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Carlos R. Villa Director of K-12 Programs National High Magnetic Field Laboratory 2018 NSTA Distinguished Informal Science Educator This presentation will be available to download at: https ://nationalmaglab.org/education/ FAST Annual Conference St. Augustine, FL October 2019 The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is supported by National Science Foundation through NSF/DMR-1644779 and the State of Florida.

Carlos R. Villa · • 6,000 students visited this school year ... • Tesla • Measurement of larger magnetic fields • Named for Nikola Tesla • 10,000 Gauss = 1 Tesla ... Elementary,

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  • Carlos R. VillaDirector of K-12 Programs

    National High Magnetic Field Laboratory2018 NSTA Distinguished Informal Science Educator

    This presentation will be available to download at:https://nationalmaglab.org/education/

    FAST Annual ConferenceSt. Augustine, FLOctober 2019

    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is supported by National Science Foundation through NSF/DMR-1644779 and the State of Florida.


  • NHMFL Overview

    →One of 7 high magnetic field labs in the world→Only one in western hemisphere→Largest and highest powered in the world

  • NHMFL Overview

    • User laboratory• Over 1615 user visits (2016)• NSF & State of Florida funded• Research free to scientist

    • Must share research

    • Research in many fields (Not • just magnets!!)• Materials – Energy - Life

    • Includes materials science, physics, engineering, chemistry, biology, biomedical, geochemistry, microscopy, etc…

  • Center for Integrating Research & Learning

    • Educational component of NHMFL’s grant• RET programs (more on that later…)• K-12 education outreach• 6,000 students visited this school year• Professional development• Workshops and conferences• CIRL on Facebook

    PresenterPresentation Notes


  • Magnet Review

    • Gauss• Measurement of magnetic

    field• Named for Carl Friedrich


    • Tesla• Measurement of larger

    magnetic fields• Named for Nikola Tesla• 10,000 Gauss = 1 Tesla

    PresenterPresentation Notes

  • Some Magnetic Fields (In Tesla)

    • Refrigerator magnet: • Earth’s magnetic field:• Person’s magnetic field:• Junkyard magnet:• MRI magnet:

    .03 T

    .000045 T3 x10-13 T1 T2-3 T

  • Some NHMFL Magnetic Fields• ICR magnet:

    • Ion Cyclotron Resonance• 900 Mhz NMR

    • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance• Typical resistive magnet• Split cell • World record water cooled DC magnet• Hybrid magnet (33 MW)

    • Resistive and superconducting• Series Connected Hybrid (14 MW)

    • 1.5 Ghz NMR• NHMFL pulse magnet

    • Not continuous field

    21 T*

    21 T

    20-40 T25 T*41.5 T*45 T*

    35 T*

    100.7 T**World Record

  • First Discoveries

    • In Greece, 2000 BC• Magnes the shepherd

    • In China, 400 BC• Feng shui• The south pointer

    • In Rome, 50 AD• Pliny the Elder• Naturalist and researcher• “Magic” with healing


  • 1269: Petrus Peregrinus de Maricourt

    • Epistola de magnete• Part 1 discusses the physical (not occult) properties of

    magnets• Magnetic fields can act at a distance• Magnets can only act on other magnetic materials• Opposite poles attract and like poles repel• When suspended, north poles point North and south

    poles point South.

    • Part 2 discusses the use of magnets in devices• Wet and dry compass

  • 1600: William Gilbert

    • Published De Magnete• Earth is a magnet

    • First critical research on magnets• Used lodestone• Dispelled superstitions

    and myths

  • 1820: Hans Christian Ørsted

    • An electrical current can create a magnetic field

    • Oersted set up lecture demonstration• Used battery to supply

    current• Showed compass

    needle deflecting near the wire

  • 1820: André-Marie Ampère

    • Moving electrical charges produce magnetic fields

    • Simple experiment• Two straight wires with current passed through• Wires bowed toward or away

    • Led to electromagnets

  • 1824: William Sturgeon

    • First electromagnet• Curved iron rod• Bare copper wire• Electricity• 18 total turns of wire

