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Animations & Cartoons
Unit 4 ~ MYP 1
Mindmapping • What do we allready know about anima3ons and cartoons?
-‐ Make a crea*ve mindmap inside your developmental workbook and write down all the things that come to mind when you think about anima*ons and cartoons.
-‐ See the example below the get ideas for the lay-‐out of your mindmap -‐ Use coloured pencils or filled *pped pens if you like to make your mindmap
look more aArac*ve -‐ How more words you write down and the more connec*ons you make the
beAer your mindmap will become
History of Animation Anima*on refers to the recording of any image which goes through changes over *me to portray the illusion of mo*on. During this lesson we will take a look at how the technique of making anima*ons changed, so we will focus on the History of Anima*on
Humans were already interested in depic*ng moving figures a long, long *me ago. Evidence of this dates back to the early Paleolithic cave pain*ngs. The animals depicted in these pain*ngs were oIen depicted with mul*ple sets of legs in superimposed posi*ons. Because these pain*ngs are prehistoric they could be explained a number of ways, such as the ar*st simply changing is mind about the leg’s posi*on with no means of erasing, but it’s very likely that they are early aAempts to convey mo*on. 
In this video of Marc Enzema is shown how it works, and why we think the illusion of mo*on is depicted in cave pain*ngs.
ues3on: How did anim
a*on evolved over *me?
• In 1510 we can find drawings/sketches made by the Italian ar*st Leonardo da Vinci. In the image you can see how detailed the drawings of the upper body are with less facial image. The sketches show mul*ple angles of the figure as it rotates. Because the drawings only show small changes form one angle to the next, the drawing imply mo*on in a single figure.
• Even though some of these early examples may appear similar to an animated series of drawings, the lack of equipment to show them in mo*on causes them to fall short of being true anima*on.
Later on numerous devices were invented to display animated images, these devices were used to entertain, amaze and some*mes even frighten people. But the majority of these devices only projected images that they could only be viewed by a single person at any one *me.
I’m Leonardo da Vinci a well-‐known Italian Rennaissance polymath: painter, sculptor,
architect, musician, mathema*cian, engineer,
inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer,
botanist, and writer. You might know me as the ar*st who
painted ‘the last supper’, ‘the vitruvian man’ or perhaps the
The magic lantern was invented around 1650 and was a early predecessor of the modern day projector. It consists a transparent oil pain*ng, a simple lens and a candle or oil lamp. In a darkened room, the image would appear projected onto an flat surface. The images could be placed in a frame which could hold several images at ones, you would have to push the frame to the leI or right to see the next image.
It was often used to project demonic,
frightening images in order to convince people that were witnessing the supernatural.
-‐ Open your laptops and developmental workbooks
-‐ Open internet and go the www.google.com -‐ Google the word ‘Thaumatrope’
-‐ Inside your developmental workbook you will write down: -‐ What is a Thaumatrope? -‐ When was it invented -‐ What is it used for? -‐ What does it look like? -‐ What is it made of? -‐ How can you make one yourself? -‐ Make a small sketch of how it
Make your research page look good! You could use text boxes, coloured papers, pictures, coloured pencils and so on. Keep in mind that this is always important for each page you make!
The Thaumatrope was a simple toy used in the Victorian era, invented in 1824. A thaumatrope is a small circular disk or card with two different pictures on each side that was aAached to a piece of string or a pair of strings running through the centre. When the string is twirled quickly between the fingers, the two pictures appear to combine into a single image. The thaumatrope demonstrates the Phi phenomenon, the brain's ability to persistently perceive an image. Its inven*on is oIen credited to Sir John Herschel.
Go to the website below to get some ideas for your
Flash_Gallery.361.0.html If your still not totally
sure about how to make your own thaumatrope, watch the video below
-‐ Create your own Thaumatrope -‐ It can depict whatever you want
-‐ Colour it and make something beau*ful
• The phenakistoscope was invented in 1831 it consists a disk with series of images slots.
• The Zoetrope concept was suggested in 1834 by Willem George Horner, and from the 1860s markted as the Zoetrope.
• The first flip book was patented in 1868 by John Barnes Linnet as the kineograph. A filp book is just a book with par*culary springy pages that have an animated series of images printed near the unbound edge. A viewer can bend back and then rapidly releases them one at a *me so that each image viewed spring out of view to reveal the next image. It works kind of the same as the phenakistoscope and the zoetrope.
