe Southern Region has an installed capacity of 58329.96 MW (as on 31-03-2014 Provisional data) consisting of 32484.6 MW thermal, 11398.03 MW hydro, 1320 MW nuclear and 13127.33 MW from renewable energy sources. The Southern Grid faced an energy shortage of 6.8% and a peaking shortage of 7.6% during the year 2013-14 as compared to energy and peak shortages of 15.5% and 18.5% respectively during previous year. Southern Grid was synchronized with NEW Grid on 31.12.2013 through Sholapur- Raichur 765 kV single circuit. Therefore, now, whole country is operating at a single frequency. The n...