    • Lifted 9 pounds• Magnet weighed 7


  • 1827: Joseph Henry• Improved the electromagnet

    • Larger iron rod• Copper wire

    • Insulated with silk• Electricity

    • An electromagnet using two electrodes attached to a battery, best to wind coils of wire in parallel

    • But an electromagnet using with multiple batteries, should use only one single coil

    PresenterPresentation Notes

  • 1900: SuperconductorsRe




    Traditional Metal


    Tc0 Kelvin

  • 1957: BCS Theory• BCS: Bardeen, Cooper, Schreiffer• At low temperatures, some metals lose

    resistance• Atoms nearly stationary

    • Superconductivity results from the formation of Cooper pairs• Two electrons partnered• One follows the other

    • Results in frictionlessflow of electrons





    Traditional Metal

    SuperconductorTc0 Kelvin

  • Magnets

    • All magnets have poles• North & South• Opposites attract; Like repels

    • But not really: Magnetic monopole• 2014 discovery

    • All magnets have magnetic fields• Magnetic field is a vector field

    • Has direction and magnitude

    PresenterPresentation Notes

  • Magnetic FieldsMagnets Repel Magnets Attract

  • Magnetic Fields

    • Magnetic fields invisible to humans• Many animals can sense magnetism

    • Sea turtles• Migratory birds• Sharks

    • Rare animals can see magnetism• Robins• Orangutans• Family Canidae

    • Wolves, foxes, coyotes, dogs

  • Magnetic Materials• 3 metals are naturally magnetic at room

    temperature• Iron• Nickel• Cobalt

    • Two more are magnetic at lower temperatures• Gadolinium (65 F and below)• Dysprosium (-301 F and below)

    • One more magnetic at abnormal conditions• Ruthenium (In unnatural form)

    • Many are magnetic as alloys• Rare-Earth

    • Magnetite • Iron rich mineral

    • Lodestone is magnetized piece of magnetite• Lodestone led to first compass

    PresenterPresentation Notes

  • Permanent & Temporary Magnets• Permanent magnets: Almost always keep their field

    • Fields can be lost• Curie point (Heat)• Electric current (Degauss)• Hitting it (Blunt force)

    • Temporary magnets: Will keep magnetic field until tampered with• Examples: Paperclips, scissors, staples, thumb tacks, pins,

    screwdrivers, refrigerator door, car doors, etc…• Anything that is magnetic, but will not keep its field

    PresenterPresentation Notes

  • Atomic Theory

    • Name atom comes from Atomos, Greek for Indestructible• But not really

    • The atom is divisibleProtonNeutronElectron

    PresenterPresentation Notes

  • Magnetism• Motion of charged particles creates magnetic fields• In most atoms, disorganized spins cancel out

    • Magnetic domains: when electrons line up• Magnetic field is produced when all electrons spin the

    same direction:• More electrons lined up: more magnetism N


  • Electricity and Magnetism

    • The two are so closely related• Where there is electricity, there is a magnetic field

    • When electrons flow, they line up (Ørsted)• Where there is a magnetic field, electricity can be

    created (Faraday)• Magnetic flux can create movement of electrons

  • Creating Magnetism From Electricity

    • Electricity is the flow of electrons• Electrons flow in same direction

    • This alignment of electrons creates a magnetic field around the conductor• Similar to electrons lining up in a

    permanent magnet• So every wire carrying electricity

    has a weak magnetic field around it

    • Coiling the wire concentrates the magnetic field inside the coil

  • Bitter Plates

  • Permanent Magnets

    • Magnet Exploration• Self discovery activity• Group Effort• Communicate your

    discovery• Share with the class

  • Cow Magnets

  • Permanent Magnet Activity

    • Money is magnetic• Coins are copper-nickel alloy

    (not magnetic)• Pennies are copper-plated

    zinc (also not magnetic)• Dollars are printed with iron-

    rich ink (magnetic!)