• The praxinoscope was invented in 1877 in France, by Charles-‐émile Reynaud, who was a French science theatre. He was the first one that was able to project the first anima*on in public, Pauvre Pierrot, at the Musée Grévin in Paris. In 1888 he brought the Théâtre Op*que on the market. That device is what he used for his first anima*on.
• Answer the Guiding Ques*on [How did anima+on evolved over +me?] inside your
Then explain which inven*on you think was most usefull for nowadays anima*on
Animation Techniques Innumerable approaches to crea*ng anima*ons have arisen throughout the years. Here is a brief account of some of the non tradi*onal techniques commonly used nowadays.
Stop mo*on This process is used for many produc*ons, for example, the most common types of puppets are clay puppets, as used in The California Raisins and Wallace and Gromit. And figures made out of various rubbers, cloths and plas*cs resins, such as The nightmire before christmas. Some*mes even objects are used, such as with the films of Jan Svankmajer. As we have seen some lessons ago, you can also make a drawn anima*on, this is perfect to combine with the stop mo*on technique. Something to take in account is that making a stop mo*on anima*on takes up a lot of *me, as you have to take a photo, change the seong, take a photo and so on.
Computer-‐generated imagery (CGI) is a revolu*onized anima*on. The first fully computer-‐animated
feature film was Pixar’s Toy Story in 1995. A big difference with tradi*onal anima*on is that drawing is replaced by 3D modeling, almost like a virtual version of stop-‐mo*on, though a form of anima*on that combines the two worlds can be considered to be computer aided anima*on but on 2D computer drawing.
hich anima*on techniques do w
e use now?
Answer the Guiding Ques*on [Which anima+on technques do we use now?] inside your
Then explain how you could use these techniques yourself
Go to the website below
Find out how many
Animated films Walt Disney already made over the years.
Go to the website below
Find out how many jobs their are and how many people work at the anima*on studio of Walt Disney
Go to the website below and find out how Wallace and Gromit and the were rabbit is made.
Go to the website below and find out how the film Avatar is made
1. Create a folder in your Design folder called: Cartoons and Anima*ons.
1. Share the folder with Mr. De Klerk with Mrs. Mathijssen and with your team member
2. Create a new document called: Brainstrorm assignment 3. In your group you use one laptop on which you look up 3 stop-‐mo*on
anima*ons that you like and that inspire you for making your own stop-‐mo*on anima*on.
4. Add the youtube link and proper cita*ons for the video 5. For each video you write a mo*va*on:
-‐ Why did you choose this video? What do you like about it and?
-‐ Describe what the key features are!
7. Put the names of both team members in the footer of the document.
The final assignment For the final assignment we are going to make our own anima*on, by using the stop mo*on
technique. But to do this we will have to go through some design steps to ensure that we get a good result. For this assignment you can work in pairs and one group of 3.
-‐ Designing characters [forma*ve] -‐ Designing the background [forma*ve] -‐ Making a story board [forma*ve] -‐ Crea*ng the characters and the background -‐ Shoot the photo’s -‐ Edit the photo’s and s*ck them together by using Imovie or windows movie maker -‐ Produce the final anima*on [Summa*ve]
During this process we will be keeping a procces log, that means that each lesson you will have to write down what you did exactly and how you think it went and what you want to do next *me and so on, basically your reflect on your progress each lesson. And of course you will reflect on your final product aIer it’s finished [Summa*ve]
Examples of Stopmotion animations
Check out the weblinks below to get some ideas for your own animation video, some of these may not be doable in the time that we have but some parts of it definitly are.
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7uJ82Hn-g3U • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJdGeMVEcYE • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=clQTRs47CFw • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3DFzjP6PbnU • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vrpXomMjrqE • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JycC1ZkZM4s
Note down what kind of animation you like and why in your Proccess log. And you can always look up more examples on www.youtube.com
Making a Storyboard A storyboard is a tools that is used in film and anima*on. The storyboarding process, in the form it is known today, was developed at the Walt Disney Studio during the early 1930s, aIer several years of similar processes being in use at Walt Disney and other anima*on studios. Simply you just draw the main frames of your movie and note down what happens, the *me of the frame and what kind of sound should go along with the frame.
Draw 8 frames in your developmental workbook (use 2 pages, 4 on one page)
Make a big textbox under each frame. Now draw the outline of your story together with your group members and make sure to also plan the sounds. Don’t make it to difficult for yourself!
Don’t forget to update your process log, if your storyboard is finished ask the teacher to copy it
Creating props • Today you will start crea*ng and collec*ng props that you need for your movie,
such as: -‐ Objects -‐ Making things out of paper -‐ Making different drawings on paper -‐ Making a background
• Take a picture of everything you have collected or made, print this for next lesson
so you can s*ck this inside your workbooks for your process log and don’t forget to update your process log.
• Make a planning, divide the tasks within your group
-‐ Make sure you write this down in your process log • Sort out how and were your going to shoot your movie (inside the classroom)
-‐ What kind of ligh*ng do you need (do you need to bring an extra lamp?) -‐ Where should my camera (laptop or actual camera) be placed and how to hold it into posi*on so that it doesn’t move? Note everything down in your proccess log
Shooting the photos • Today you are going to shoot the photo’s for your movie
• Some simple hints and *ps to make sure you get a good result: -‐ The camera can’t move or this should be planned -‐ Move your object slowly, just a *ny *ny bit per photo
otherwise the movements between the photos will be to quick.
-‐ All photos need to be taken during this hour, so hurry up -‐ One person takes the photo’s the other(s) move the
objects -‐ The background/environment can’t change so also not the
ligh*ng -‐ Make sure you save your photos in a save place so that
they can’t be lost.
Editing your animation • Upload your photos in Imovie or Windows Movie Maker • Put them in the correct order if they aren’t • Insert a *tle frame and add the name of your movie • Add a last frame were you put your names and year group • Play the movie and see what happens:
-‐ It might be that it goes to fast (change the *me seongs for the frames, make them last longer) -‐ It might be that the screen seems to zoom in (in Imovie this is called the ‘Ken Burns effect’ look it up and undo it)
• When the visual video is done it’s *me to add the sounds to it, on your screen you will see a separate row for sound.
• Upload the recorded sounds and drag them to the sound row, in the posi*on you want them
• It might be that the sound last to long (go to sound seongs and take of some *me for that specific sound effect)
• Play it and see if everything plays correctly • When totally finished, save your movie and share it with your
Bibliography • Title page:
Pink Phanter. Digital image. Making Sense out of the World. Making Sense out of the World, 13 Feb. 2013. Web. 06 May 2014.
• Video history of Anima3on [Slide 2]:
"History of Anima*on | MIT Video." MIT Video. Ed. Stephanie Stender and Andres Lombada. MassachuseAs Ins*tute of Technology, n.d. Web. 06 May 2014. .
• Video Prehistoric anima*ons [Slide 2:]
"Marc Azema Anima*on.mov." YouTube. YouTube, 01 May 2012. Web. 06 May 2014. .
• Muscle study [Slide 3]
The muscles of the shoulder, arm and neck, c.1510-‐11: Many of the sketches date from the winter of 1510-‐11, when he dissected some 20 corpses at the medical school of the University of Pavia
• How to do a thraumatope [slide 7] "(tutorial) How to Do a Thaumatrope [stopmo*on]." YouTube. YouTube, 28 Nov. 2012. Web. 06 May 2014. .
• Zoetrope [slide 8] "Things -‐ Zoetrope." YouTube. YouTube, 14 Dec. 2008. Web. 06 May 2014. .
• kineograph, you and me flipbook [slide 8]
"You & Me Flipbook." YouTube. YouTube, 12 Feb. 2013. Web. 06 May 2014. .
• Praxinoscope [slide 8] "My Praxinoscope." YouTube. YouTube, 29 July 2008. Web. 06 May 2014. .
• Pauvre Pierrot [slide 8]
"Pauvre Pierrot Emile Reynaud 1892." YouTube. YouTube, 31 Mar. 2012. Web. 06 May 2014. .
• Theatre Op*que [slide 8]
"ThÃ©Ã¢tre Op*que D'Ãmile Reynaud. Museu Del Cinema." YouTube. YouTube, 17 Nov. 2009. Web. 06 May 2014. .
• Stop mo*on [slide 9]
"How It's Made -‐ Stop-‐Frame Anima*on." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Mar. 2012. Web. 06 May 2014. .
• Wallace and Grommit [slide 9] "Wallace Gets Porridge in His Crackers." YouTube. YouTube, 01 Nov. 2009. Web. 06 May 2014. .
• Computer anima*on [slide 9] "How It's Made -‐ Anima*on." YouTube. YouTube, 19 June 2007. Web. 06 May 2014. .
• Teacher's Guide Series: Anima*on | Ac*vity 1." Oscars.org. Academy of Mo*on Picture Arts and Sciences,
2014. Web. 06 May 2014. .
Vocabulary list • Paleolithic: (Age, Era of Period) is a prehistoric period of human history dis*nguished by the
development of the most primi*ve stone tools.