    • Foreign Coins• Canadian, British, Brazilian,

    Mexican (some)…

  • Iron in the Food

    • Iron in cereal• NIB Magnet is a must• Total brand• Baby cookies (high in


    • The Hook:• Blend a $1• Use a NIB magnet• Pull out the iron

  • Temporary Magnet Activities

    • No rubbing necessary• Magnetism happens

    almost instantly• They are magnets

    • North and South• Attract and Repel

    • Paper Clips remain magnetic• Until something tampers

    with their field• Field could last years

  • Teeny Tiny Beach Magnets

    • Hold a strong magnet over beach sand

    • Iron will attract to the magnet• Excess sand will cling to

    the magnet• Purify by spreading it on

    a sheet of paper and passing the magnet over it

    • Meteors are high in iron content

    • Burn up in atmosphere• Waves wash them


  • The Zinging Magnets

    • Magnets are magnetized short length

    • Made of strong barium ferrite

    • They attract but bounce upon impact and separate

    • Process repeats with a little energy lost each time

    • Pitch changes• Frequency increases• Amplitude decreases

  • The Magnetic Hedgehog

    • Ferrofluids aka liquid magnets• Suspension of iron


    • Fluid adheres to magnetic field lines

    • Incredibly attractive (BE CAREFUL)

    PresenterPresentation Notes

  • Electromagnets Extensions:

    • Right hand rule• Direction of field

    • Poles (Winding direction)• Variables:

    • Neatness• Number of winds• Wire gauge• Battery strength• Temperature• Precision

  • Literature

    Stop Faking ItBill Robertson

    Driving ForceJames D. Livingston

  • A Short History of Nearly Everything

    Bill Bryson

    The Nature of ScienceJames Trefil


  • Additional Resources

  • Research Experience for Teachers 2020

    • 6 weeks in the summer

    • $3600 stipend

    • June 8th – July 17th

    • What do you have to do?• Complete online

    application• Complete program

    surveys and submit all research data

    • Send in supporting documents (letter of rec, etc.)

  • Research Experience for Teachers 2018

    What does RET entail? • Real world science:• Superconductivity

    materials testing• Electricity & magnetism

    research• Designing/constructing

    research instruments• Running samples in

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) or Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

  • RET Logistics and Arrangements

    • Housing• Stipend• Travel • Program is open to

    Elementary, Middle, and High School teachers

    • Pre-service teacher positions available

    • Focus of the program• Nature of Science• Inquiry• Communicating in

    science• Experimental Design

    • Topics for research• Superconductivity• Electron Scanning

    Microscopy• Condensed Matter

  • Before I Forget

    • Business cards• Please do not hesitate to contact us with

    questions, ideas, suggestions, etc…

    • RET applications:• https://nationalmaglab.org/education/


  • This is a Sub-title

    Thank You

    Carlos R. VillaDirector of K-12 Programs

    [email protected] • 850-644-7191

    mailto:[email protected]

    Magnets and TheAbout UsSlide Number 3NHMFL OverviewCenter for Integrating Research & LearningAbout MagnetsMagnet ReviewSome Magnetic Fields (In Tesla)Some NHMFL Magnetic FieldsThe History �of MagnetsFirst Discoveries1269: Petrus Peregrinus de Maricourt1600: William Gilbert1820: Hans Christian Ørsted1820: André-Marie Ampère1824: William Sturgeon1827: Joseph Henry1900: Superconductors1957: BCS TheoryThe Science�of MagnetismMagnetsMagnetic FieldsMagnetic FieldsMagnetic MaterialsPermanent & Temporary MagnetsAtomic TheoryMagnetismElectricity and MagnetismCreating Magnetism From ElectricityBitter PlatesMagnetism Activities�For Your ClassroomPermanent MagnetsCow MagnetsSlide Number 34Iron in the FoodTemporary Magnet ActivitiesTeeny Tiny Beach MagnetsThe Zinging MagnetsThe Magnetic HedgehogElectromagnets Extensions:LiteratureSlide Number 42Additional ResourcesResearch Experience for Teachers 2020Research Experience for Teachers 2018RET Logistics and ArrangementsBefore I ForgetSlide Number 48